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Advances in Anatomic Pathology

Wonwoo Shon, Steven D Billings
Vascular tumors are a diagnostically challenging area. This is particularly true in the case of epithelioid vascular tumors. Not only is the distinction between different epithelioid vascular tumors challenging, but also the differential diagnosis may be substantially expanded by the inclusion of melanoma, carcinomas, and other epithelioid soft tissue tumors. Recently developed immunohistochemical markers and more comprehensive genetic characterizations continue to advance our understanding of epithelioid vascular tumors...
February 12, 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Thomas G Papathomas, Vania Nosé
Significant advances in genomics and molecular genetics in recent years have reshaped the practice of endocrine pathology. Pan-genomic studies, including the pioneering ones on papillary thyroid carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma, and adrenal cortical carcinoma from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, provided a comprehensive integrated genomic analysis of endocrine tumors into distinct molecularly defined subtypes. Better understanding of the molecular landscape and more accurate definition of biological behavior has been accordingly achieved...
February 5, 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Helen P Cathro
Iatrogenic disease is defined as illness caused by diagnostic procedures or treatment given by health care professionals. More recently described treatment complications involving the genitourinary tract include newly recognized variants of renal carcinoma in the setting of dialysis/end-stage renal disease, treatment effect in genitourinary carcinomas, and medical renal disease caused by drug therapies, including immunotherapy. The objective of this review is to cover iatrogenic inflammatory diseases, pseudotumors and tumors of the kidney, bladder, prostate, testis and paratestis of most interest to surgical pathologists...
February 1, 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
David M Meredith
As genomic characterization becomes increasingly necessary for accurate diagnosis of tumors of the central nervous system, identification of rapidly assessible biomarkers is equally important to avoid excessive cost and delay in initiation of therapy. This article reviews novel immunohistochemical markers that may be used to determine mutation status, activation of signaling pathways, druggable targets, and cell lineage in many diverse tumor types. In particular, recently added entities to the 2016 WHO classification of central nervous system tumors will be addressed, including IDH-mutant gliomas, diffuse midline glioma, epithelioid glioblastoma, angiocentric glioma, RELA-rearranged ependymoma, embryonal tumors (medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, pineoblastoma, embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, and other genetically defined high-grade neuroepithelial tumors), and meningiomas associated with germline alterations...
February 1, 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Shikha Bose, Wendy Sacks, Ann E Walts
Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and ultrasonography are the most common modalities for the diagnosis and follow up of thyroid nodules. FNAB is able to distinguish benign from malignant nodules with high sensitivity and specificity; however, 20% to 30% of nodules are diagnosed as indeterminate with a risk of malignancy varying from 10% to 75% based on the 2017 revision of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Molecular tests are being increasingly used to triage this group of nodules...
January 17, 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Jeffrey B Kopp, Avi Z Rosenberg
Genetic variants in APOL1, encoding apolipoprotein L1, are major drivers of glomerular disease in peoples of sub-Saharan African descent. APOL1-associated primary glomerular diseases include focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathies, and arterionephrosclerosis. Other conditions where APOL1 variants affect outcomes include membranous nephropathy, lupus nephritis, diabetic nephropathy, preeclampsia, and kidney transplant. In focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, APOL1 variants are associated with upregulation of RNA encoding chemokine C-X-C motif receptor 3 ligands and ubiquitin D; the significance of these findings remains unclear but may provide valuable insight into disease mechanisms...
January 7, 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Kaleigh E Lindholm, Patricia de Groot, Cesar A Moran
Fibrosing lesions of the mediastinum represent a small but challenging group of lesions that range in etiology from infectious to idiopathic to neoplastic. The diagnosis of such lesions becomes more challenging in the setting of mediastinoscopic biopsies. In addition, over the years, there has been further accumulation of knowledge of the clinical aspects of these lesions that needs to be incorporated into their evaluation. Therefore, it is essential that in the general evaluation of these fibrosing processes, one not only carefully examines the histopathologic features of the lesion, that of a fibroinflammatory process with the appropriate histochemical and immunohistochemical studies, but also carefully evaluates the clinical presentation and imaging findings...
January 2, 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Kuixing Zhang, Cherise Meyerson, Ari Kassardjian, Lindsey M Westbrook, Wei Zheng, Hanlin L Wang
Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) or goblet cell carcinoma is a unique mixed endocrine-exocrine neoplasm that is almost exclusively seen in the appendix. The hallmark of GCC is the concentric infiltration of the appendiceal wall by small tight clusters, nests or cords of tumor cells that exhibit a goblet cell morphology with a small compressed nucleus and conspicuous intracytoplasmic mucin. The coexistence of high-grade adenocarcinoma with GCC has been increasingly recognized as a common finding, which has been called adenocarcinoma ex GCC or mixed GCC-adenocarcinoma...
December 28, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Marc Pusztaszeri, Esther D Rossi, Zubair W Baloch, William C Faquin
Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a well-established procedure for the diagnosis and management of salivary gland lesions despite challenges imposed by their diversity, complexity, and cytomorphologic overlap. Until recently, the reporting of salivary gland FNA specimens was inconsistent among different institutions throughout the world, leading to diagnostic confusion among pathologists and clinicians. In 2015, an international group of pathologists initiated the development of an evidence-based tiered classification system for reporting salivary gland FNA specimens designated the "Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology" (MSRSGC) that culminated with the publication of the MSRSGC Atlas in February 2018...
December 28, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Mohammed Akhtar, Issam A Al-Bozom, Turki Al Hussain
Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is the second most common type of renal carcinoma following clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Papillary renal cell carcinoma is usually divided histologically into 2 types namely, type 1 and type 2. This classification, however, is unsatisfactory as many of papillary carcinoma are unclassifiable by the existing criteria. In recent years there has been a remarkable progress in our understanding of the molecular basis of PRCC. These studies have revealed that type 2 PRCCs represent a heterogenous group which may be subdivided into additional subtypes based on the genetic and molecular make up of these tumors and reflecting different clinical course and prognosis...
November 30, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Lauren Penn, Lisa Rothman, Angela M Sutton, Nooshin K Brinster, Claudia I Vidal
Inflammatory skin diseases encompass a vast array of conditions. The field continues to expand and evolve with resurgence of conditions, through newly recognized medication adverse effects, and via more detailed descriptions of known dermatoses. The importance of clinicopathologic correlation and an up to date knowledge of dermatologic conditions cannot be overstated. This review focuses on an array of recent important developments in the histologic diagnosis of inflammatory conditions that affect the skin.
January 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Mohammed Akhtar, Abdulrazzaq Haider, Sameera Rashid, Ajayeb Dakhilalla M H Al-Nabet
The concept that the pattern of metastatic spread of cancer is not random and that cancer cells exhibit preferences when metastasizing to organs, dates back to 1889 when Steven Paget published his "seed and soil" hypothesis. He proposed that the spread of tumor cells is governed by interaction and cooperation between the cancer cells (seed) and the host organ (soil). Extensive studies during the last several decades have provided a better understanding of the process of metastatic spread of cancer and several stages such as intravasation, extravasation, tumor latency, and development of micrometastasis and macrometastasis have been defined...
January 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Kaitlin E Sundling, Alarice C Lowe
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have long been assumed to be the substrate of cancer metastasis. However, only in recent years have we begun to leverage the potential of CTCs found in minimally invasive peripheral blood specimens to improve care for cancer patients. Currently, CTC enumeration is an accepted prognostic indicator for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer; however, CTC enumeration remains largely a research tool. More recently, the focus has shifted to CTC characterization and isolation which holds great promise for predictive testing...
January 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
David Suster, Howard D Epstein, Daryl Pearlstein, Saul Suster
Thymic epithelial neoplasms with foci of rhabdomyomatous differentiation are rare. A case is presented of a primary thymic epithelial neoplasm showing the features of an atypical spindle cell thymoma that contained foci of bland-appearing rhabdomyomatous cells. The histologic and immunohistochemical features of this tumor are discussed along with a review of the literature and the comments from the AMR members to the case.
January 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Edyta C Pirog, Kay J Park, Takako Kiyokawa, Xun Zhang, Wen Chen, David Jenkins, Wim Quint
Gastric-type endocervical adenocarcinoma (GAS) is a recently described diagnostic entity originally characterized as a tumor with (1) voluminous cytoplasm that is (2) clear or pale eosinophilic, and (3) cells showing distinct cell borders. Since the initial tumor description there has been accumulating experience that the neoplasm, in addition to classic features, may show a wide spectrum of morphologic appearances. This paper describes and illustrates cases of GAS with focal or diffuse findings that include: densely eosinophilic cytoplasm, foamy cytoplasm, goblet cells, glands with elongated, stratified nuclei, glands with small cuboidal cells, glands with flattened cells, papillary growth, single cell infiltration and infiltration with microcystic elongated and fragmented pattern...
January 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Julie M Guilmette, Vania Nosé
This review focuses on discussing the main modifications of the recently published 2017 WHO Classification of Neoplasms of the Neuroendocrine Pancreas (panNEN). Recent updates separate pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors into 2 broad categories: well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNET) and poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (panNEC), and incorporates a new subcategory of "well-differentiated high-grade NET (G3)" to the well-differentiated NET category. This new classification algorithm aims to improve the prediction of clinical outcomes and survival and help clinicians select better therapeutic strategies for patient care and management...
January 2019: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Yin P Hung, Lynette M Sholl
Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) accounts for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, with most patients diagnosed at advanced stages and managed increasingly with targeted therapies and immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss diagnostic and predictive immunohistochemical markers in NSCLC, one of the most common tumors encountered in surgical pathology. We highlight 2 emerging diagnostic markers: nuclear protein in testis (NUT) for NUT carcinoma; SMARCA4 for SMARCA4-deficient thoracic tumors. Given their highly aggressive behavior, proper recognition facilitates optimal management...
November 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Jesse K McKenney, Jason L Hornick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Sara E Higgins, Justine A Barletta
The role of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in endocrine pathology is similar to that in other organ systems in that it can aid in the subclassification of tumors within an organ, confirm site of primary in metastatic disease, provide prognostic information, identify underlying genetic alterations, and predict response to treatment. Although most endocrine tumors do not require IHC to render a diagnosis, there are certain scenarios in which IHC can be extremely helpful. For example, in thyroid, IHC can be used to support tumor dedifferentiation, in the adrenal it can aid in the diagnosis of low-grade adrenocortical carcinomas, and in paragangliomas it can help identify tumors arising as part of an inherited tumor syndrome...
November 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Roni M Cox, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Jesse K McKenney
Immunohistochemistry may be a very useful adjunct to morphologic diagnosis in many areas of surgical pathology, including genitourinary pathology. In this review, we address common diagnostic dilemmas where immunophenotypic analysis may be utilized and we highlight pitfalls specific to each scenario. For prostate, we review the diagnosis of limited prostatic adenocarcinoma and the distinction of high-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma from urothelial carcinoma. We also cover markers of urothelial lineage in the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary site...
November 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
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