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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Nathan J Evans, William R Holmes, Jennifer S Trueblood
Understanding the cognitive processes involved in multi-alternative, multi-attribute choice is of interest to a wide range of fields including psychology, neuroscience, and economics. Prior investigations in this domain have relied primarily on choice data to compare different theories. Despite numerous such studies, results have largely been inconclusive. Our study uses state-of-the-art response-time modeling and data from 12 different experiments appearing in six different published studies to compare four previously proposed theories/models of these effects: multi-alternative decision field theory (MDFT), the leaky-competing accumulator (LCA), the multi-attribute linear ballistic accumulator (MLBA), and the associative accumulation model (AAM)...
February 8, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
David Peeters
This paper introduces virtual reality as an experimental method for the language sciences and provides a review of recent studies using the method to answer fundamental, psycholinguistic research questions. It is argued that virtual reality demonstrates that ecological validity and experimental control should not be conceived of as two extremes on a continuum, but rather as two orthogonal factors. Benefits of using virtual reality as an experimental method include that in a virtual environment, as in the real world, there is no artificial spatial divide between participant and stimulus...
February 7, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Sam Verschooren, Sebastian Schindler, Rudi De Raedt, Gilles Pourtois
Despite its everyday ubiquity, not much is currently known about cognitive processes involved in flexible shifts of attention between external and internal information. An important model in the task-switching literature, which can serve as a blueprint for attentional flexibility, states that switch costs correspond to the time needed for a serial control mechanism to reallocate a limited resource from the previous task context to the current one. To formulate predictions from this model when applied to a switch between perceptual attention (external component) and working memory (WM; internal component), we first need to determine whether a single, serial control mechanism is in place and, subsequently, whether a limited resource is shared between them...
February 4, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
David K Sewell, Hayley K Jach, Russell J Boag, Christina A Van Heer
As people learn a new skill, performance changes along two fundamental dimensions: Responses become progressively faster and more accurate. In cognitive psychology, these facets of improvement have typically been addressed by separate classes of theories. Reductions in response time (RT) have usually been addressed by theories of skill acquisition, whereas increases in accuracy have been explained by associative learning theories. To date, relatively little work has examined how changes in RT relate to changes in response accuracy, and whether these changes can be accounted for quantitatively within a single theoretical framework...
February 4, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Rahul Bhui
Whenever we make a choice, we must also decide how much time to spend making it. Many theories of decision-making crucially assume that this deliberation perfectly balances the costs of time expenditure and the benefits of better decisions. However, might we "overthink" or "underthink" decisions? Here, I propose and implement a method to precisely determine whether people are optimally spending their time on deliberation, accounting for individual preferences. This test evaluates the consistency of underlying preferences for time when incentives change, which is a necessary condition for optimality...
January 25, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Karina Hamamouche, Sara Cordes
Our ability to represent temporal, spatial, and numerical information is critical for understanding the world around us. Given the prominence of quantitative representations in the natural world, numerous cognitive, neurobiological, and developmental models have been proposed as a means of describing how we track quantity. One prominent theory posits that time, space, and number are represented by a common magnitude system, or a common neural locus (i.e., Bonn & Cantlon in Cognitive Neuropsychology, 29(1/2), 149-173, 2012; Cantlon, Platt, & Brannon in Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(2), 83-91, 2009; Meck & Church in Animal Behavior Processes, 9(3), 320, 1983; Walsh in Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(11), 483-488, 2003)...
January 25, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Brett K Hayes, Danielle J Navarro, Rachel G Stephens, Keith Ransom, Natali Dilevski
A key phenomenon in inductive reasoning is the diversity effect, whereby a novel property is more likely to be generalized when it is shared by an evidence sample composed of diverse instances than a sample composed of similar instances. We outline a Bayesian model and an experimental study that show that the diversity effect depends on the assumption that samples of evidence were selected by a helpful agent (strong sampling). Inductive arguments with premises containing either diverse or nondiverse evidence samples were presented under different sampling conditions, where instructions and filler items indicated that the samples were selected intentionally (strong sampling) or randomly (weak sampling)...
January 25, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Andreas Voss, Veronika Lerche, Ulf Mertens, Jochen Voss
One of the most prominent response-time models in cognitive psychology is the diffusion model, which assumes that decision-making is based on a continuous evidence accumulation described by a Wiener diffusion process. In the present paper, we examine two basic assumptions of standard diffusion model analyses. Firstly, we address the question of whether participants adjust their decision thresholds during the decision process. Secondly, we investigate whether so-called Lévy-flights that allow for random jumps in the decision process account better for experimental data than do diffusion models...
January 16, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jane R Conway, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird
The human ability to make inferences about the minds of conspecifics is remarkable. The majority of work in this area focuses on mental state representation ('theory of mind'), but has had limited success in explaining individual differences in this ability, and is characterized by the lack of a theoretical framework that can account for the effect of variability in the population of minds to which individuals are exposed. We draw analogies between faces and minds as complex social stimuli, and suggest that theoretical and empirical progress on understanding the mechanisms underlying mind representation can be achieved by adopting a 'Mind-space' framework; that minds, like faces, are represented within a multidimensional psychological space...
January 16, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Kit S Double, Damian P Birney
Confidence ratings (CR) are one of the most frequently used measures in psychological research. However, recent evidence has suggested that eliciting CR from participants may result in changes to cognitive performance, so called reactivity. Here, we examine whether reactivity to CR can be better explained by added task-relevant introspection, or, alternatively, the unintentional priming of confidence-related beliefs. First, we compare participants' performance in a group making CR with a group making a task-irrelevant control rating, and a second group who made the same task-irrelevant rating, but with the word 'confident' included in the rating's wording...
January 10, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Naama Katzin, Zahira Ziva Cohen, Avishai Henik
Research in cognitive psychology has focused mainly on the visual modality as the input interface for mental processes. We suggest that integrating studies from different modalities can aid in resolving theoretical controversies. We demonstrate this in the case of subitizing. Subitizing, the quick and accurate enumeration of small quantities, has been studied since the 19th century. Nevertheless, to date, the underlying mechanism is still debated. Two mechanisms have been suggested: a domain-general mechanism-attention, and a domain-specific mechanism-pattern recognition...
January 10, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Rachel M Theodore, Nicholas R Monto
Efficient speech perception requires listeners to maintain an exquisite tension between stability of the language architecture and flexibility to accommodate variation in the input, such as that associated with individual talker differences in speech production. Achieving this tension can be guided by top-down learning mechanisms, wherein lexical information constrains interpretation of speech input, and by bottom-up learning mechanisms, in which distributional information in the speech signal is used to optimize the mapping to speech sound categories...
January 2, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Hartmut Blank, Lauren Rutter, Rebecca Armstrong
Social stereotypes impact how we remember people, but how stable is this influence? Inspired by the reversibility of the eyewitness misinformation effect through postwarnings about the planting of misinformation ('enlightenment'), we explored if stereotype influence on person memory can be similarly reversed. Participants read person self-descriptions and subsequently answered memory test questions either with or without stereotype labels, establishing sizeable stereotype-induced memory distortion. One week later, the participants answered the same questions again, but half were enlightened about the earlier stereotype manipulation...
January 2, 2019: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Yingjia Wan, Hong Fu, Michael K Tanenhaus
In a block-assembly task with 138, 4-year-old Chinese kindergarten children, tested in pairs, we manipulated whether fine-grained coordination was required for accomplishing a shared goal with the same end product: building two adjoined towers with alternating levels of orange and green colored blocks to match a depicted model. In the coordination condition, each child had blocks of only one color and built the towers together. In the shared-goal-only condition, each child had both color blocks and built one of the towers, which they then adjoined...
December 18, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
James R Schmidt
One of the most influential ideas in recent decades in the cognitive psychology literature is conflict monitoring theory. According to this account, each time we experience a conflict (e.g., between a colour word and print colour in the Stroop task), attentional control is upregulated to minimize distraction on subsequent trials. Though influential, evidence purported to support this theoretical model (primarily, proportion congruent and congruency sequence effects) has been frequently criticized. Furious debate has centered on whether or not conflict monitoring does or does not occur and, if so, under which conditions...
December 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Mohammad Habibnezhad, Michael A Lawrence, Raymond M Klein
Studies of exogenous covert orienting use peripheral cues (stimuli) that are spatially uninformative about the locations of subsequent targets. When the time course of the cue's influence on performance is explored (by varying the cue target onset asynchrony; CTOA), a biphasic pattern is usually seen with better performance at the cued location when the CTOA is short (typically attributed to attentional capture) and worse performance at the cued location when the CTOA is long (attributed to inhibition of return)...
December 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Autumn B Hostetter, Martha W Alibali
The Gesture as Simulated Action (GSA) framework was proposed to explain how gestures arise from embodied simulations of the motor and perceptual states that occur during speaking and thinking (Hostetter & Alibali, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 495-514, 2008). In this review, we revisit the framework's six main predictions regarding gesture rates, gesture form, and the cognitive cost of inhibiting gesture. We find that the available evidence largely supports the main predictions of the framework...
December 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Krystal Y T Chng, Melvin J Yap, Winston D Goh
The underlying processes and mechanisms supporting the recognition of visually and auditorily presented words have received considerable attention in the literature. To a lesser extent, the interplay between visual and spoken lexical representations has also been investigated using cross-modal lexical processing paradigms, yielding evidence that auditorily presented words influence visual word recognition, and vice versa. The present study extends this work by examining and comparing the relative sizes of cross-modal repetition (cat-CAT) and semantic (dog-CAT) priming in auditory lexical decision, using heavily masked, briefly presented visual primes and a common set of auditory targets...
December 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Ryoichi Nakashima
Humans' own body postures and/or actions bias visual attention. This study examined whether an object controlled remotely with a sense of agency (SoA) can bias attentional allocation, even if the mappings of body movement and object movement do not correspond (i.e., with a less extended body representation). In the experiments, participants shifted a circle toward an instructed direction via keypress. On some trials, the task changed to identification of visual characters instead of the circle shift. Strength of SoA was manipulated based on the probability that the circle actually moved to the participant's intended location, with high probability producing a strong SoA...
November 27, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Michael A Dieciuc, Jonathan R Folstein
Some research suggests typicality is stable, other research suggests it is malleable, and some suggests it is unstable. The two ends of this continuum-stability and instability-make somewhat contradictory claims. Stability claims that typicality is determined by our experience of decontextualized feature correlations in the world and is therefore fairly consistent. Instability claims that typicality depends on context and is therefore extremely inconsistent. After reviewing evidence for these two claims, we argue that typicality's stability and instability are not contradictory but rather complementary when they are understood as operating on two different levels...
November 27, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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