Yujun Hou, Jaehyeon Park, Xiuli Dan, Xixia Chu, Beimeng Yang, Mansoor Hussain, Deborah L Croteau, Vilhelm A Bohr
RecQ helicase family proteins play vital roles in maintaining genome stability, including DNA replication, recombination, and DNA repair. In human cells, there are five RecQ helicases: RECQL1, Bloom syndrome (BLM), Werner syndrome (WRN), RECQL4, and RECQL5. Dysfunction or absence of RecQ proteins is associated with genetic disorders, tumorigenesis, premature aging, and neurodegeneration. The biochemical and biological roles of RecQ helicases are rather well established, however, there is no systematic study comparing the behavioral changes among various RecQ-deficient mice including consequences of exposure to DNA damage...
March 20, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Alessandro Bregalda, Claudia Carducci, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Francesca Pierigè, Sara Biagiotti, Michele Menotta, Federica Biancucci, Tiziana Pascucci, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Mauro Magnani, Luigia Rossi
Untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) patients and PKU animal models show hypomyelination in the central nervous system and white matter damages, which are accompanied by myelin basic protein (MBP) impairment. Despite many assumptions, the primary explanation of the mentioned cerebral outcomes remains elusive. In this study, MBP protein and mRNA expression on brains of wild type (WT) and phenylketonuric (ENU2) mice were analyzed throughout mice lifespan (14-60-180-270-360-540 post-natal days, PND). The results confirmed the low MBP expression at first PND times, while revealed an unprecedented progressive MBP protein expression recovery in aged ENU2 mice...
March 20, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Yujiao Lu, Abbas Jarrahi, Nicholas Moore, Manuela Bartoli, Darrell W Brann, Babak Baban, Krishnan M Dhandapani
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with mortality and morbidity worldwide. Accumulating pre-clinical and clinical data suggests TBI is the leading extrinsic cause of progressive neurodegeneration. Neurological deterioration after either a single moderate-severe TBI or repetitive mild TBI often resembles dementia in aged populations; however, no currently approved therapies adequately mitigate neurodegeneration. Inflammation correlates with neurodegenerative changes and cognitive dysfunction for years post-TBI, suggesting a potential association between immune activation and both age- and TBI-induced cognitive decline...
March 17, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Fayard Audrey, Fenyi Alexis, Lavisse Sonia, Dovero Sandra, Bousset Luc, Tracy Bellande, Lecourtois Sophie, Jouy Christophe, Guillermier Martine, Jan Caroline, Gipchtein Pauline, Dehay Benjamin, Bezard Erwan, Melki Ronald, Hantraye Philippe, Aron Badin Romina
The role of alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease has been heavily investigated since its discovery as a component of Lewy bodies. Recent rodent data demonstrate that alpha-synuclein strain structure is critical for differential propagation and toxicity. Based on these findings, we have compared, for the first time, in this pilot study, the capacity of two alpha-synuclein strains and patient-derived Lewy body extracts to model synucleinopathies after intra-putaminal injection in the non-human primate brain...
March 16, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Delfina M Romero, Donia Zaidi, Carmen Cifuentes-Diaz, Camille Maillard, Gael Grannec, Mohammed Selloum, Marie-Christine Birling, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Fiona Francis
Dynein heavy chain (DYNC1H1) mutations can either lead to severe cerebral cortical malformations, or alternatively may be associated with the development of spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED). To assess the origin of such differences, we studied a new Dync1h1 knock-in mouse carrying the cortical malformation p.Lys3334Asn mutation. Comparing with an existing neurodegenerative Dync1h1 mutant (Legs at odd angles, Loa, +/p.Phe580Tyr), we assessed Dync1h1's roles in cortical progenitor and especially radial glia functions during embryogenesis, and assessed neuronal differentiation...
March 16, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Sara Carli, Linda Chaabane, Giuseppina De Rocco, Elena Albizzati, Irene Sormonta, Stefano Calligaro, Pietro Bonizzi, Angelisa Frasca, Nicoletta Landsberger
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder which represents the leading cause of severe incurable intellectual disability in females worldwide. The vast majority of RTT cases are caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, and preclinical studies on RTT largely benefit from the use of mouse models of Mecp2, which present a broad spectrum of symptoms phenocopying those manifested by RTT patients. Neurons represent the core targets of the pathology; however, neuroanatomical abnormalities that regionally characterize the Mecp2 deficient mammalian brain remain ill-defined...
March 15, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Sijia Tan, Cheng Zhou, Jiaqi Wen, Xiaojie Duanmu, Tao Guo, Haoting Wu, Jingjing Wu, Zhengye Cao, Xiaocao Liu, Jingwen Chen, Chenqing Wu, Jianmei Qin, Jingjing Xu, Luyan Gu, Yaping Yan, Baorong Zhang, Minming Zhang, Xiaojun Guan, Xiaojun Xu
BACKGROUND: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) could develop preceding or come after motor symptoms during Parkinson's disease (PD). It remains unknown that whether PD with different timing of RBD onset relative to motor symptoms suggests different spatiotemporal sequences of neurodegeneration. This study aimed to explore the sequence of disease progression in crucially involved brain regions in PD with different timing of RBD onset. METHOD: We recruited 157 PD, 16 isolated RBD (iRBD), and 78 healthy controls...
March 15, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Jincheng Li, Sibo Zhu, Yingzhe Wang, Min Fan, Jiacheng Dai, Chengkai Zhu, Kelin Xu, Mei Cui, Chen Suo, Li Jin, Yanfeng Jiang, Xingdong Chen
The gut microbiota is reportedly involved in neurodegenerative disorders, and exploration of differences in the gut microbiota in different cognitive status could provide clues for early detection and intervention in cognitive impairment. Here, we used data from the Taizhou Imaging Study (N = 516), a community-based cohort, to compare the overall structure of the gut microbiota at the species level through metagenomic sequencing, and to explore associations with cognition. Interestingly, bacteria capable of producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as Bacteroides massiliensis, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans and Eggerthella lenta, that can biotransform polyphenols, were positively associated with better cognitive performance (p < 0...
March 15, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Zhongbo Chen, Regina H Reynolds, Antonio F Pardiñas, Sarah A Gagliano Taliun, Wouter van Rheenen, Kuang Lin, Aleksey Shatunov, Emil K Gustavsson, Isabella Fogh, Ashley R Jones, Wim Robberecht, Philippe Corcia, Adriano Chiò, Pamela J Shaw, Karen E Morrison, Jan H Veldink, Leonard H van den Berg, Christopher E Shaw, John F Powell, Vincenzo Silani, John A Hardy, Henry Houlden, Michael J Owen, Martin R Turner, Mina Ryten, Ammar Al-Chalabi
Humans are thought to be more susceptible to neurodegeneration than equivalently-aged primates. It is not known whether this vulnerability is specific to anatomically-modern humans or shared with other hominids. The contribution of introgressed Neanderthal DNA to neurodegenerative disorders remains uncertain. It is also unclear how common variants associated with neurodegenerative disease risk are maintained by natural selection in the population despite their deleterious effects. In this study, we aimed to quantify the genome-wide contribution of Neanderthal introgression and positive selection to the heritability of complex neurodegenerative disorders to address these questions...
March 15, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Zhongzhong Jiang, Yugang Jiang
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke (IS) is the primary cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been proposed as crucial regulators in IS. This study focused on the role of circPDS5B in IS and its underlying mechanism. METHOD: Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) mice and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-exposed human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) were used as IS models. Expression levels of circPDS5B, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNPL), runt-related transcription factor-1 (Runx1), and Zinc finger protein 24 (ZNF24) were quantified by qRT-PCR...
March 14, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Xiaoyan Hu, Panpan Geng, Xiaoyun Zhao, Qian Wang, Changqing Liu, Chun Guo, Wen Dong, Xinchun Jin
The neurovascular unit (NVU) plays a critical role in health and disease. In the current review, we discuss the critical role of a class of neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2)-expressing glial cells (NG2-glia) in regulating NVU after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We first introduce the role of NG2-glia in the formation of NVU during development as well as aging-induced damage to NVU and accompanying NG2-glia change. We then discuss the reciprocal interactions between NG2-glia and the other component cells of NVU, emphasizing the factors that could influence NG2-glia...
March 13, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Hristo Varbanov, Shaobo Jia, Gaga Kochlamazashvili, Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Manal Ali Buabeid, Mohamed El Tabbal, Hussam Hayani, Stoyan Stoyanov, Weilun Sun, Hauke Thiesler, Iris Röckle, Herbert Hildebrandt, Oleg Senkov, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Rita Gerardy-Schahn, Alexander Dityatev
Dysregulated cortical expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and deficits of its associated polysialic acid (polySia) have been found in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. However, the functional role of polySia in cortical synaptic plasticity remains poorly understood. Here, we show that acute enzymatic removal of polySia in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) slices leads to increased transmission mediated by the GluN1/GluN2B subtype of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), increased NMDAR-mediated extrasynaptic tonic currents, and impaired long-term potentiation (LTP)...
March 12, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Hongjian Pu, Yangfan Wang, Tuo Yang, Rehana K Leak, R Anne Stetler, Fang Yu, Wenting Zhang, Yejie Shi, Xiaoming Hu, Ke-Jie Yin, T Kevin Hitchens, C Edward Dixon, Michael V L Bennett, Jun Chen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly followed by intractable psychiatric disorders and long-term changes in affect, such as anxiety. The present study sought to investigate the effect of repetitive intranasal delivery of interleukin-4 (IL-4) nanoparticles on affective symptoms after TBI in mice. Adult male C57BL/6 J mice (10-12 weeks of age) were subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) and assessed by a battery of neurobehavioral tests up to 35 days after CCI. Neuron numbers were counted in multiple limbic structures, and the integrity of limbic white matter tracts was evaluated using ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
March 11, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Matteo Senesi, Victoria Lewis, Paul A Adlard, David I Finkelstein, Jee Hyun Kim, Steven J Collins
Prion diseases are pathogenically linked to the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC ) misfolding into abnormal conformers (PrPSc ), with PrPSc accumulation underpinning both transmission and neurotoxicity. Despite achieving this canonical understanding, however fundamental questions remain incompletely resolved, including the level of pathophysiological overlap between neurotoxic and transmitting species of PrPSc and the temporal profiles of their propagation. To further investigate the likely time of occurrence of significant levels of neurotoxic species during prion disease development, the well characterised in vivo M1000 murine model was employed...
March 11, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Saumya Maheshwari, Liam J Dwyer, Ruxandra F Sîrbulescu
Acute injury to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a complex and challenging clinical need. CNS injury initiates a dynamic neuroinflammatory response, mediated by both resident and infiltrating immune cells. Following the primary injury, dysregulated inflammatory cascades have been implicated in sustaining a pro-inflammatory microenvironment, driving secondary neurodegeneration and the development of lasting neurological dysfunction. Due to the multifaceted nature of CNS injury, clinically effective therapies for conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), and stroke have proven challenging to develop...
March 11, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Leonardo Biscetti, Elena Cresta, Letizia Maria Cupini, Paolo Calabresi, Paola Sarchielli
The implications of neurogenic inflammation and neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of migraine have been clearly demonstrated in preclinical migraine models involving several sites relevant in the trigemino-vascular system, including dural vessels and trigeminal endings, the trigeminal ganglion, the trigeminal nucleus caudalis as well as central trigeminal pain processing structures. In this context, a relevant role has been attributed over the years to some sensory and parasympathetic neuropeptides, in particular calcitonin gene neuropeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide...
March 10, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Maxime Lévesque, Siyan Wang, Anežka D B Macey-Dare, Pariya Salami, Massimo Avoli
Interictal activity and seizures are the hallmarks of focal epileptic disorders (which include mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, MTLE) in humans and in animal models. Interictal activity, which is recorded with cortical and intracerebral EEG recordings, comprises spikes, sharp waves and high-frequency oscillations, and has been used in clinical practice to identify the epileptic zone. However, its relation with seizures remains debated. Moreover, it is unclear whether specific EEG changes in interictal activity occur during the time preceding the appearance of spontaneous seizures...
March 10, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Sahibjot Sran, Tracy A Bedrosian
As cells divide during development, errors in DNA replication and repair lead to somatic mosaicism - a phenomenon in which different cell lineages harbor unique constellations of genetic variants. Over the past decade, somatic variants that disrupt mTOR signaling, protein glycosylation, and other functions during brain development have been linked to cortical malformations and focal epilepsy. More recently, emerging evidence points to a role for Ras pathway mosaicism in epilepsy. The Ras family of proteins is a critical driver of MAPK signaling...
March 10, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Giorgio Leodori, Marco Mancuso, Davide Maccarrone, Matteo Tartaglia, Antonio Ianniello, Francesco Certo, Viola Baione, Gina Ferrazzano, Leonardo Malimpensa, Daniele Belvisi, Carlo Pozzilli, Alfredo Berardelli, Antonella Conte
Motor fatigue is one of the most common symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Previous studies suggested that increased motor fatigue in MS may arise at the central nervous system level. However, the mechanisms underlying central motor fatigue in MS are still unclear. This paper investigated whether central motor fatigue in MS reflects impaired corticospinal transmission or suboptimal primary motor cortex (M1) output (supraspinal fatigue). Furthermore, we sought to identify whether central motor fatigue is associated with abnormal M1 excitability and connectivity within the sensorimotor network...
March 9, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
Stefan Teipel, Michel Grothe
BACKGROUND: It is not clear to which degree limbic TDP-43 pathology associates with a cholinergic deficit in the absence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. OBJECTIVE: Replicate and extend recent evidence on cholinergic basal forebrain atrophy in limbic TDP-43 and evaluate MRI based patterns of atrophy as a surrogate marker for TDP-43. METHODS: We studied ante-mortem MRI data of 11 autopsy cases with limbic TDP-43 pathology, 47 cases with AD pathology, and 26 mixed AD/TDP-43 cases from the ADNI autopsy sample, and 17 TDP-43, 170 CE, and 58 mixed AD/TDP-43 cases from the NACC autopsy sample...
March 8, 2023: Neurobiology of Disease
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