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Journal of Viral Hepatitis

Cihan Yurdaydin
Current treatment of chronic hepatitis D viral infection with interferons is poorly tolerated and effective only in a minority of patients. Despite Delta virus causing the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis no other treatments are available. After many years of inactivity there is now hope for new treatment approaches for Delta virus and some are likely to enter clinical practice in the near future. Four new treatment approaches are currently being evaluated in phase 2 studies. These involve the hepatocyte entry inhibitor myrcludex B, the farnesyl transferase inhibitor lonafarnib, the nucleic acid inhibitor REP 2139 Ca and pegylated interferon lambda...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Ramazan Idilman, Mehmet Demir, Murat Aladag, Cihan Erol, Bilger Cavus, Raim Iliaz, Hayrettin Koklu, Yilmaz Cakaloglu, Memduh Sahin, Galip Ersoz, İftihar Koksal, Zeki Karasu, Meric Ozgenel, İlker Turan, Feyza Gunduz, Huseyin Ataseven, Meral Akdogan, Murat Kiyici, Aydın Seref Koksal, Sila Akhan, Fulya Gunsar, Fehmi Tabak, Sabahattin Kaymakoglu, Ulus S Akarca
The aims of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) with or without ribavirin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in patients with advanced liver disease and to analyze whether the use of LDV/SOF treatment is associated with a new occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during and after LDV/SOF treatment. The Turkish Early Access Program provided LDV/SOF treatment to a total of 200 eligible CHC patients with advanced liver disease. The median follow-up period was 22 months...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Peter Ferenci, Stefan Bourgeois, Peter Buggisch, Suzanne Norris, Manuela Curescu, Dominique Larrey, Fiona Marra, Henning Kleine, Patrick Dorr, Mariem Charafeddine, Eric Crown, Mark Bondin, David Back, Robert Flisiak
Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir±dasabuvir±ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV) regimens show high efficacy and good tolerability in clinical trials for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (GT) 1 or 4. To evaluate whether these results translate to clinical practice, data were pooled from observational studies across 13 countries. Treatment-naïve or -experienced patients, with or without cirrhosis, received OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV according to approved local labels and clinical practice. Sustained virologic response at post-treatment Week 12 (SVR12), adverse events (AEs) and comedication management were assessed for patients initiating treatment before June 1, 2017...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Cecilia Graciela Giadans, Daniela Alejandra Ríos, Beatriz Ameigeiras, Adriana Mónica Pietrantonio, Néstor Lucio Lucatelli, Leila Haddad, Eduardo Mullen, Fabiana Heinrich, Elena De Matteo, Diego Flichman, Pamela Valva, María Victoria Preciado
In Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) infection, virus and immune response interplay is thought to be responsible for pathogenesis. Yet, the impact of each immune cell population and viral protein expression in liver damage is still unknown. Our aim was to study the interplay between intrahepatic immune response and viral activity in relation to CHB liver damage. Immunostaining was performed in 29 liver biopsies from untreated CHB patients to characterize liver infiltrate [Th (CD4+), CTL (CD8+), Treg (FoxP3+), Th17 (IL-17A+) and Th1 (Tbet+)] and viral antigen expression (HBsAg and HBcAg)...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Donatella Palazzo, Elisa Biliotti, Rozenn Esvan, Lorenzo Volpicelli, Cristiana Franchi, Lucia Fontanelli Sulekova, Martina Spaziante, Marta Santori, Alban Rugova, Paola Rucci, Gloria Taliani
Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver disease, including chronic hepatitis C (CHC). However, the interplay between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D (25-OH-D) and health-related-quality-of-life (HRQoL) in CHC subjects has never been investigated. The study aimed to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and HRQoL in CHC patients. One-hundred-fifty-five consecutive CHC patients completed the Health-Survey-Short-Form-36 (SF-36) and their serum 25-OH-D levels were evaluated. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a 25-OH-D level lower than 20 ng/mL...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Eric Lawitz, Fred Poordad, Leah J Anderson, Michelle Vesay, Michelle M Kelly, Hong Liu, Wei Gao, Doreen Fernsler, Ernest Asante-Appiah, Michael N Robertson, George J Hanna, Eliav Barr, Joan Butterton, Kris V Kowdley, Tarek Hassanein, Amandeep Sahota, Stuart C Gordon, Wendy W Yeh
In clinical trials, the three-drug regimen of ruzasvir (RZR) 60 mg, uprifosbuvir (UPR) 450 mg, and grazoprevir 100 mg, with or without ribavirin has demonstrated promising efficacy and excellent tolerability across a wide range of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals. The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of the two-drug combination of RZR 60 mg plus UPR 450 mg administered for 12 weeks in participants with HCV genotype (GT) 1-6 infection. In this open-label clinical trial, treatment-naive or -experienced and cirrhotic or noncirrhotic participants with chronic HCV GT1-6 infection received RZR 60 mg plus UPR 450 mg orally once daily for 12 weeks (NCT02759315/protocol PN035)...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Vidya Arankalle, Divya Tiraki, Ruta Kulkarni, Sonali Palkar, Nandini Malshe, Sanjay Lalwani, Akhilesh Mishra
The degree of transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) is inversely proportional to the socioeconomic status of a community. Serosurveys conducted at Pune, India during 1982-98 documented significant reduction in HAV exposure of pediatric, higher socioeconomic status (HSS) population. Anti-HAV positivity (ELISA) in age-stratified Pune population representing HSS and lower middle socioeconomic status (LMSS) (n=1065) and infants till the age of 15months (n=690) was determined in 2017. Anti-HAV positivity in the LMSS population decreased significantly in 2017 while an increase was seen in the HSS category...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Yu-Chiau Shyu, Ting-Shuo Huang, Cheng-Hung Chien, Chau-Ting Yeh, Chih-Lang Lin, Rong-Nan Chien
Diabetes mellitus may be a risk factor of HCC development in chronic hepatitis B infected patients and affect the all-cause mortality. This study aimed to examine whether DM was associated with the development of HCC with CHB and affected the all-cause mortality. A total of 2,966 CHB patients newly diagnosed with DM in 2000 were retrieved from the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients database and used propensity scores matching based on age, sex-gender, alcohol-related liver disease, and baseline liver cirrhosis to compare with the non-DM patients from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Zameer Mohamed, Jin U Kim, Alex Magesa, Mabula Kasubi, Sarah F Feldman, Stephane Chevaliez, Promise Mwakale, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Mark R Thursz, Yusuke Shimakawa, John Rwegasha, Maud Lemoine
Blood transfusion is one of the most commonly relied upon therapies in sub-Saharan Africa. Existing safeguards recommended include systematic screening for transfusion-transmitted infections and restricted voluntary non-remunerated blood donor selection. We report the transfusion-transmitted infection screening and notification practice at a large urban blood transfusion center in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Between October 2016 and March 2017 anonymized records of all donors registered at the blood transfusion unit were accessed to retrospectively note demographic information, donor status, first-time status, transfusion-transmitted infection result and notification...
February 3, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Wei-Chun Chen, Chih-Ku Wei, Jin-Ching Lee
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that are central factors between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and host cellular factors for viral replication and liver disease progression, including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the present study, we found that overexpressing miR-let-7c markedly reduced HCV replication because it induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression by targeting HO-1 transcriptional repressor Bach1, ultimately leading to stimulating an antiviral interferon response and blockade of HCV viral protease activity...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Ping Feng Jiao, Congle Shen, Jing Ning, Ting Zhang, Xiangmei Chen, Fengmin Lu
It was repeatedly reported that the hepatitis B virus (HBV) T1719G mutation was very common and related to progression and malignancy of liver disease. However, its effect on viral replication efficiency remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the function and mechanisms of the T1719G mutation on viral replicative capacity. Wild type and T1719G mutation bearing HBV1.2× plasmids were transfected into Huh7 and HepG2 cells, respectively and HBV total RNA, 3.5kb RNA and supernatants HBV DNA were assessed using real-time PCR, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) levels were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Joanna Bladowska, Tomasz Pawłowski, Katarzyna Fleischer-Stępniewska, Brygida Knysz, Krzysztof Małyszczak, Agnieszka Żelwetro, Weronika Rymer, Małgorzata Inglot, Marta Waliszewska-Prosół, Maria Ejma, Przemysław Podgórski, Anna Zimny, Marek Sąsiadek
The purpose of this study was to assess cerebral microstructural and perfusion changes in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection before and after interferon-free therapy, using advanced magnetic resonance (MR) techniques. Eleven HCV-positive patients underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) using a 1.5T MR unit, before and 24 weeks after completion of interferon-free therapy. DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were obtained from 14 white matter tracts...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Hariklia Kranidioti, Spilios Manolakopoulos, George Kontos, Michael S Breen, Anastasia Kourikou, Melanie Deutsch, Maria Ester Quesada-Del-Bosque, Rocio T Martinez-Nunez, Mohammed M Naiyer, Christopher H Woelk, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner, Emilia Hadziyannis, George Papatheodoridis, Salim I Khakoo
The optimal duration of treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) for patients with HBeAg-negative Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify an immune signature associated with off-treatment remission to NA therapy. We performed microarray analysis of PBMCs from six patients with chronic hepatitis B who stopped NA therapy (3 with off-treatment remission, 3 with relapse) and 5 patients with chronic HBV infection (previously termed "inactive carriers") served as controls...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Kathryn Jack, Brian James Thomson, William Lucien Irving
Prisons are a key demographic in the drive to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a major public health threat. We have assessed the impact of the recently introduced national opt-out policy on the current status of HCV testing in 14 prisons in the East Midlands (UK). We analysed testing rates pre- and post-introduction of opt-out testing, together with face-to-face interviews with prison healthcare and management staff in each prison. In the year pre-opt-out, 1,972 people in prison (PIP) were tested, compared to 3440 in the year following opt-out...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Ross J Harris, Helen Harris, Sema Mandal, Mary Ramsay, Peter Vickerman, Matthew Hickman, Daniela De Angelis
In England, 160,000 individuals were estimated to be chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 2005 and the burden of severe HCV-related liver disease has increased steadily for the past 15 years. Direct-acting antiviral treatments can clear infection in most patients, motivating HCV elimination targets. However, the current burden of HCV is unknown and new methods are required to monitor progress. We employed a Bayesian back-calculation approach, combining data on severe HCV-related liver disease and disease progression, to reconstruct historical HCV incidence and estimate current prevalence in England...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Peter Ruane, Simone I Strasser, Edward J Gane, Robert H Hyland, Jiang Shao, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Tram Tran, Luisa M Stamm, Diana M Brainard, Lisa Nyberg, Stephen Shafran
This study evaluated 12-week retreatment with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who did not achieve sustained virologic response after previous treatment with a sofosbuvir and velpatasvir-containing regimen. All 31 patients maintained a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the last sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir dose. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 21, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Parag Mahale, Peter Aka, Xiaohua Chen, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Ping Liu, Sarah Groover, Maimuna Mendy, Ramou Njie, James J Goedert, Gregory D Kirk, Jeffrey S Glenn, Thomas R O'Brien
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence is high in The Gambia and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the main cause. People co-infected with HBV and hepatitis D virus (HDV) have an even greater risk of HCC and cirrhosis. Using a new HDV quantitative microarray antibody capture (Q-MAC) assay, we evaluated the association between HDV infection and HCC or cirrhosis among participants in The Gambia Liver Cancer Study. In this case-control study, cases had HCC (n=312) or cirrhosis (n=119). Controls (n=470) had no clinical evidence of liver disease and normal serum alfa-fetoprotein...
January 20, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Antonio Rivero-Juarez, María Jarilla-Fernandez, Mario Frias, Elena Madrigal-Sanchez, Pedro López-López, Giselle Andújar-Troncoso, Isabel Machuca, Angela Camacho, Pilar Muñoz-Valbuena, Antonio Rivero
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) represents a major health problem worldwide. As the course of HEV cases is often subclinical, asymptomatic infections could represent an important source of viral spread and infection via routes such as blood donations. Before universal screening for HEV in blood donations can be implemented, studies evaluating the incidence of infection are needed to establish the potential risk of viral transmission. This is a prospective longitudinal study that included blood donors recruited at the Hospital de Ciudad Real Transfusion Service between October 2017 and January 2018...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Nicolò Girometti, Emma Devitt, Joe Phillips, Mark Nelson, Gary Whitlock
The role of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) as a driver for the epidemic of hepatitis C in MSM is still debated. Timely access to direct-acting antivirals (DAA) could represent an essential strategy to tackle this. Case notes of MSM diagnosed with acute hepatitis C (AHC) between July 2016 and June 2017 in a sexual health clinic in London were included. Behavioral data on sexual practices and STI monitoring in the 6 months prior to AHC diagnosis were collected. DAA routes of access and timing from AHC diagnosis to start of treatment were analyzed...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Shivakumar Narayanan, Ameer Abutaleb, Kenneth E Sherman, Shyam Kottilil
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has traditionally been associated with an acute, self-limiting hepatitis and is not known to have any chronic sequelae. HEV genotype 1 and 2, which are human pathogens, have been associated with this self-limiting presentation, in both sporadic and epidemic settings. HEV genotype 3, which is zoonotically transmitted, is increasingly being reported as a cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised patients. These include patients with solid organ transplants, patients receiving chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies, and patients infected with HIV...
January 12, 2019: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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