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Yi Wang, Tiantian Lei, Liang Wei, Suya Du, Lea Girani, Shaoping Deng
The main obstacle to organ transplantation is the shortage of organs from deceased individuals. Especially in China, the ratio of patients on the waiting list versus the transplant recipients is 30:1. Therefore, there is an urgent need for organ donors. Genetically modified pig organs have proved to be a new source for xenotransplantation, and Chinese scientists have made considerable progress in this area during recent years. In this paper, we review four important aspects of the xenotransplantation field in China...
February 11, 2019: Xenotransplantation
Hanrui Zheng, Ting Liu, Tiantian Lei, Lea Girani, Yi Wang, Shaoping Deng
Organ transplantation is a crucial medical procedure, as it is often the only treatment for patients suffering from end-stage organ failure. Unfortunately, the shortage of donor organs limits the number of patients whose lives can be saved. Carrying out research on xenotransplantation with the aim of eventually replacing human organ transplants with those of animals is very promising, as it could effectively bridge the shortfall in donor organs. Thanks to the success of cloned pigs and to the emergence of gene-editing techniques, genetically modified pigs have come to be considered ideal animal donors for human xenotransplantation and have been widely used in basic research...
February 8, 2019: Xenotransplantation
Lea Girani, Xiaofang Xie, Tiantian Lei, Liang Wei, Yi Wang, Shaoping Deng
The organ shortage crisis affects most of the world today. In Asia, rates of deceased organ donation are extremely low due to sociocultural factors. In this context, implementing new organ donation policies is not enough; xenotransplantation remains the most promising way to solve the organ crisis. Most of the early research on xenotransplantation was conducted in the US and Europe. Today, however, Asia has caught up on its Western counterparts partly due to the increasing demand for organ transplants. Given the growing influence of countries such as China, South Korea, and Japan in xenotransplantation, this article provides the reader with an essential global understanding of the scientific and ethical issues currently at stake...
February 2, 2019: Xenotransplantation
Heather E Levy, Christopher Burlak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: Xenotransplantation
Chung-Gyu Park, Jun-Seop Shin, Byoung-Hoon Min, Hyunil Kim, Su-Cheong Yeom, Curie Ahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: Xenotransplantation
Masayuki Shimoda, Shinichi Matsumoto
To overcome the donor shortage, a promising solution could be xenotransplantation. The pig is generally considered the most suitable donor species for xenotransplantation. A clinical xenotransplantation has not been conducted in Japan. However, many progresses have recently been made in this field. Japan has regulations for conducting cell xenotransplantation and guidelines to prevent zoonosis. Most Japanese patients and their family members have a positive opinion about islet xenotransplantation. A grant for clinical islet xenotransplantation research and development has been approved, and germ-free pigs have been developed...
January 22, 2019: Xenotransplantation
David K C Cooper, Hayato Iwase, Takayuki Yamamoto, Hidetaka Hara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2019: Xenotransplantation
Junzheng Wang, Manling Liu, Lihua Zhao, Yanru Li, Manling Zhang, Yong Jin, Qiang Xiong, Xiaorui Liu, Lining Zhang, Haibin Jiang, Qiaoyu Chen, Chenyu Wang, Zhihuan You, Haiyuan Yang, Changchun Cao, Yifan Dai, Rongfeng Li
SIX1 and SIX4 genes play critical roles in kidney development. We evaluated the effect of these genes on pig kidney development by generating SIX1-/- and SIX1-/- /SIX4-/- pig foetuses using CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer. We obtained 3 SIX1-/- foetuses and 16 SIX1-/- /SIX4-/- foetuses at different developmental stages. The SIX1-/- foetuses showed a migration block of the left kidney and a smaller size for both kidneys. The ureteric bud failed to form the normal branching and collecting system...
January 9, 2019: Xenotransplantation
Yang Lei, Gaoyang Guo, Wanyu Jin, Mengwei Liu, Yunbing Wang
BACKGROUND: Glutaraldehyde cross-linked bioprosthetic heart valves might fail due to progressive degradation and calcification. METHODS: In this study, we developed a new BHVs preparation strategy named as "HPA/TRA/FMN" that utilized 3,4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (HPA)/tyramine (TRA) conjugated pericardium and riboflavin 5'-monophosphate (FMN) initiated photo-cross-linking method. HPA/TRA-pericardium conjugation would provide extra phenol groups for FMN initiated photo-cross-linking...
January 4, 2019: Xenotransplantation
David K C Cooper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2019: Xenotransplantation
Pia Montanucci, Teresa Pescara, Alessia Alunno, Onelia Bistoni, Giuseppe Basta, Riccardo Calafiore
BACKGROUND: Our previous in vitro demonstration of the immunoregulatory effects of microencapsulated hUCMS on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) extracted from patients with recent onset, type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), prompted us to test our product for xenograft (TX) in non obese diabetic (NOD) mice with spontaneous DM. METHODS: We transplanted microencapsulated hUCMS into the peritoneal cavity of NOD mice with either severe or mild DM. Blood glucose (BG) levels were monitored following TX, in either basal or upon glucose stimulation...
December 15, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Jeffrey L Platt, Lori J West, Richard E Chinnock, Marilia Cascalho
The newborn infant with severe cardiac failure owed to congenital structural heart disease or cardiomyopathy poses a daunting therapeutic challenge. The ideal solution for both might be cardiac transplantation if availability of hearts was not limiting and if tolerance could be induced, obviating toxicity of immunosuppressive therapy. If one could safely and effectively exploit neonatal tolerance for successful xenotransplantation of the heart, the challenge of severe cardiac failure in the newborn infant might be met...
December 11, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Travis R Taylor, Heather Levy, Christopher Burlak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Hayato Iwase, Takayuki Yamamoto, David K C Cooper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Regan Roat, Md Munir Hossain, Jenica Christopherson, Colette Free, Claudiane Guay, Romano Regazzi, Zhiguang Guo
BACKGROUND: Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression levels are associated with various graft rejections. We used our humanized mouse model with transplanted human islets to identify miRNAs in islet grafts related to xenograft rejection and circulating miRNAs associated with xenograft rejection-mediated β-cell loss. METHODS: Diabetic immunodeficient NOD.scid mice were transplanted with human islets and subsequently achieved stable normoglycemia. Lymphocytes from NOD mice were then adoptively transferred to the humanized mice to induce human β-cell destruction...
November 21, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Abhijit Jagdale, David K C Cooper, Hayato Iwase, Robert S Gaston
Renal allotransplantation clearly offers better survival and quality of life for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients than chronic dialysis. The median waiting time for a deceased donor kidney in a suitable ESRD patient is 3.9 years. The initial candidates for pig kidney xenotransplantation will be those with ESRD unlikely to receive an allograft within a reasonable period of time. It is thus reasonable to ascertain whether clinical trials of xenotransplantation might likewise offer superior outcomes. Chronic dialysis in patients with ESRD is associated with poor quality of life, significant morbidity, and relatively high mortality, with only 56% surviving 3 years and 42% at 5 years...
November 20, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Jigesh A Shah, Madhukar S Patel, Nathan Louras, David H Sachs, Parsia A Vagefi
As outcomes in clinical liver transplantation steadily improve, demand continues to exceed supply, leading to a substantial disparity in organ availability. The translation of porcine liver xenotransplantation (LXT) into a clinical reality aims to address this dilemma. Our laboratory has previously established an applicable model of α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) pig-to-primate LXT with continuous human coagulation factor infusion and costimulation blockade. This report aims to further investigate the post-LXT lipid and amino acid metabolism profile in our longest surviving recipients (25 and 29 days)...
November 16, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Mengyu Gao, Yujia Wang, Yuting He, Yi Li, Qiong Wu, Guang Yang, Yanyan Zhou, Diwei Wu, Ji Bao, Hong Bu
The natural liver extracellular matrix (ECM) achieved by decellularization holds great potential in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Additionally, the use of crosslinking agents on the ECM to stabilize its ultrastructure and enhance scaffold durability is gaining interest in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the scaffold properties of porcine liver ECM crosslinked with different agents (glutaraldehyde, genipin, and quercetin) to find the best strategy for producing a decellularized matrix with optimal and stable characteristics for transplantation and regeneration...
November 10, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Abhijit Jagdale, Hayato Iwase, Edwin Klein, David K C Cooper
There is an increased incidence of certain tumors and other neoplastic disease in organ allotransplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Following clinical pig organ xenotransplantation, will there be a risk of the development of neoplasia in the pig graft or in other tissues transplanted with it, eg, lymph nodes? The incidence of neoplasia in young slaughterhouse pigs is very low (<0.005%), but in older pigs is largely unknown (as most pigs are killed within the first six months of life). However, lymphosarcoma, nephroblastoma, and melanoma have been reported in pigs...
November 9, 2018: Xenotransplantation
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Xenotransplantation
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