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Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

Changming Du, Xiangjie Gong, Yanchun Lin
The application of corona plasma technology, as a tool in treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), is systematically discussed in the present paper. This review introduces the principle of corona discharge, the characteristics of plasma, emphasis on the characteristic of various corona plasma reactors. Through summarizing the main features of corona plasma reactors, this paper provides a brief background to different power sources and reactor configurations and their application to VOCs treatment design...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Vicharana Intrakamhaeng, Kyle A Clavier, Justin G Roessler, Timothy G Townsend
Limitations of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) for simulating pollutant leaching from wastes disposed of in full-scale landfills are well understood in the waste management profession; the TCLP solution has a lower pH and greater organic acid content than typical landfill leachate. The TCLP serves its intended regulatory objective, however, as long as a conservative estimate of leaching is provided. Here we examine TCLP's ability to represent worst-case leaching conditions for monofilled municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash...
February 12, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Jeffrey C Quick, Eric Marland
Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from USA power plants are independently reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Clean Air Markets Division (CAMD) within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Differences between the CAMD and EIA emission tallies show that the amount of CO2 produced by an individual power plant is less certain than might be imagined or desired. These differences are attributed to systematic and random measurement error. Random error cannot be retroactively corrected, whereas systematic error can be corrected where relevant data are available...
February 8, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Apeksha Aggarwal, Durga Toshniwal
Owing to accurate future air quality estimates, need for detecting the anomalously high increase in concentration of pollutants cannot be adjourned. Plentiful approaches were proposed in the past to substantially determine the abnormal conditions, but most of the statistical approaches were computationally expensive as well as ignored the false alarm ratios. So, a hybrid of proximity and clustering based anomaly detection approaches to identify anomalies in the air quality data is suggested in this work. Gaussian distribution property of real world dataset is utilized further to segregate out anomalies...
February 4, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Christopher M Long, Nicole L Briggs, Ifeoluwa A Bamgbose
In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the amount of ambient air quality data collected near Marcellus Shale oil and gas development (OGD) sites. We integrated air measurement data from over 30 datasets totaling approximately 200 sampling locations nearby to Marcellus Shale development sites, focusing on eleven air pollutants that can be associated with OGD operations: fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), acetaldehyde, benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, n-hexane, toluene, xylenes, and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S)...
January 30, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Derek A Newcomer, Peter LaPuma, Robert Brandys, Amanda Northcross, Abhijit Dasgupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
M Ali, C Hedrick, A Lutfullaeva, K Alam
This study reports the development, construction, and initial testing of a novel Vibrational Precipitator (VP), patented at Ohio University in 2016, which uses vibrating metal cables with water running over them to capture particulate matter in an exhaust stream. Unlike traditional electrostatic precipitators relying on electric energy to capture particles, this new system uses the concept of vortex shedding to produce vibrations in vertical cables running perpendicular to an exhaust stream. Collisions between particles in the exhaust stream and these vibrating cables cause the particles to land onto a thin film of flowing water around cables, which carries the particles downwards for collection and removal...
January 30, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
ByungMoon Kim, Sanghyub Oh, Jinsang Jung, Jin-Hong Lee
To develop standard toxic gas mixtures, it is essential to identify adsorption characteristics of each toxic gas on the inner surface of a gas cylinder. Thus, this study quantified adsorbed amounts of the four toxic gases (NO, NO2 , SO2 , and HCl) on the inner surface of aluminum and nickel coated manganese steel cylinders. After eluting adsorbed gases on the inside of cylinders with ultrapure water, a quantitative analysis was performed by an ion-chromatograph. To evaluate the reaction characteristics of the toxic gases with cylinder materials, quantitative analyses of Ni, Fe, and Al were also performed by an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)...
January 24, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Waqas Qasim, Byeong Eun Moon, Frank Gyan Okyere, Fawad Khan, Mohammad Nafees, Hyeon Tae Kim
To achieve successful composting, all the biological, chemical and physical characteristics need to be considered. The investigation of our study were based on various physicochemical properties, i.e., temperature, ammonia concentration, carbon dioxide concentration, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C/N ratio, organic matter (OM) content, moisture content, bacterial population, and seed germination index (GI), during the composting of poultry manure and sawdust for different aeration rates and reactor shapes...
January 14, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Zonggang Li, Baoming Li, Weichao Zheng, Jiang Tu, Hongya Zheng, Yang Wang
Electrolyzed water (EW) is an effective disinfectant with a wide range of pH. EW in acid range was proved to be ammonia absorbent which make it valuable for wet scrubbers used in animal feeding operations (AFOs). This study aimed to optimize the design and operating parameters of a wet scrubber with EW spray for ammonia removal, based on the size distribution of droplets, the property of EW and the reduction efficiency of ammonia. The optimized parameters included droplet size, nozzle flow rates, pH and available chlorine concentration (ACC) of EW, nozzle number at single stage, stage number, initial ammonia concentration and air speed in the duct...
January 11, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Zonggang Li, Baoming Li, Weichao Zheng, Jiang Tu, Hongya Zheng, Yang Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Fabienne Reisen, Jennifer C Powell, Martine Dennekamp, Fay H Johnston, Amanda J Wheeler
Bushfires, prescribed burns and residential wood burning are a significant source of fine particles (PM2.5 ) affecting the health and well-being of many communities. Despite the lack of evidence, a common public health recommendation is to remain indoors assuming that the home provides a protective barrier against ambient PM2.5 . The study aimed to assess to what extent houses provide protection against peak concentrations of outdoor PM2.5 and whether remaining indoors is an effective way of reducing exposure to PM2...
January 9, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Haobo Guo, Hairui Hao, Qiuping Zhang, Juan Wang, Jianguo Liu
The rapid development of large-scale livestock husbandry has caused serious air pollution problems. Understanding the composition and dispersion characteristics of odorous gases can help control air pollution. In this study, the gases in typical areas of a large-scale dairy farm were sampled and measured for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia concentrations. Fifty-two species of VOCs were identified. The VOCs emitted from the cowshed mainly consisted of halogenated hydrocarbons (16960 µg/m3 ), ketones (15700 µg/m3 ), esters (9889 µg/m3 ), and sulfur compounds (3677 µg/m3 )...
December 21, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Naoko Inoue, Toshiya Tada, Katsuya Kawamoto
In the gasification of biomass, it is necessary to limit the amount of by-product tar and increase the yields of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas). Therefore, we conducted gasification and reforming experiments on woody biomass using an electric tubular furnace, to evaluate the gas reforming and tar decomposition performance of a NiO/SBA-15 catalyst. As a result, we found that this catalyst is effective for H2 production. It is believed that the increase in H2 volume due to the catalyst occurs through a steam reforming reaction involving hydrocarbons including CH4 , and the water-gas shift reaction...
December 12, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Hongxia Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Bhagawati Kunwar, Junji Cao, Jiaquan Zhang, Changlin Zhan, Jingru Zheng, Ruizhen Yao, Ting Liu, Wensheng Xiao
PM2.5 samples were collected in Huangshi (HS), central China from March 2012 to February 2013 and were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (diacids) and related compounds (DARCs). Oxalic acid (C2 , 416 ng m-3 ) was the most abundant species, followed by phthalic (Ph, 122 ng m-3 ), terephthalic (tPh, 116 ng m-3 ), succinic (C4 , 70.4 ng m-3 ), azelaic (C9 , 67.9 ng m-3 ) and adipic (C6 , 57.8 ng m-3 ) acids . Relatively high abundances of Ph and tPh differed from the distribution in urban and marine aerosols, indicating contributions from nearby anthropogenic sources...
December 10, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
John S Kinsey, Edwin Corporan, Jelica Pavlovic, Matthew DeWitt, Christopher Klingshirn, Russell Logan
Emission measurements of black carbon (BC) mass were conducted on a T63 turboshaft engine, operated at idle and cruise power with conventional and alternative fuels, using an Artium LII-300 laser induced incandescence (LII) analyzer and AVL Model 483 Micro Soot Sensor (MSS) photoacoustic instrument using the manufacturer's calibration for both instruments. These measurements were compared to elemental carbon (EC) determined by manual and semi-continuous thermal-optical transmission analyses according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5040 as the reference method...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Fuqiang Wang, Haihua Wang, Sennan Li, Xiaoping Diao
The present study revealed the role of earthworm (EW)-effective microorganisms (EM) in converting sewage sludge and cassava dregs into a valuable product. Sewage sludge was toxic to earthworm, therefore it was mixed with cassava dregs in the proportions 80:20 on dry weight basis. Treatments included mixed substrate inoculated vs. not inoculated with EM and treated with or without earthworms. The pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and C: N ratio decreased from the initial in the range of 17.43-18.46%, 25...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Y Mancilla, I Y Hernandez Paniagua, A Mendoza
The ambient air of the Monterrey Metropolitan Area in Mexico frequently exhibits high levels of PM10 and PM2.5 . However, no information exists on the chemical composition of coarse particles (PMc = PM10 - PM2.5 ). A monitoring campaign was conducted during the summer of 2015, during which 24-hour average PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using high volume filter-based instruments to chemically characterize the fine and coarse fraction of the PM. The collected samples were analyzed for anions (Cl- , NO3 - , SO4 2- ), cations (Na+ , NH4 + , K+ ), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 35 trace elements (Al to Pb)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Sangkuen Byoun, Dong Nam Shin, Il-Shik Moon, Youngchul Byun
Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) has been widely used as a chemical additive for enhancing NOx (NO + NO2 ), SO2 , and Hg0 removals in a wet scrubber. However, they are each uniquely dependent on NaClO(aq) pH, hence making the simultaneous control difficult. In order to overcome this weakness, we sprayed low L/G ratio (0.1 L/Nm3 ) of NaClO(aq) to vaporize quickly at 165 o C. Results have shown that the maximized removals of NOx , SO2 , and Hg0 can be optimized at the pH range between 4.0 and 6.0. When NOx and Hg0 are coexisted with SO2 , in addition, their removals are significantly enhanced by reactions with solid and gaseous by-products such as NaClO(s) , NaClO2(s) , OClO, ClO, and Cl species, originated from the reaction between SO2 and NaClO(aq) ...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Yishan Guo, Zhewei Xu, Chenghang Zheng, Jian Shu, Hong Dong, Yongxin Zhang, Weiguo Weng, Xiang Gao
Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) is one of the main air pollutants from many industries. Most coal-fired power plants in China use wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) as main method for SO2 removal. Presently, the operating of WFGD lacks accurate modeling method to predict outlet concentration, let alone optimization method. As a result, operating parameters and running status of WFGD are adjusted based on the experience of the experts, which brings about the possibility of material waste and excessive emissions. In this paper, a novel WFGD model combining a mathematical model and an artificial neural network was developed to forecast SO2 emissions...
November 30, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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