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Folia Neuropathologica

Krystyna Szymańska, Milena Laure-Kamionowska, Krzysztof Szczałuba, Agnieszka Koppolu, Mariusz Furmanek, Katarzyna Kuśmierska, Snir Boniel, Rafał Płoski, Małgorzata Rydzanicz
The clinical picture of BRCA1-associated protein required for ATM activation-1 (BRAT1) comprises retractable early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, progressive microcephaly, and early demise. Both, inter- and intrafamilial variations of features of BRAT1-associated disease have been described. Here, the familial case of a brother and sister with homozygous pathogenic variants in BRAT1 is presented with special emphasis on differences in seizure type/onset and central nervous system lesions. The neuropathology is extensively discussed and hypotheses put forward that may shed light on etiology of brain symptomatology within the context of BRAT1 mutations...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Arezoo Rajabian, Hamid-Reza Sadeghnia, Maliheh Moradzadeh, Azar Hosseini
Glutamate is considered to be responsible for the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is considered to be involved in the glutamate-induced apoptosis process. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of Rheum turkestanicum in the glutamate-induced rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells) and mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cell lines. Rutin as an antioxidant was used as positive control. Glutamate cytotoxicity was accompanied by an increment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, ROS generation and apoptosis induction...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Junwu Fu, Yawei Liu, Kaijun Yang, Hao Long, Kewan Wang, Songtao Qi
INTRODUCTION: To explore the effect of accumbens nucleus shell (ACbSh) lesioning on bitemporal lobe epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult Wistar rats (male) were enrolled and randomly assigned into the control group and epilepsy groups with multiple time-points. Lithium-pilocarpine was used to establish the rat epilepsy model, while the control group received an equal amount of saline. Ibotenic acid stereotaxic injection was performed to cause accumbens nucleus shell lesioning for specific groups...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Lihong Li, Xiaoqing Jin, Haifeng Zhang, Jiangyan Yin
INTRODUCTION: Present investigation determines the beneficial effect of picroliv against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuronal inflammation and injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Neuronal injury was induced by LPS 250 µg/kg, i.p. for the period of one week, and picroliv 12.5 and 25 mg/kg was given i.p. 30 min prior to the administration of LPS for the duration of 12 days. The effect of picroliv was determined on the cognitive function by Morris water maze (MWM)...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Bożena Gabryel, Sebastian Liber
Metformin, a type 2 anti-diabetic drug and an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been shown to reduce infarct size and pathological changes affecting astroglia in animal models of ischemic stroke. In this study, we evaluated how metformin affects cell viability, apoptosis and determined the role of AMPK, as well as JNK p46/p54 and p38 kinases, in the observed phenomena in the culture of primary rat cortical astrocytes subjected to 12 h of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Metformin improved cell viability, reduced the fraction of apoptotic nuclei, and inhibited the activation of the executive caspase-3...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Paweł P Liberski, Agata Gajos, Beata Sikorska, Janusz Moryś
We report here the light and electron microscopic neuropathology of the 139A-H strain of scrapie passaged in Syrian golden hamsters. The general neuropathological picture consisted of the spongiform change and severe astrocytic gliosis. The topography of prion protein (PrP) was variable, the highest signal was observed in the CA2-molecular layer, CA1-pyramidal and entorhinal cortex. The electron microscopy consisted of: 1. Spongiform vacuoles - these are always membrane bound and contain secondary vacuoles (i...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Dorota Sulejczak, Stanisław J Chrapusta, Dorota Dziewulska, Janina Rafałowska
Lower motoneurons (MNs) show varied vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): those of non-ocular brainstem nuclei and most of those of the spinal cord are highly vulnerable, while those of extraocular brainstem nuclei are quite resistant. Results of our former study on the immunoexpression of the survival of motor neuron protein (SMN) and Gemins 2-4 in cervical spinal cord anterior horn -MNs of sporadic ALS patients suggested that a relative deficit in Gemin2 may play some role in the pathomechanism of the disease...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Min Li, Bing Fu, Wanli Dong
This study aims to investigate the correlation between the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level and methylenetetrahydro-folate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and white matter lesions (WML). The plasma Hcy level and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism in 104 patients with white matter lesions and 74 controls were measured. The severity of cerebral white matter was scored on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images by the modified Scheltens scale (score of 0-30). The plasma Hcy level in the WML group was remarkably higher than that in the control group (p < 0...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Tomasz Stępień, Sylwia Tarka, Dominik Chutorański, Paulina Felczak, Albert Acewicz, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz
INTRODUCTION: Adult neurogenesis includes proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells as well as their migration and maturation. In the adult human brain, two neurogenic regions, the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of lateral ventricles, have been identified. In the dentate gyrus, three types of transcriptionally active cells and in the subventricular zone, four types of transcriptionally active cells, including GFAP-positive neural stem cells (NSCs), have been differentiated...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Richard A Armstrong
Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) in the form of -amyloid (A) deposits is important not only in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome (DS) but also as a 'co-pathology' in disorders such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To compare cortical and hippocampal degeneration in different disorders, the spatial patterns of the diffuse, primi-tive, and classic A deposits were studied in regions of frontal and temporal cortex in five neurodegenerative disorders, viz...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Sumit Das, Abdullah Ishaque
Argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) is a sporadic tauopathy and actually the second most frequent cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Patients can present with slowly progressive cognitive decline as well as psychiatric manifestations such as depression. Definite diagnosis of AGD can only be made by post-mortem examination of the brain. Neuropathological features include argyrophilic grains in limbic areas along with oligodendroglial coiled bodies in hippocampal and amygdaloid white matter, and ballooned neurons in the amygdala...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Eros Bruzzone, Ilaria Melloni, Salvina Barra, Giulio Fraternali Orcioni, Leonardo Cocito
We describe a rare case of intracranial malignant triton tumor (MTT) arising in the middle cranial fossa in a 74-year-old female patient who had previously been exposed to radiation in the Chernobyl disaster. The patient underwent a surgical subtotal removal of the mass and radiation therapy, but the progression-free survival was only 2.5 months and death occurred four months after the onset of symptoms. MTTs are rare aggressive tumors arising from the nerve sheath showing rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation and associated with a poor prognosis...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Ali Sayyahi, Mehrdad Jahanshahi, Hossein Amini, Hamid Sepehri
M1 muscarinic receptor plays a fundamental role in memory and is closely associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD); it has long been assumed as a therapeutic goal. By activating of the cholinergic receptor vitamin E helps with memory retention. But effects of vitamin E on density of M1 muscarinic receptor-immunoreactive (ir) neurons remain poorly understood. The present research aimed to examine the chronic administration effect of vitamin E against scopolamine-induced memory loss and the number of M1 muscarinic receptor-ir neurons of the hippocampus in male rats...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Prathibha Maria D Almeida, Shobha Ullas Kamath, Pooja R Shenoy, Liegelin Kavitha Bernhardt, Anoop Kishore, Kiranmai Sesappa Rai
INTRODUCTION: Perinatal maternal separation stress (PMSS) induces brain lipid peroxidation and reduction in endogenous antioxidants. The present study was designed to assess the brain oxidative stress (MDA) and protein thiol levels through various stages of aging in PMSS rat pups supplemented with choline with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or Clitoria ternatea (Linn) aqueous root extract (CTR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study groups, control, PMSS, PMSS + choline with DHA, PMSS + CTR (n = 6/group) were included in the study...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Kinga Czubowicz, Sylwia Wójtowicz, Przemysław Leonard Wencel, Robert Piotr Strosznajder
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by alterations of amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism, accumulation of amyloid  peptides (A), hyperphosphorylation of Tau proteins and also by sphingolipids disturbances. These changes lead to oxidative stress, mitochondria dysfunction, synaptic loss and neuro-inflammation. It is known that A may promote ceramides formation and reversely, ceramides could stimulate A peptides release. However, the effect of ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on APP metabolism has not been fully elucidated...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Mariusz Kobek, Zbigniew Jankowski, Janusz Szala, Zbigniew Gąszczyk-Ożarowski, Artur Pałasz, Rafał Skowronek
In our previous work, we have discussed the importance of neurofilaments in determination of the age of brain contusions. The purpose of this paper is to examine a possibility of angiogenesis-related assessment of the age of brain contusions by means of morphometric analysis of the CD34 expression in the contused sites. The researched material comprised 90 cases divided into nine groups according to the time of death: immediately on the spot, 12 hours, 24 hours, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, and 7 days after the head trauma...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Jinyu Xu, Jun Shi, Jiaming Zhang, Yun Zhang
The present investigation evaluates the protective effect of vorinostat on neuronal cells in the traumatic brain injury (TBI) and also postulates the possible mechanism of its action. Marmarou's weight-drop model was used to induce the TBI. Further, animals were treated with vorinostat 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 min before the TBI induction. Neurological score and brain water content were determined in all the groups and thereafter oxidative stress parameters and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content were determined in the neuronal tissues of TBI mice...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Paweł P Liberski, Agata Gajos, Beata Sikorska
We re-examined the database of some 20,000 electron micrographs from the Echigo-1, the 263K-strain or the 22C-H of scrapie-infected hamsters to look for the cytoplasmic clearance. We reevaluated the largest database in the world of photographed dystrophic neurites for the presence of cytoplasmic clearance as shown in transgenic fruit flies transfected with A-42. In several neurites, we found electron-lucent areas not bound by any membranes or only partially bound; thus, they were not autophagic vacuoles as the latter are membrane-bound and contain cargo...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Bozena Kuzniewska, Krzysztof Sadowski, Katarzyna Urbanska, Malgorzata Urbanska, Katarzyna Kotulska, Ewa Liszewska, Wieslawa Grajkowska, Sergiusz Jóźwiak, Magdalena Dziembowska
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) represents a genetic condition, in which the clinical manifestations are caused by the disinhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway due to mutations in the TSC1 (hamartin) or TSC2 (tuberin) genes. The deregulated mTOR activity leads to multi-site tumors, including subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). SEGA is a brain tumor that affects around 15% of TSC patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate miR-21 expression in the serum of two groups of TSC patients: with or without SEGA tumors...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
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