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Folia Neuropathologica

Anna Mucha-Małecka, Dominika Wojton-Dziewonska, Dariusz Adamek, Konrad Urbanek, Krzysztof Małecki
We hereby report a case of a 10-year-old girl in whom neurosurgery was performed for cerebellar vermis medulloblastoma in April 2000. After resection the patient underwent chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, receiving 53.07 Gy to posterior fossa and 35.07 Gy to the rest of the craniospinal axis. In 2012, she was diagnosed with anaplastic astrocytoma, which was located within the high-dose region. Surgical resection of the tumour was performed. Postoperatively, the patient received radiation therapy (50.4 Gy) with concurrent temozolomide, followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide...
2019: Folia Neuropathologica
Karolina Janik, Waldemar Och, Marta Popeda, Kamila Rosiak, Joanna Peciak, Piotr Rieske, Kamil Kulbacki, Blazej Szostak, Agnieszka Parda, Ewelina Stoczynska-Fidelus
Glioblastoma, the most malignant astrocytic tumour, is associated with limited survival and thus rare metastases. We analysed a particularly interesting case - a 51-year-old male diagnosed within 2 years with primary and recurrent glioblastoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wild type, as well as with numerous extra-central nervous system (CNS) metastatic foci. Genetic material obtained from primary and recurrent tumours, as well as from pulmonary metastasis was analysed and compared at a molecular level...
2019: Folia Neuropathologica
Marta Masztalewicz, Iwona Rotter, Przemysław Nowacki, Łukasz Szydłowski, Maciej Żukowski, Piotr Gutowski
INTRODUCTION: It remains a challenge to determine criteria according to which patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis could be properly qualified for revascularization treatment. Carotid calcification assessment seems to be here quite attractive. The aim of the study was the histological analysis of various parameters of calcifications in human carotid plaques in relation to the symptomatic/asymptomatic nature of the lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved carotid plaques taken from patients who have undergone endarterectomy of the internal carotid artery...
2019: Folia Neuropathologica
Mieszko Olczak, Łukasz Poniatowski, Magdalena Kwiatkowska, Dorota Samojłowicz, Sylwia Tarka, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by various micro- and macrostructural neuropathological changes which can be identified in the light microscope examination. The most common pathophenotype of TBI visualized in postmortem neuropathological assessment includes neuron injury with involvement of all of its structural regions followed by its progressive degeneration defined as traumatic axonal injury (TAI). This is directly related with disruption of the axolemmal cytoskeletal network architecture resulting in breakdown, dissolution and accumulation of a number of neuronal proteins...
2019: Folia Neuropathologica
Jacek M Kwiecien, Wojciech Dabrowski, Barbara Marzec-Kotarska, Christian J Kwiecien-Delaney, Jordan R Yaron, Liqiang Zhang, Lauren Schutz, Alexandra R Lucas
Spinal cord injury (SCI)-initiated inflammation was treated with anti-inflammatory reagents. We compared local spinal cord or intraperitoneal infusion of two Myxoma virus derived immune modulating proteins, Serp-1 and M-T7, with dexamethasone (DEX). Hemorrhage and necrosis after SCI initiate a complex pathogenesis dominated by early, severe and highly destructive inflammatory macrophage infiltration. We examined sustained, 7-day, subdural infusion of either M-T7, a chemokine modulator or Serp-1, a plasminogen activator and factor inhibitor...
2019: Folia Neuropathologica
Suat Cakina, Ozgul Ocak, Adile Ozkan, Selma Yucel, Handan Isın Ozısık Karaman
Recent studies have reported elevated plasma homocysteine and reduced folate and vitamin B levels in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between MS and the following four DNA polymorphisms: MTR A[2756]G, MTHFR C[677]T, MTHFR A[1298]C and MTRR A[66]G. The DNA polymorphisms were genotyped in 80 patients with confirmed MS and 80 healthy control age- and gender-matched subjects using PCR-RFLP approach. Our results show that the frequency of the T/T genotype homozygotes for the MTHFR C[677]T polymorphism was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p = 0...
2019: Folia Neuropathologica
Jong-Wan Kim, Kun Song Lee, Young Pyo Chang
INTRODUCTION: This study was performed to determine whether the disturbed maturation of oligodendrocyte (OL) progenitors might be related to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hypomyelination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We created organotypic cultures of forebrain slices from neonatal rats and explored the morphological changes of glial cells expressing tumour necrosis factor  (TNF-) following LPS exposure. RESULTS: We observed marked activation of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and OX42-positive microglia co-labelled with TNF- four days following LPS exposure...
2019: Folia Neuropathologica
Bing Xu, Xin He, Yi Sui, Xu Wang, Xia Wang, Li Ren, Yun-Xin Zhai
The present investigation evaluates the protective effect of Ginkgetin aglycone (GA) against ischemic stroke-induced neuronal injury. Ischemic stroke was produced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and animals were a group that received GA 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. five days before the induction of MCAO. The effect of GA against stroke was determined by estimating the neurological deficit score and brain water content was also observed. Moreover terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay was done for determining the neuronal apoptosis and Western blot assay also performed for estimating the expression of several proteins...
2019: Folia Neuropathologica
Yifan Xu, Yuxin He, Wu Xu, Tianyu Lu, Weibang Liang, Wei Jin
We aimed to explore the role of capillary morphogenetic protein 2 (CMG2) in glioma cell invasion and the possible molecular mechanism. Glioma cells U87 and U251 stably overexpressing CMG2 were constructed by lentiviral transfection. The changes of cell invasion and migration were tested by Matrigel-transwell assay and scratch assay, respectively. A mouse model with orthotopically transplanted tumour was established to evaluate the effects of CMG2 overexpression on the in vivo invasion of glioma cells and survival time...
2019: Folia Neuropathologica
Reza Fatahian, Seyed Reza Bagheri, Masoud Sadeghi
Pathogenesis and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are subject to several environmental and genetic factors. This study was aimed to estimate the frequency of mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene to examine the association between these mutations and risk of AD. For finding the articles, four databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library were checked up to August 2018. An analysis was done by RevMan 5.3 using crude odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to determine the association between LRRK2 polymorphisms and the risk of AD...
2019: Folia Neuropathologica
Krystyna Szymańska, Milena Laure-Kamionowska, Krzysztof Szczałuba, Agnieszka Koppolu, Mariusz Furmanek, Katarzyna Kuśmierska, Snir Boniel, Rafał Płoski, Małgorzata Rydzanicz
The clinical picture of BRCA1-associated protein required for ATM activation-1 (BRAT1) comprises retractable early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, progressive microcephaly, and early demise. Both, inter- and intrafamilial variations of features of BRAT1-associated disease have been described. Here, the familial case of a brother and sister with homozygous pathogenic variants in BRAT1 is presented with special emphasis on differences in seizure type/onset and central nervous system lesions. The neuropathology is extensively discussed and hypotheses put forward that may shed light on etiology of brain symptomatology within the context of BRAT1 mutations...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Arezoo Rajabian, Hamid-Reza Sadeghnia, Maliheh Moradzadeh, Azar Hosseini
Glutamate is considered to be responsible for the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is considered to be involved in the glutamate-induced apoptosis process. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of Rheum turkestanicum in the glutamate-induced rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells) and mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cell lines. Rutin as an antioxidant was used as positive control. Glutamate cytotoxicity was accompanied by an increment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, ROS generation and apoptosis induction...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Junwu Fu, Yawei Liu, Kaijun Yang, Hao Long, Kewan Wang, Songtao Qi
INTRODUCTION: To explore the effect of accumbens nucleus shell (ACbSh) lesioning on bitemporal lobe epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult Wistar rats (male) were enrolled and randomly assigned into the control group and epilepsy groups with multiple time-points. Lithium-pilocarpine was used to establish the rat epilepsy model, while the control group received an equal amount of saline. Ibotenic acid stereotaxic injection was performed to cause accumbens nucleus shell lesioning for specific groups...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Lihong Li, Xiaoqing Jin, Haifeng Zhang, Jiangyan Yin
INTRODUCTION: Present investigation determines the beneficial effect of picroliv against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuronal inflammation and injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Neuronal injury was induced by LPS 250 µg/kg, i.p. for the period of one week, and picroliv 12.5 and 25 mg/kg was given i.p. 30 min prior to the administration of LPS for the duration of 12 days. The effect of picroliv was determined on the cognitive function by Morris water maze (MWM)...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Bożena Gabryel, Sebastian Liber
Metformin, a type 2 anti-diabetic drug and an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been shown to reduce infarct size and pathological changes affecting astroglia in animal models of ischemic stroke. In this study, we evaluated how metformin affects cell viability, apoptosis and determined the role of AMPK, as well as JNK p46/p54 and p38 kinases, in the observed phenomena in the culture of primary rat cortical astrocytes subjected to 12 h of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Metformin improved cell viability, reduced the fraction of apoptotic nuclei, and inhibited the activation of the executive caspase-3...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Paweł P Liberski, Agata Gajos, Beata Sikorska, Janusz Moryś
We report here the light and electron microscopic neuropathology of the 139A-H strain of scrapie passaged in Syrian golden hamsters. The general neuropathological picture consisted of the spongiform change and severe astrocytic gliosis. The topography of prion protein (PrP) was variable, the highest signal was observed in the CA2-molecular layer, CA1-pyramidal and entorhinal cortex. The electron microscopy consisted of: 1. Spongiform vacuoles - these are always membrane bound and contain secondary vacuoles (i...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Dorota Sulejczak, Stanisław J Chrapusta, Dorota Dziewulska, Janina Rafałowska
Lower motoneurons (MNs) show varied vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): those of non-ocular brainstem nuclei and most of those of the spinal cord are highly vulnerable, while those of extraocular brainstem nuclei are quite resistant. Results of our former study on the immunoexpression of the survival of motor neuron protein (SMN) and Gemins 2-4 in cervical spinal cord anterior horn -MNs of sporadic ALS patients suggested that a relative deficit in Gemin2 may play some role in the pathomechanism of the disease...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Min Li, Bing Fu, Wanli Dong
This study aims to investigate the correlation between the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level and methylenetetrahydro-folate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and white matter lesions (WML). The plasma Hcy level and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism in 104 patients with white matter lesions and 74 controls were measured. The severity of cerebral white matter was scored on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images by the modified Scheltens scale (score of 0-30). The plasma Hcy level in the WML group was remarkably higher than that in the control group (p < 0...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Tomasz Stępień, Sylwia Tarka, Dominik Chutorański, Paulina Felczak, Albert Acewicz, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz
INTRODUCTION: Adult neurogenesis includes proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells as well as their migration and maturation. In the adult human brain, two neurogenic regions, the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of lateral ventricles, have been identified. In the dentate gyrus, three types of transcriptionally active cells and in the subventricular zone, four types of transcriptionally active cells, including GFAP-positive neural stem cells (NSCs), have been differentiated...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Richard A Armstrong
Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) in the form of -amyloid (A) deposits is important not only in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome (DS) but also as a 'co-pathology' in disorders such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To compare cortical and hippocampal degeneration in different disorders, the spatial patterns of the diffuse, primi-tive, and classic A deposits were studied in regions of frontal and temporal cortex in five neurodegenerative disorders, viz...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
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