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Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

Amanda Agyemang, Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy that has been well-characterized clinically, yet it is still poorly understood. Acute FPIES is characterized by vomiting 1-4 h and/or diarrhea within 24 h after ingestion of a culprit food. Chronic FPIES is the result of chronic exposure to an offending food that can result in chronic watery diarrhea, intermittent vomiting, and failure to thrive. FPIES typically presents in infancy and self-resolves by school age in most patients...
February 8, 2019: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Kelly Khomtchouk, Peter Luke Santa Maria
Mast cells (MCs), apart from their classic role in allergy, contribute to a number of biologic processes including wound healing. In particular, two aspects of their histologic distribution within the skin have attracted the attention of researchers to study their wound healing role; they represent up to 8% of the total number of cells within the dermis and their cutaneous versions are localized adjacent to the epidermis and the subdermal vasculature and nerves. At the onset of a cutaneous injury, the accumulation of MCs and release of proinflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators have been well documented...
February 7, 2019: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Kevin Kennedy, Ryan Allenbrand, Eric Bowles
Allergic diseases are surprisingly common, chronic health conditions. The primary location where the vast majority of people are exposed to allergens and other substances is in their home. This means it is important to understand home environments and how a home's systems function and interact-and that how we occupy these spaces plays a crucial role in both environmental exposure and management of allergic disease. This review provides an overview of what is understood about home environmental exposure and its impact on our health, and proposes a systematic process for using a patient's environmental history to develop individualized, manageable and cost-effective recommendations...
January 25, 2019: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Marcelo T Bozza, Leticia Lintomen, Jamil Z Kitoko, Cláudia N Paiva, Priscilla C Olsen
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine that participates in innate and adaptive immune responses. MIF contributes to the resistance against infection agents, but also to the cellular and tissue damage in infectious, autoimmune, and allergic diseases. In the past years, several studies demonstrated a critical role for MIF in the pathogenesis of type-2-mediated inflammation, including allergy and helminth infection. Atopic patients have increased MIF amounts in affected tissues, mainly produced by immune cells such as macrophages, Th2 cells, and eosinophils...
January 25, 2019: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Pavadee Poowuttikul, Shweta Saini, Divya Seth
Asthma in inner-city children is often severe and difficult to control. Residence in poor and urban areas confers increased asthma morbidity even after adjusting for ethnicity, age, and gender. Higher exposure to household pests, such as cockroaches and mice, pollutants and tobacco smoke exposure, poverty, material hardship, poor-quality housing, differences in health care quality, medication compliance, and heath care access also contribute to increased asthma morbidity in this population. Since 1991, the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases established research networks: the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study (NCICAS), the Inner-City Asthma Study (ICAS), and the Inner-City Asthma Consortium (ICAC), to improve care for this at risk population...
January 21, 2019: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Rui Tang, Zi-Xi Wang, Chun-Mei Ji, Patrick S C Leung, Elena Woo, Christopher Chang, Meng Wang, Bin Liu, Ji-Fu Wei, Jin-Lyu Sun
The prevalence of food allergies is increasing worldwide. To understand the regional specificities of food allergies and develop effective therapeutic interventions, extensive regional epidemiological studies are necessary. While data regarding incidence, prevalence, regional variation, and treatment in food allergies are available for western countries, such studies may not be available in many Asian countries. China accounts for almost 20% of the world's population and has a vast ethnic diversity, but large-scale meta-analyses of epidemiological studies of food allergy in China are lacking...
January 5, 2019: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Anna Stochmal, Joanna Czuwara, Maria Trojanowska, Lidia Rudnicka
Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of skin and internal organs, vasculopathy, and dysregulation of immune system. A diagnostically important feature of immunological abnormalities in systemic sclerosis is the presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, which may be detected in 90-95% of patients with either of the four main laboratory methods: immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunodiffusion, and immunoblotting. There are several antinuclear antibodies specific for systemic sclerosis...
January 3, 2019: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Shang-An Shu, Agatha W T Yuen, Elena Woo, Ka-Hou Chu, Hoi-Shan Kwan, Guo-Xiang Yang, Yao Yang, Patrick S C Leung
Emerging evidence suggests that the increasing prevalence of food allergies is associated with compositional and functional changes in our gut microbiota. Microbiota-host interactions play a key role in regulating the immune system. Development of a healthy gut microbiota and immune system occurs early in life and is largely shaped by exposure to maternal microbes through vaginal/natural delivery and breast milk, whereas use of antibiotics can disrupt gut homeostasis and significantly raise the risk of allergic diseases...
December 18, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Leif Bjermer
Improving the lung function after experimental allergen challenge by blocking of mast cell (MC) mediators and the capability of MC mediators (including histamine, prostaglandin (PG) D2, and leukotriene (LT) C4) in induction of mucosal edema, bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion provide evidence that MCs play a key role in pathophysiology of asthma. In asthma, the number of MCs increases in the airways and infiltration of MCs in a variety of anatomical sites including the epithelium, the submucosal glands, and the smooth muscle bundles occurs...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Henry L Nguyen, James A Yiannias
Consumer products and topical medications today contain many allergens that can cause a reaction on the skin known as allergic contact dermatitis. This review looks at various allergens in these products and reports current allergic contact dermatitis incidence and trends in North America, Europe, and Asia. First, medication contact allergy to corticosteroids will be discussed along with its five structural classes (A, B, C, D1, D2) and their steroid test compounds (tixocortol-21-pivalate, triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, clobetasol-17-propionate, hydrocortisone-17-butyrate)...
February 2019: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Andrew Blauvelt, Andrea Chiricozzi
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease that is pathogenically driven by proinflammatory cytokines. This article reviews the immunologic role of interleukin (IL)-17, the major effector cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriatic disease, along with the rationale for targeting the IL-17 cytokine family (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17 receptor A) in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Emerging evidence indicates that major sources of IL-17A in patients with psoriatic disease are mast cells, γδ T cells, αβ T cells, and innate lymphoid cells in lesional skin and synovial fluid...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Carlo Selmi
The number of peer-reviewed articles published during the 2017 solar year and retrieved using the "autoimmunity" key word increased significantly compared to 2016 while maintaining a stable share within the immunology field, following years with alternated fortunes. A detailed arbitrary analysis of the published articles in leading immunology and autoimmunity journals provides a privileged viewpoint on the current trends of research from both basic and clinical studies. Indeed, we are observing that major steps forward are found for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis, among others...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Marta Cossu, Lorenzo Beretta, Petra Mosterman, Maria J H de Hair, Timothy R D J Radstake
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a highly heterogeneous disease caused by a complex molecular circuitry. For decades, clinical and molecular research focused on understanding the primary process of fibrosis. More recently, the inflammatory, immunological and vascular components that precede the actual onset of fibrosis, have become a matter of increasing scientific scrutiny. As a consequence, the field has started to realize that the early identification of this syndrome is crucial for optimal clinical care as well as for understanding its pathology...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Jyoti Bakshi, Beatriz Tejera Segura, Christopher Wincup, Anisur Rahman
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune rheumatic disease with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 1000. Over the last 30 years, advances in treatment such as use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants have improved life expectancy and quality of life for patients with lupus and the key unmet needs have therefore changed. With the reduced mortality from disease activity, development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become an increasingly important cause of death in patients with SLE. The increased CVD risk in these patients is partly, but not fully explained by standard risk factors, and abnormalities in the immune response to lipids may play a role...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Pieter Hindryckx, Debby Laukens, Ferdinando D'Amico, Silvio Danese
Fatigue is a highly prevalent but relatively ignored problem in IBD patients. It is one of the most burdensome symptoms to the patient with an important impact on the quality of life. Therefore, fatigue is a highly relevant patient-reported outcome that should be included not only in disease activity measurement but also in the endpoints of clinical trials in IBD. However, most of the currently available scoring systems to quantify fatigue are not specifically designed for patients with IBD and none of them has undergone a complete validation process for IBD-related fatigue...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Junmin Song, Ana Lleo, Guo Xiang Yang, Weici Zhang, Christopher L Bowlus, M Eric Gershwin, Patrick S C Leung
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary B-cell immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by remarkable hypogammaglobulinemia. The disease can develop at any age without gender predominance. The prevalence of CVID varies widely worldwide. The underlying causes of CVID remain largely unknown; primary B-cell dysfunctions, defects in T cells and antigen-presenting cells are involved. Although some monogenetic defects have been identified in some CVID patients, it is likely that CVID is polygenic. Patients with CVID develop recurrent and chronic infections (e...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Wolf-Henning Boehncke, Nicolo Costantino Brembilla
In times of targeted therapies, innovative therapeutics become tools to further unravel the pathogenesis of the treated disease, thus influencing current pathogenetic concepts. Based on such paradigm shifts, the next generation of novel therapeutic targets might be identified. Psoriasis is a good example for the resulting most fruitful dialog between clinical and fundamental research. As a result of this, the key role of Th17 lymphocytes, some of their effector molecules, as well as mediators contributing to their maturation have been identified, many of these being targeted by some of the most effective drugs currently available to treat psoriasis...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Ennio Lubrano, Antonia De Socio, Fabio Massimo Perrotta
During the past decade, the well-known disease called ankylosing spondylitis has come to be considered as a subset of the broader entity referred as axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), which also includes non-radiographic axSpA. The need of this new classification was aimed to improve the sensitivity for an early diagnosis, to reduce diagnostic delay, and to allow an early treatment. Although there is improvement in the recognition, the management of patients, and the treatment strategies of axSpA, unmet needs persist...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Angela McArdle, Stephen Pennington, Oliver FitzGerald
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a form of inflammatory arthritis (IA) affecting approximately 0.25% of the population. It is a heterogeneous disorder associated with joint damage, disability, disfiguring skin disease and in severe cases, premature mortality. Inherently irreversible and frequently progressive, the process of joint damage begins at, or before, the clinical onset of disease. Early recognition and intervention is thus crucial to patient outcome. At disease onset, however, PsA often resembles other forms of arthritis-especially rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Cristina Panico, Gianluigi Condorelli
The developments that have taken place in recent decades in the diagnosis and therapy of a number of diseases have led to improvements in prognosis and life expectancy. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the number of patients affected by chronic diseases and who can face new pathologies during their lifetime. The prevalence of chronic heart failure, for example, is approximately 1-2% of the adult population in developed countries, rising to ≥10% among people >70 years of age; in 2015, more than 85 million people in Europe were living with some sort of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (Lubrano and Balzan World J Exp Med 5:21-32, 5; Takahashi et al...
December 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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