Hongxiang Wang, Cong Tan, Tao Xu, Weiqing Li
IDH-wild type (WT) histological low-grade gliomas are a rare group with distinct character and prognostic heterogeneity. Studies involving genetic and molecular analyses are warranted to stratify these patients into specific entities for the facilitation of tumour management. In this study, we reported a novel IDH-WT glioma with histological characteristics of a low-grade tumour. Preoperative CT revealed massive calcification of this lesion and MRI showed a mixed hyperintense and hypointense signals on both T1- and T2-weighted images with a slight contrast enhancement...
2021: Folia Neuropathologica
Maher Kurdi, Badrah Saeed Alghamdi, Jeremy Parfitt, Lee Cyn Ang
Several studies have recently described 4-repeat tauopathies that are characterized by the presence of globular glial inclusions. These inclusions are astrocytic or oligodendroglial, show extensive white matter involvement, and have a wide range of neuropathological and clinical presentations. Globular glial tauopathy (GGT) is classified into three subtypes according to clinical manifestations. Type I is characterized by frontotemporal lobar degeneration and represents a group of diseases with diverse clinical and histopathological features...
2021: Folia Neuropathologica
Albert Acewicz, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Łukasz Michałowski, Mariola Pęcak, Sylwia Tarka, Dominik Chutorański, Tomasz Stępień, Paulina Felczak, Katarzyna Sklinda, Anna Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Małgorzata Dorobek
Encephalitis/encephalomyelitis in the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains a matter of debate. We present a case of a patient with encephalomyelitis associated with RA confirmed with post-mortem neuropathological examination. A 68-year-old woman with a long-standing, seropositive history of RA presented progressive disturbances of consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and cervical spine revealed an increase of signal intensity on T2-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images with corresponding restricted diffusion involving cerebral peduncles, pons, medulla oblongata, and cervical spinal cord and mild contrast-enhancement of the right cerebral peduncle...
2021: Folia Neuropathologica
Mieszko Olczak, Łukasz A Poniatowski, Agnieszka Siwińska, Magdalena Kwiatkowska, Dominik Chutorański, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent finding during forensic autopsies and neuropathological examinations in medico-legal practices. Despite the unprecedented attention currently focused on TBI pathogenesis, there is a need to improve its diagnostics through the use of novel biomarkers to facilitate detection, treatment, and prognosis. Recently, growth factor progranulin (PGRN) has attracted significant attention because of its neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory activities. The role of PGRN in TBI has not been widely discussed, although PGRN-related neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative phenomena have been described...
2021: Folia Neuropathologica
Xiaojie Li, Lihe Yuan, Jin Wang, Zun Zhang, Shaojing Fu, Shaobin Wang, Xinhui Li
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNA (miRNA) is known to be involved in nerve injury. Our study aimed to identify the role and mechanism of miR-1b in rat neuron proliferation, regeneration and apoptosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Neurons were successfully separated and identified using a microscope and immunofluorescence staining of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2). The expressions of miR-1b and Krüppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
2021: Folia Neuropathologica
Jing Wang, Chao Xu, Kunhu Zhang, Jianjun Shi, Zhenyang Liu, Xinxing Wang, Min Guo, Jiannan Lv, Xinmin Ding
More than 50 million people are affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year around the world, and nearly half of the population worldwide will have one or more TBI(s) in their lifetime. And in 2017, more than 1.39 billion people in China suffered from TBI, representing nearly 18% of the world population; these were mainly caused by road traffic incidents. Salvianolic acid A is a compound obtained from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is one of the active components of many traditional Chinese medicines for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, with the effect of inhibition of inflammatory response...
2021: Folia Neuropathologica
Wenyue Wei, Yuyin Wang, Jing Zhang, Qingfang Gu, Xiaoqin Liu, Lijuan Song, Zhi Chai, Minfang Guo, Jiezhong Yu, Cungen Ma
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by neuron loss and dementia. Previous abundant evidence demonstrates that the first critical step in the course of AD is the state of oxidative stress and the neuronal loss is closely related to the interaction of several signalling pathways. The neuroprotective efficacy of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor in the treatment of AD has been reported, but its exact mechanism has not been well elucidated...
2021: Folia Neuropathologica
Xiu-Juan Bai, Lei Hao, Yan-E Guo, Xiao-Bing Shi, Wei-Ping Wu
The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model has been extensively applied to study ischaemic stroke. This study attempted to clarify effect of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on infarct injury of MCAO rats. BMSCs were isolated and identified by staining CD29/CD44 and CD31/CD45. CX3CL1 silencing vector (pLVX-shRNA-CX3CL1) was generated and infected to BMSCs. pLVX-shRNA-CX3CL1 infected BMSCs were transplanted into brain tissue of MCAO rats. Real-time PCR was used to determine CX3CL1 expression. Infarct areas were stained with TTC to evaluate infarct size...
2021: Folia Neuropathologica
Sylwia Tarka
Dear Dr. Josef Finsterer, Thank you for your careful and thorough reading of our article and for the valuable comments. We agree that valproic acid is harmful in the mitochondrial disease and we want to add that the described case is currently being prosecuted as medical malpractice.
2021: Folia Neuropathologica
Josef Finsterer
With interest we read the article by Tarka et al. about the autopsy findings of an 8-year-old female with mitochondrial disorder (MID) due to the compound heterozygous variants c.2243G>C and c.2542G>A in POLG1 [1]. The patient manifested clinically with mental retardation, developmental regression, and myoclonic epilepsy, for which she received valproic acid (VPA) [1]. Neuropathological studies after death from acute pancreatitis and liver failure revealed bilaterally symmetric degenerative lesions of the accessory olivary nuclei in addition to typical features of Alpers-Huttenlocher disease (AHD) [1]...
2021: Folia Neuropathologica
Jaśmina Sieracka, Przemysław Sieracki, Grzegorz Kozera, Edyta Szurowska, Jacek Gulczyński, Piotr Sobolewski, Wojciech Kloc, Ewa Iżycka-Świeszewska
This article constitutes a summary of the knowledge on the involvement of the nervous system in COVID-19, concerning its general pathobiology, clinical presentation and neuropathological features as well as the future directions of investigation. Variable definitions, selection bias, mainly retrospective analyses of hospitalized patients and different methodologies are implemented in the research of this new disease. Central nervous system (CNS) pathology presents most frequently features of non-specific neuroinflammation with microglial activation and lymphoid infiltrations, ischemic/hypoxic encephalopathy, acute cerebrovascular disease, and microthrombi...
2021: Folia Neuropathologica
Sylwia Tarka, Milena Laure-Kamionowska, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Katarzyna Witulska, Elżbieta Ciara, Krystyna Szymańska, Paweł Krajewski, Tomasz Stępień, Albert Acewicz, Paulina Felczak
We present a female patient with a mutation of the POLG gene (POLG DNA polymerase gamma, catalytic subunit; *174763) in which the clinical course suggested a mitochondrial disease, a neuropathological examination identified the syndrome more closely, and a genetic test confirmed the disease. Apart from the morphological lesions typical of Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome, rarely observed symmetrical degenerative changes in the accessory olivary nuclei were found. It was unusual in the clinical course of the disease that pancreatitis was diagnosed before symptoms of liver failure appeared...
2020: Folia Neuropathologica
Kristof Babarczy, Zita Reisz, Elza Szabo, Cecilia Rajda, Laszlo Vecsei, Istvan Bodi, Peter Klivenyi, Tibor Hortobagyi, Levente Szalardy
Diffuse midline gliomas, H3 K27M-mutant, World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV represent a distinct glioma entity with a predominantly paediatric presentation and remarkably poor prognosis. This report presents a case of a 73-year-old woman with a diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant, WHO grade IV with a remarkable longitudinal extension, extending from the cervical myelon to the basal ganglia. On imaging, the lesion was predominantly suggestive of inflammatory oedema, and it was clinically associated with progressive hemi- and later tetraparesis with severe autonomic and bulbar symptoms...
2020: Folia Neuropathologica
Maiwulanijiang Yizibula, Zulifeiya Wusiman, Nueramina Abudouhalike, Batuer Maimaitiming
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to explore the role of a novel traditional herbal compound medicine (HCM) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 72 rats were randomized into control, AD, Donepezil and HCM groups. Injection of -amyloid peptide (A1-42) into the lateral ventricle was used to induce AD in rats. Rats in treatment groups received HCM (1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 g/kg) and Donepezil (0.92 mg/kg) for 21 days, respectively. The spatial learning and memory ability were observed by Morris water maze (MWM) test...
2020: Folia Neuropathologica
Przemysław Witek, Maria Maksymowicz, Katarzyna Szamotulska, Agata Piaścik, Agnieszka Wojciechowska-Luźniak, Aleksandra Stasiewicz, Joanna Witek, Grzegorz Zieliński
INTRODUCTION: Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice in Cushing's disease (CD), although even late recurrences occur in some patients. Low expression of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been linked to a high risk of relapse in pituitary tumours, but the evidence for corticotroph adenomas is limited. Therefore, we investigated whether MGMT expression was associated with CD remission or clinicopathological markers of tumour aggressiveness among patients with corticotroph adenomas...
2020: Folia Neuropathologica
Ahmed Gilani, Kurtis Davies, Bette Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
INTRODUCTION: Identification of genetic alterations in central nervous system (CNS) tumors provides diagnostic and prognostic information and allows identification of potential therapeutic targets. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies currently used for molecular testing are costly and remain largely limited to major academic centers or reference labs. Identification of histologic or immunohistochemical correlates for particular molecular alterations can serve as surrogates and can help triage cases for subsequent NGS-based confirmation...
2020: Folia Neuropathologica
Huifeng Cheng, Miaojun Lv, Rulin Mi, Guofang Xue
Amifostine is a cytoprotective compound that is beneficial in ischaemic stroke cases. However, the neuroprotective effect of amifostine on ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury and its underlying mechanism are still poorly understood. Herein, we constructed an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) injury and an in vitro model of oxygen and glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) injury. After administration of amifostine, we found significant improvements in neurological deficits, infarct size, and cerebral oedema...
2020: Folia Neuropathologica
Wenyong Pan, Zhiming Xu
INTRODUCTION: Triptolide, extracted from Chinese medicinal materials Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF), has immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour effects. The purpose of this study was to examine whether triptolide has the neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and to explore its possible mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The rat model of focal cerebral I/R was established by the suture-occluded method. The SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham operation group (Sham group), ischemia-reperfusion model group (I/R group), low concentration of triptolide group (12...
2020: Folia Neuropathologica
Wenyuan Ling, Ying Cui, Junling Gao, Ran Li, Xiaohua Jiang, Yanxia Tian, Kaijie Wang, Jianzhong Cui
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the protective effects of antcin C against cerebral haemorrhage injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cerebral haemorrhage was treated with antcin C 100 mg/kg i.p. at 60 min after the induction of cerebral injury. Neurological scores and volumes of cerebral injury were assessed to determine the effects of antcin C, based on oxidative stress and serum mediators of inflammation by ELISA. qRT-PCR was used to estimate the mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) proteins in the cerebral tissue of rats with cerebral haemorrhage...
2020: Folia Neuropathologica
Antonia Grigorova, Anastasiya Trenova, Spaska Stanilova
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease characterised by nerve demyelination, mediated by myelin-specific Th1 autoreactive cells. Transforming growth factor 1 (TGF-1) is a regulatory cytokine involved in MS aetiology by maintaining CD4+ cell differentiation and preventing autoimmune responses. Because of the important role of the TGF-1 signalling pathway in MS aetiopathogenesis, we aimed to investigate the association of two DNA polymorphisms: TGFB1C[-509]T and TGFBR2G[-875]A and their combined genotypes with the risk of MS development in a cohort of Bulgarian patients...
2020: Folia Neuropathologica
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