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Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30730265/probing-the-link-between-perception-and-oscillations-lessons-from-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation
#1
Yuranny Cabral-Calderin, Melanie Wilke
Brain oscillations are regarded as important for perception as they open and close time windows for neural spiking to enable the effective communication within and across brain regions. In the past, studies on perception primarily relied on the use of electrophysiological techniques for probing a correlative link between brain oscillations and perception. The emergence of noninvasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) provides the possibility to study the causal contribution of specific oscillatory frequencies to perception...
February 7, 2019: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700208/the-legacy-of-rita-levi-montalcini-from-nerve-growth-factor-to-neuroinflammation
#2
Domenico Chirchiglia, Pasquale Chirchiglia, Dorotea Pugliese, Rosa Marotta
Rita Levi-Montalcini was an extraordinary personality and with her profession she made a tremendous contribution to humanity. Doctor, Nobel laureate for medicine, neuroscientist, she contributed, thanks to her research, to improve the knowledge of the nervous system. She discovered the nerve growth factor, which is applied in various fields of neurology, concerning neurodegenerative diseases. She also studied, in relatively newer years, the mechanisms of neuroinflammation. This last is a research that has been developing in recent years and is based on the predominantly anti-inflammatory properties of endogenous substances that able to act not only on diseases of the nerves, neuropathies, on the nerve roots, and radiculopathies but also on migraine and other non-neurological diseases...
January 30, 2019: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30678530/the-striatum-s-role-in-executing-rational-and-irrational-economic-behaviors
#3
Ian J Bamford, Nigel S Bamford
The striatum is a critical component of the brain that controls motor, reward, and executive function. This ancient and phylogenetically conserved structure forms a central hub where rapid instinctive, reflexive movements and behaviors in response to sensory stimulation or the retrieval of emotional memory intersect with slower planned motor movements and rational behaviors. This review emphasizes two distinct pathways that begin in the thalamus and converge in the striatum to differentially affect movements, behaviors, and decision making...
January 24, 2019: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30674225/dentate-gyrus-immaturity-in-schizophrenia
#4
Ayda Tavitian, Wei Song, Hyman M Schipper
Hippocampal abnormalities have been heavily implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was shown to manifest an immature molecular profile in schizophrenia subjects, as well as in various animal models of the disorder. In this position paper, we advance a hypothesis that this immature molecular profile is accompanied by an identifiable immature morphology of the dentate gyrus granule cell layer. We adduce evidence for arrested maturation of the dentate gyrus in the human schizophrenia-affected brain, as well as multiple rodent models of the disease...
January 24, 2019: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654694/neurocognitive-and-perceptual-processing-in-genetic-mouse-models-of-schizophrenia-emerging-lessons
#5
Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Joseph A Gogos
During the past two decades, the number of animal models of psychiatric disorders has grown exponentially. Of these, genetic animal models that are modeled after rare but highly penetrant mutations hold great promise for deciphering critical molecular, synaptic, and neurocircuitry deficits of major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Animal models should aim to focus on core aspects rather than capture the entire human disease. In this context, animal models with strong etiological validity, where behavioral and neurophysiological phenotypes and the features of the disease being modeled are in unambiguous homology, are being used to dissect both elementary and complex cognitive and perceptual processing deficits present in psychiatric disorders at the level of neurocircuitry, shedding new light on critical disease mechanisms...
January 17, 2019: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30614396/the-expanding-clinical-universe-of-polyglutamine-disease
#6
Shanshan Huang, Suiqiang Zhu, Xiao-Jiang Li, Shihua Li
Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders caused by expansion of unstable polyQ repeats in their associated disease proteins. To date, the pathogenesis of each disease remains poorly understood, and there are no effective treatments. Growing evidence has indicated that, in addition to neurodegeneration, polyQ-expanded proteins can cause a wide array of abnormalities in peripheral tissues. Indeed, polyQ-expanded proteins are ubiquitously expressed throughout the body and can affect the function of both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues...
January 7, 2019: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30484370/dysregulation-of-transcription-factors-a-key-culprit-behind-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
Wei Jin, Talal Jamil Qazi, Zhenzhen Quan, Nuomin Li, Hong Qing
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are considered heterogeneous disorders characterized by progressive pathological changes in neuronal systems. Transcription factors are protein molecules that are important in regulating the expression of genes. Although the clinical manifestations of NDs vary, the pathological processes appear similar with regard to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and proteostasis, to which, as numerous studies have discovered, transcription factors are closely linked. In this review, we summarized and reviewed the roles of transcription factors in NDs, and then we elucidated their functions during pathological processes, and finally we discussed their therapeutic values in NDs...
November 28, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30477403/er-stress-creb-and-memory-a-tangled-emerging-link-in-disease
#8
Nilkantha Sen
The brain undergoes several changes at structural, molecular, and cellular levels leading to alteration in its functions and these processes are primarily maintained by proteostasis in cells. However, an imbalance in proteostasis due to the abnormal accumulation of protein aggregates induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This event, in turn, activate the unfolded protein response; however, in most neurodegenerative conditions and brain injury, an uncontrolled unfolded protein response elicits memory dysfunction...
November 26, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30630381/perspectives-on-neuroscience-and-behavior
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30403160/perspectives-on-neuroscience-and-behavior
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29488436/neuroimaging-of-the-injured-pediatric-brain-methods-and-new-lessons
#11
Emily L Dennis, Talin Babikian, Christopher C Giza, Paul M Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the United States, especially for children and adolescents. Current epidemiological data estimate over 600,000 patients younger than 20 years are treated for TBI in emergency rooms annually. While many patients experience a full recovery, for others there can be long-lasting cognitive, neurological, psychological, and behavioral disruptions. TBI in youth can disrupt ongoing brain development and create added family stress during a formative period...
December 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30451065/astrocytes-heterogeneous-and-dynamic-phenotypes-in-neurodegeneration-and-innate-immunity
#12
Colm Cunningham, Aisling Dunne, Ana Belen Lopez-Rodriguez
Astrocytes are the most numerous cell type in the brain and perform several essential functions in supporting neuronal metabolism and actively participating in neural circuit and behavioral function. They also have essential roles as innate immune cells in responding to local neuropathology, and the manner in which they respond to brain injury and degeneration is the subject of increasing attention in neuroscience. Although activated astrocytes have long been thought of as a relatively homogenous population, which alter their phenotype in a relatively stereotyped way upon central nervous system injury, the last decade has revealed substantial heterogeneity in the basal state and significant heterogeneity of phenotype during reactive astrocytosis...
November 17, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30387693/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-novel-insights-into-regulation-and-genetic-variation
#13
Michael Notaras, Maarten van den Buuse
Since its discovery, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has spawned a literature that now spans 35 years of research. While all neurotrophins share considerable overlap in sequence homology and their processing, BDNF has become the most widely studied neurotrophin because of its broad roles in brain homeostasis, health, and disease. Although research on BDNF has produced thousands of articles, there remain numerous long-standing questions on aspects of BDNF molecular biology and signaling. Here we provide a comprehensive review, including both a historical narrative and a forward-looking perspective on advances in the actions of BDNF within the brain...
November 2, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30387689/low-back-pain-the-potential-contribution-of-supraspinal-motor-control-and-proprioception
#14
Michael Lukas Meier, Andrea Vrana, Petra Schweinhardt
Motor control, which relies on constant communication between motor and sensory systems, is crucial for spine posture, stability and movement. Adaptions of motor control occur in low back pain (LBP) while different motor adaption strategies exist across individuals, probably to reduce LBP and risk of injury. However, in some individuals with LBP, adapted motor control strategies might have long-term consequences, such as increased spinal loading that has been linked with degeneration of intervertebral discs and other tissues, potentially maintaining recurrent or chronic LBP...
November 2, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30379121/thinking-outside-the-box-and-arrow-current-themes-in-striatal-dysfunction-in-movement-disorders
#15
Joshua L Plotkin, Joshua A Goldberg
The basal ganglia are an intricately connected assembly of subcortical nuclei, forming the core of an adaptive network connecting cortical and thalamic circuits. For nearly three decades, researchers and medical practitioners have conceptualized how the basal ganglia circuit works, and how its pathology underlies motor disorders such as Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, using what is often referred to as the "box-and-arrow model": a circuit diagram showing the broad strokes of basal ganglia connectivity and the pathological increases and decreases in the weights of specific connections that occur in disease...
October 31, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30317911/gabaergic-interneurons-in-seizures-investigating-causality-with-optogenetics
#16
Vincent Magloire, Marion S Mercier, Dimitri M Kullmann, Ivan Pavlov
Seizures are complex pathological network events characterized by excessive and hypersynchronized activity of neurons, including a highly diverse population of GABAergic interneurons. Although the primary function of inhibitory interneurons under normal conditions is to restrain excitation in the brain, this system appears to fail intermittently, allowing runaway excitation. Recent developments in optogenetics, combined with genetic tools and advanced electrophysiological and imaging techniques, allow us for the first time to assess the causal roles of identified cell-types in network dynamics...
October 15, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30311838/twitches-blinks-and-fidgets-important-generators-of-ongoing-neural-activity
#17
Patrick J Drew, Aaron T Winder, Qingguang Zhang
Animals and humans continuously engage in small, spontaneous motor actions, such as blinking, whisking, and postural adjustments ("fidgeting"). These movements are accompanied by changes in neural activity in sensory and motor regions of the brain. The frequency of these motions varies in time, is affected by sensory stimuli, arousal levels, and pathology. These fidgeting behaviors can be entrained by sensory stimuli. Fidgeting behaviors will cause distributed, bilateral functional activation in the 0...
October 12, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30280638/region-specific-phenotypes-of-microglia-the-role-of-local-regulatory-cues
#18
Lindsay M De Biase, Antonello Bonci
Microglia are ubiquitous, macrophage like cells within the central nervous system (CNS) that play critical roles in supporting neuronal health and viability. They can also influence neuronal membrane properties and synaptic connectivity, positioning microglia as key cellular players in both physiological and pathological contexts. Microglia have generally been assumed to be equivalent throughout the CNS, but accumulating evidence indicates that their properties vary substantially across distinct CNS regions...
October 3, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30156141/perspectives-on-neuroscience-and-behavior
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29900803/you-can-observe-a-lot-by-watching-hughlings-jackson-s-underappreciated-and-prescient-ideas-about-brain-control-of-movement
#20
Ari Berkowitz
John Hughlings Jackson, the 19th-century British neurologist, first described what are today called Jacksonian seizures. He is generally associated with somatotopy, the idea that neighboring brain regions control neighboring body parts, as later represented pictorially in Wilder Penfield's "homunculus," or little man in the brain. Jackson's own views, however, were quite different, though this is seldom appreciated. In an 1870 article, Jackson advanced the hypotheses that each region of the cerebrum controls movements of multiple body parts, but to different degrees, and that the "march" of movements that typically occurs during Jacksonian seizures is caused by the downstream connections of the overactive neurons at the seizure focus, rather than a somatotopic organization of the cerebrum...
October 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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