Shalinder Sabherwal, Priya Adhisesha Reddy, Zeeshan Siddiqui, Ishaana Sood, Birendra P Singh, Suma Ganesh, Atanu Majumdar, Ken L Bassett
PURPOSE: Our study compares the sensitivity, specificity and cost of visual acuity screening as performed by all class teachers (ACTs), selected teachers (STs) and vision technicians (VTs) in north Indian schools. METHODS: Prospective cluster randomized control studies are conducted in schools in a rural block and an urban-slum of north India. Consenting schools, with a minimum of 800 students aged 6 to 17 years, within a defined study region in both locations, were randomised into three arms: ACTs, STs or VTs...
March 7, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Naira Khachatryan, Aida Giloyan, Ala Paduca, Hans Limburg, Varduhi Petrosyan
PURPOSE: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and main causes of blindness and visual impairment in population aged 50 years and older in Armenia using Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology. METHODS: The study team randomly selected 50 clusters (each consisting of 50 people) from all 11 regions of Armenia. Data on participants' demographics, presenting visual acuity, pinhole visual acuity, principal cause of presenting visual acuity, spectacle coverage, uncorrected refractive error (URE), and presbyopia were collected using the RAAB survey form...
March 5, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Amy E Millen, Shruti Dighe, Katarzyna Kordas, Boma Zelma Aminigo, Michelle L Zafron, Lina Mu
PURPOSE: We conducted a scoping review of studies examining ambient air pollution as a risk factor for chronic eye disease influencing the lens, retina, and intraocular pressure in adults. METHODS: Terms related to air pollution and eye disease outcomes were used to search for publications on Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, Global Health, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1, 2010, through April 11, 2022. RESULTS: We identified 27 articles, focusing on the following non-mutually exclusive outcomes: cataract (n = 9), presbyopia (n = 1), retinal vein occlusion or central retinal arteriolar and venular equivalents (n = 5), intraocular pressure (IOP) (n = 3), glaucoma (n = 5), age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (n = 5), diabetic retinopathy (n = 2), and measures of retinal morphology (n = 3)...
March 2, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Angelica C Scanzera, Sasha Kravets, Joelle A Hallak, Hugh Musick, Jerry A Krishnan, R V Paul Chan, Sage J Kim
PURPOSE: To examine the association between neighborhood-level social vulnerability and adherence to scheduled ophthalmology appointments. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, records of all patients ≥18 years scheduled for an ophthalmology appointment between September 12, 2020, and February 8, 2021, were reviewed. Primary exposure is neighborhood-level Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) based on the patient's residential location. SVI is a rank score of 15 social factors into four themes (socioeconomic status, household composition/disability, minority status/language, and housing type/transportation), ranging from 0 to 1...
February 23, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Andrew A Shen, Karen G Gutierrez, Natacha C Villegas, Heather E Moss
PURPOSE: To compare disparities in outpatient ophthalmic care during early and later periods of the COVID-19 public health emergency. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared non-peri-operative outpatient ophthalmology visits by unique patients at an adult ophthalmology practice affiliated with a tertiary-care academic medical center in the Western US during three time periods: pre-COVID (3/15/19-4/15/19), early-COVID (3/15/20-4/15/20), and late-COVID (3/15/21-4/15/21)...
February 20, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Sachin Phakey, Anthony J Hall, Lyndell L Lim
PURPOSE: We investigate the impact of COVID-19 and lockdowns on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Victoria (Australian state with highest burden of COVID-19 in 2020) and Australia, by examining anti-VEGF prescriptions supplied for AMD treatment between 2018 and 2020. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, population-based analysis of aflibercept and ranibizumab prescriptions supplied for the treatment of AMD in Victoria and Australia between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2020, as recorded by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and Repatriation PBS, the Australian Government program subsidising medication costs for Australian residents and veterans...
February 15, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Fahd Naufal, Christopher J Brady, Beatriz Muñoz, Harran Mkocha, Sheila K West
PURPOSE: As training of trachoma graders using live participants grows increasingly difficult and expensive, alternative ways are needed possibly through replacement of field grading with photography. However, minimum specifications for a camera system capable of capturing high quality images have not been defined. This study compared images captured using four smartphones with those from a Nikon SLR camera for image quality and assessment of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF)...
February 12, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Marika Yumang, Claudine Yee, Ross M Passo, Alison H Skalet
PURPOSE: To evaluate the occurrence and outcome of open globe injury during state-mandated COVID-19 stay-at-home orders compared to historical averages at a tertiary medical center in Portland, Oregon. METHODS: Open globe injury between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2020 was identified using relevant procedure codes. The number of injuries, mechanism of trauma, and short-term outcomes of globes repaired during the study period of March 23, 2020 to July 6, 2020 when stay-at-home orders were in effect were compared to a cohort from the same 15-week time frame in 2015-2019...
February 7, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Yize Chen, Lynne Lohfeld, Di Song, Clara Pak, Xia Gong, Wenzhe Zhou, Yuanbo Liang, Nathan Congdon
PURPOSE: To explore the perception of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) among physicians and patients and the acceptance of using SLT as first-line treatment for glaucoma. METHODS: Exploratory descriptive qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with glaucoma specialists and patients in two eye hospital of Zhejiang and Guangdong Provinces, China. Data were analyzed using the thematic analysis framework approach. RESULTS: 11 glaucoma specialists and 12 glaucoma patients were interviewed...
February 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Parth A Patel, Prem N Patel, Harris Ahmed
PURPOSE: To examine trends in ophthalmic trauma secondary to five major sports (baseball, soccer, tennis, football, basketball) and identify differences between patient characteristics and time period (pre-COVID vs COVID) of injury. METHODS: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried to extract cases related to the sports of interest from 2011-2020. Entries were analyzed by age, sex, diagnosis, location, and disposition, with narrative descriptions assessed to characterize the mechanism of injury and visual sequelae...
January 29, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Paul J Bryar, Andrew Wang, Sarah E Eichinger, Samantha Agron, Anne Langguth, Michael Mbagwu, Dustin D French
PURPOSE: To investigate prevalence of diabetes (DM), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and areas with highest rates of undetected DR. To quantify and map locations of disparities as they relate to poverty and minority populations. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study from large regional health data repository (HealthLNK). Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis mapped rates of DM and DR in Chicago area ZIP Codes. RESULTS: Of 1,086,921 adults who met the inclusion criteria, 143,790 with DM were identified...
January 27, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Yicheng K Bao, Cory J Miller, Srivats S Narayanan, Monica Gaddis, Betty M Drees
PURPOSE: Evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of depression in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Compare subjective and objective measures of visual function predictivity of depression. METHODS: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008 participants aged ≥40 who underwent fundus photography, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9, and Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25) were included in the study. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate whether DR was a significant risk factor for depression and to evaluate the risk factors for depression in those with DR...
January 26, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Anne B Kim, Brian T Cheng, Bryce P Hwang
INTRODUCTION: Decreased public transit, no‑visitor policies, and other restrictions to reduce the spread of COVID‑19 may limit healthcare access for vision impaired adults. This study aimed to assess rates of healthcare delayed or forgone due to COVID‑19 among adults with low vision. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 2021 National Health Interview Survey, a representative sample of US adults. Vision and hearing impairment were determined by self‑report...
January 23, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Jingyun Wang, Gui-Shuang Ying, Yinxi Yu, Lauren Tomlinson, Gil Binenbaum
PURPOSE: To delineate racial differences in the incidence and time course of ROP in a large cohort of premature infants. METHODS: The secondary analysis of data from the two Postnatal Growth and ROP Studies (G-ROP-1 and G-ROP-2) that were collected in 41 hospitals in North America from 2006 to 2017. According to self-reported maternal race, premature infants were classified into 3 groups: White (N = 5580), Black (N = 3252), and Asian (N = 353)...
January 16, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Itay Nitzan, Inbal Akavian, Adi Einan-Lifshitz, Asaf Shemer, Arnon Afek, Alon Peled
PURPOSE: The application of myopia definition varies considerably within the literature. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between different myopia and high myopia definitions and resultant prevalence estimates. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study of 1,588,508 Israeli adolescents assessed for medical fitness before mandatory military service at the age of 17 years between 1993 through 2015. Participants underwent non-cycloplegic autorefraction...
January 4, 2023: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Mark E Reynolds, Weidong Gu
PURPOSE: Ocular injuries pose a significant threat to performance of military functions by the U.S. service members. To estimate the burden of ocular injuries in service members, administrative health records from the Military Health System were collected and analyzed, inclusive of ocular injuries incurred during deployment, military training, or outside of duty hours. METHODS: Patient encounters which matched the predesignated ICD10 codes for ocular injury and complications were extracted and were longitudinally analyzed to categorize patients into complicated (documentation of surgical procedure performed or ocular condition requiring further treatment) or uncomplicated (documentation of injury only)...
December 20, 2022: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Hirpa Miecha, Michael Dejene, Dereje Adugna, Ageru Kebede, Damtew Yadeta, Addisu Alemayehu, Aemero Abateneh, Mihiret Dayessa, Muhammed Shafi, Emawayish Taye, Leta Balcha, Nebiyu Negussu, Belete Mengistu, Rebecca Willis, Cristina Jimenez, Ana Bakhtiari, Sarah Boyd, Biruk Kebede, Fantahun Tadesse, Ayele Mamo, Mengistu Bekele, Zelalem Sinke, Anthony W Solomon, Emma M Harding-Esch
PURPOSE: Interventions to reduce the prevalence of trachoma and transmission of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis have been implemented in Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Following an impact survey in which the trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) prevalence in 1-9-year-olds is <5%, a surveillance survey is recommended 2 years later, without additional antibiotic treatment. We report results of surveillance surveys in 11 evaluation units (EUs) covering 12 districts in Oromia Region, to plan whether future interventions are needed...
December 15, 2022: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Hirpa Miecha, Michael Dejene, Dereje Adugna, Ageru Kebede, Damtew Yadeta, Addisu Alemayehu, Aemero Abateneh, Asfaw Wondimu, Mihiret Dayessa, Muhammed Shafi, Emawayish Taye, Leta Balcha, Solomon Gadisa, Nebiyu Negussu, Belete Mengistu, Rebecca Willis, Cristina Jimenez, Ana Bakhtiari, Sarah Boyd, Biruk Kebede, Fantahun Tadesse, Ayele Mamo, Mengistu Bekele, Zelalem Sinke, Anthony W Solomon, Emma M Harding-Esch
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trachomatous trichiasis (TT), water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) access in 131 evaluation units (EUs) after implementation of trachoma elimination interventions in Oromia Region, Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in each EU using the World Health Organization-recommended two-stage cluster-sampling methodology. Twenty-six clusters, each with a mean of 30 households were enumerated in each EU...
December 15, 2022: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Belete Mengistu, Fikru Wirtu, Addisu Alemayehu, Shigute Alene, Aemiro Asmare, Sharone Backers, Ana Bakhtiari, Molly Brady, Robert M R Butcher, Mihiret Dayessa, Hannah Frawley, Genet Gebru, Cristina Jimenez, Fikreab Kebede, Asfaw Kejela, Scott McPherson, Addisalem Mihret, Nebiyu Negussu, Jeremiah M Ngondi, Fentahun Taddese, Rebecca Willis, Asfaw Wondimu, Michael Dejene, Anthony W Solomon, Emma M Harding-Esch
PURPOSE: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in 1-9-year-olds and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) unknown to the health system in ≥15-year-olds in Benishangul Gumuz (BGZ) region, Ethiopia. This will help to assess progress towards the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem and determine the need for future interventions against trachoma in the region. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based trachoma prevalence surveys were conducted in four evaluation units (EUs) of BGZ using World Health Organization-recommended survey methodologies...
December 13, 2022: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Shonar Singh, Thamanna Nishath, Ido Didi Fabian, Xiudi Li, Megan Othus, Mai Tzukikawa, Andrew W Stacey
PURPOSE: To determine the seasonal variation in the diagnosis of retinoblastoma in a global sample of children and to investigate predictors of seasonal trends. METHODS: Data were collected through a global, multicenter, 1-year cross-sectional analysis that included all treatment- naïve retinoblastoma patients presenting to participating centers between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2017. Due to variations in days per month, data were normalized to a 30-day/month calendar...
December 11, 2022: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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