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European Addiction Research

Håkan Källmén, Anne H Berman, Nitya Jayaram-Lindström, Anders Hammarberg, Tobias H Elgán
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Not enough is known about the psychometric properties of screening instruments for problematic alcohol consumption among adolescents. The aim of the current study was to evaluate and compare the performance of the screening instruments: Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT-C, CRAFFT, and the alcohol domain of Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test-Youth (ASSIST-Y) among adolescents and to suggest optimal cut-offs indicating problematic use...
February 6, 2019: European Addiction Research
Michael Krausz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2019: European Addiction Research
Louise Penzenstadler, Carina Soares, Eleonora Anci, Andrew Molodynski, Yasser Khazaal
PURPOSE: Substance use disorders (SUD) are an important health issue internationally. Traditional outpatient programmes often do not adequately address the substantial medical and social needs and in addition many patients have difficulties accessing the care needed. The assertive community treatment (ACT) model was originally developed for patients with a severe mental illness but has been adapted for patients with SUD by integrating specific SUD treatments into the traditional ACT model...
January 30, 2019: European Addiction Research
Jelte Wieting, Mathias Rhein, Thomas Hillemacher, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Viktoria Hoppe, Lars Müschen, Alexander Glahn, Helge Frieling, Stefan Bleich, Marc Muschler
Appetite-regulating peptides, such as leptin, are linked to craving and have been in the focus of alcohol dependence research for years. The objective of our study was to investigate the dynamics of leptin gene promoter methylation during alcohol withdrawal and specific treatment in a rodent (rat) model for alcohol dependence. DNA methylation was measured using direct bisulfite sequencing at 0 h, 24 h, and 6 days of alcohol withdrawal as well as after treatment with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), Beta-Endorphin, or saline...
January 16, 2019: European Addiction Research
Richard J E James, Claire O'Malley, Richard J Tunney
Smartphone users engage extensively with their devices, on an intermittent basis for short periods of time. These patterns of behaviour have the potential to make mobile gambling especially perseverative. This paper reports the first empirical study of mobile gambling in which a simulated gambling app was used to measure gambling behaviour in phases of acquisition and extinction. We found that participants showed considerable perseverance in the face of continued losses that were linearly related to their prior engagement with the app...
January 10, 2019: European Addiction Research
Mina Moeini, Abdoallah Omidi, Mojtaba Sehat, Hamid Reza Banafshe
Opioid dependence is an increasing clinical and public health problem. Current pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy and cause serious side effects. Increasing bodies of evidences suggest the neuropeptide, oxytocin (OT), as a potential treatment for drug abuse disorders. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of OT on withdrawal, craving and anxiety scores, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) blood level in heroin-dependent male patients. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 58 males with opioid dependence by Abstinence Center of Addictive People in Iran...
January 10, 2019: European Addiction Research
Hanne Melchior, Paul Hüsing, Johanna Grundmann, Annett Lotzin, Philipp Hiller, Yiqi Pan, Martin Driessen, Norbert Scherbaum, Barbara Schneider, Thomas Hillemacher, Susanne Stolzenburg, Georg Schomerus, Ingo Schäfer
BACKGROUND: Self-stigma is a result of internalizing negative stereotypes by the affected person. Research on self-stigma in substance use disorders (SUD) is still scarce, especially regarding the role of childhood trauma and subsequent posttraumatic disorders. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the progressive model of self-stigma in women with SUD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the predictive value of PTSD severity and childhood trauma experiences on self-stigma...
January 9, 2019: European Addiction Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2018: European Addiction Research
Virgile Clergue-Duval, Murielle Mary-Krause, Camille Bolze, Eric Fombonne, Maria Melchior
PURPOSE: Individual and family characteristics early on in life are associated with adolescent smoking; however, their role with regard to long-term tobacco smoking trajectories into young adulthood is not well-known, which is what we set out to study using data from a longitudinal community-based cohort. METHODS: We used data from 2,025 youths in France (12-26 years at baseline, 16 years of follow-up), participating in the longitudinal TEMPO cohort study. First, we modeled smoking trajectories from adolescence onwards using Group-Based Trajectory Modeling, by using the declared consumption of cigarettes at different ages...
December 18, 2018: European Addiction Research
Farideh Jalali Mashayekhi, Mozhgan Rasti, Zahra Khoshdel, Ali Akbar Owji
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications may be involved in the structural and behavioral changes associated with addiction. We studied whether morphine-induced changes in mRNA levels of the catecholamine biosynthesis enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), are associated with histone modifications around the promoter of this gene in the locus coeruleus (LC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats. METHODS: Dependence was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injections of morphine for 11 days...
December 5, 2018: European Addiction Research
Philippe Castera, Edmund Stewart, Josef Großkopf, Carlos Brotons, Maiken Brix Schou, Doris Zhang, Björn Steiniger Brach, Didier Meulien
AIMS: This 12-week, open-label, primary care study (NCT02195817) evaluated the efficacy and safety of nalmefene, taken as needed, to reduce alcohol consumption in adults with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence and drinking at least at high drinking risk levels (DRL, > 60 g/day for men, > 40 g/day for women). METHODS: Following the Screening Visit, patients recorded their daily alcohol consumption for 2 weeks. Patients were then categorised by their self-reported drinking levels; those who maintained at least a high DRL in the 2-week period were included in Cohort-A, and those who reduced their alcohol consumption below high DRL were included in Cohort-B...
November 28, 2018: European Addiction Research
Fabio Lugoboni, Lorenzo Zamboni, Mauro Cibin, Stefano Tamburin
BACKGROUND: The act of intravenous misuse is common in patients under opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), but information on associated factors is still limited. OBJECTIVES: To explore factors associated with (a) intravenous OMT misuse, (b) repeated misuse, (c) emergency room (ER) admission, (d) misuse of different OMT types and (e) concurrent benzodiazepine misuse. METHODS: We recruited 3,620 patients in 27 addiction units in Italy and collected data on the self-reported rate of intravenous injection of methadone (MET), buprenorphine (BUP), BUP-naloxone (NLX), OMT dosage and type, experience of and reason for misuse, concurrent intravenous benzodiazepine misuse, pattern of -misuse in relation to admission to the addiction unit and ER -admissions because of misuse...
2019: European Addiction Research
Fides Schückher, Tabita Sellin, Claudia Fahlke, Ingemar Engström
It is unclear whether exposure to childhood maltreatment is associated with the age of onset of alcohol use disorder (AUD). A group of socially stable women with AUD seeking treatment (n = 75) were interviewed using the Addiction Severity Index and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. They also filled out the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-short form. Emotional abuse, sexual abuse and multiple childhood traumas were found to be associated with earlier onset of AUD. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that independent predictors for an earlier onset of AUD were exposure to emotional abuse (beta = -7...
November 16, 2018: European Addiction Research
Deepika Bagga, Christoph Stefan Aigner, Cinzia Cecchetto, Florian Ph S Fischmeister, Veronika Schöpf
Nicotine addiction is known to modulate neurotransmission and alter the brain structure. The detrimental effect of nicotine is more prominent in females as compared to males. This study sought to examine the sex-specific influence of nicotine addiction on gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and the white matter (WM) microstructure. Sixty healthy subjects (smokers/non-smokers) underwent structural and metabolic magnetic resonance imaging scans. Results showed alterations in WM integrity (measured as changes in fractional anisotropy [FA] and GABA in smokers versus non-smokers and females versus males...
November 16, 2018: European Addiction Research
Kathleen Henriksen, Jon-Aksel Jacobsen, Elliott Magnus Henriksen, Leni Gomes, Helge Waal, Peter Krajci
BACKGROUND: This is a 6-year retrospective quality control study of the LASSO Program (Low Threshold Substitution Treatment in Oslo), using exclusively Suboxone® (buprenorphine-naloxone [BPNX]) in out-patient settings. Adequate abstinence prior to induction is necessary to avoid acute onset opioid withdrawal symptoms; thus, its use in low threshold settings is far less common than methadone. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if BPNX is a safe and feasible medication to use in a low threshold setting...
2018: European Addiction Research
Daniela Krause, Marc Warnecke, Christian G Schuetz, Michael Soyka, Kirsi M Manz, Lisa Proebstl, Felicia Kamp, Agnieszka I Chrobok, Oliver Pogarell, Gabriele Koller
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical and clinical findings suggest a substantial association of the endogenous opioid system in nicotine dependence. The present study investigates the possible dose-dependent influence of naloxone, an unspecific opioid-receptor-antagonist, combined with cue exposure on the physiological state, locomotor activity, craving and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in nicotine-dependent humans. METHODS: Twenty nicotine-dependent, outpatient participants were deprived of nicotine for over 4 h, before receiving challenges with naloxone (1...
2018: European Addiction Research
Reinier L Sluiter, Wietske Kievit, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Aart H Schene, Martina Teichert, Marieke J H Coenen, Arnt Schellekens
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are a major contributor to the global burden of disease, and have huge societal impact. Some studies show that AUD patients carrying the G-allele of the OPRM1 variant c.118A>G respond better to naltrexone, resulting in reduced relapse rates compared to carriers of the AA genotype. Genotype-guided treatment allocation of these patients carrying a G-allele to naltrexone could potentially improve the treatment outcome. However, cost-effectiveness of this strategy should be investigated before considering clinical implementation...
2018: European Addiction Research
Laia Miquel, Jakob Manthey, Jürgen Rehm, Emili Vela, Montserrat Bustins, Lidia Segura, Eduard Vieta, Joan Colom, Peter Anderson, Antoni Gual
OBJECTIVE: To examine health services use on the basis of alcohol consumption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on patients visiting the Primary Health Care (PHC) settings in Catalonia during 2011 and 2012; these patients had a history of alcohol consumption. Information about outpatient visits in the PHC setting, hospitalizations, specialists' visits and emergency room visits for the year 2013 was obtained from 2 databases (the Information System for the Development of Research in PHC and the Catalan Health Surveillance System)...
2018: European Addiction Research
Michiel Boog, Klaartje M van Hest, Tamar Drescher, Margot J Verschuur, Ingmar H A Franken
Substance use disorders (SUD) and personality disorders co-occur frequently. This relationship might be understood by studying schema modes (a key concept in Schema therapy), which explain the dysfunctions characterizing personality disorder patients. In the present study, we compared the schema modes and personality disorder symptoms between alcohol-dependent patients, cocaine-dependent patients and healthy controls. We found indications that specific schema modes are specific for SUD patients. However, no differences between specific subtypes of SUD patients (alcohol- vs...
2018: European Addiction Research
Steffen Moritz, Schaimaa Irshaid, Thies Lüdtke, Ingo Schäfer, Marit Hauschildt, Michael Lipp
OBJECTIVES: It is textbook knowledge that individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) show large neurocognitive deficits. However, these patients display a number of additional impairments (e.g., lack of drive and motivation) that may contribute to poor test results. The impact of these secondary mediators has not been explored systematically. Based on prior findings that low performance motivation, a negative attitude toward cognitive assessment, and momentary symptoms compromise neuropsychological test results in depression, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, we examined the possibility that impaired test results in AUD partially represent an epiphenomenon...
2018: European Addiction Research
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