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Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS

María M Demmel Ferreira, Claudia Patricia Tambussi, Federico Javier Degrange, Sofía Pestoni, Germán Alfredo Tirao
Here we address the morphology of the cranial musculoskeletal in the South American Band-winged nightjar (Systellura longirostris, Caprimulgiformes, Aves) with the focus upon in how the mouth closure and opening mechanism is. Bony characters such as the thinness of the interorbital septum and the reduction of the postorbital process co-assist the location of large eyes, although correlations between eye size brain mass and body mass revealed that the Band-winged nightjar's eye is bigger than expected. The reduction of the processus orbitalis of the os quadratum would allow the great mouth opening given by a large maxillary protraction...
February 2019: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Fábio José Souza Costa, Daniel Pires Coutinho, Wolmar Benjamin Wosiacki
The genus PlagioscionGill, 1861 (Sciaenidae; Eupercaria) is currently composed of five valid species (P. squamosissimus, P. auratus, P. magdalenae, P. ternetzi and P. montei) widely distributed in South America. This study seeks to test the monophyly of Plagioscion and develope an hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships among the species of the genus, based on the analysis of 28 characters of external and internal morphology and behavior. The ingroup consists of the five species of Plagioscion. The outgroup was composed of eight species of the genera Ctenosciaena, Cynoscion, Isopisthus, Larimus, Macrodon and Pachyurus...
February 2019: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
F Clarac, A Quilhac
The crocodylians are ectothermic semi-aquatic vertebrates which are assessed to have evolved from endothermic terrestrial forms during the Mesozoic. Such a physiological transition should have involved modifications in their cardio-vascular system allowing to increase the heat transfers with the surrounding environment by growing a peripheral vascularization which would be mainly located in the dermal skeleton: the dermatocranium and the osteoderms. In order to assess the implication of these anatomical regions in thermal exchanges, we have recorded the temperature above a set of representative skin areas in order to draw comparisons between the skull, the osteoderms, and the rest of the body parts which present either none or residual dermal ossification...
February 2019: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Maria Alice Garcia Bento, Laura S López Greco, Fernando José Zara
Reproductive anatomy, including sperm storage structures and sperm transfer, is an important feature used to analyze phylogenetic relationships among taxa. We describe the male reproductive anatomy, seminal fluid production and packaging of spermatozoa in the vas deferens of primitive crabs. In all species of Dromiidae, the testes were tubular type and the vas deferens is a tube with a simple epithelium. The spermatozoa are in a central mass immersed in type I secretion, forming a large spermatic cord. In Moreiradromia antillensis and Dromia erythropus the spermatic cord is surrounded by a more complex secretion layer composed by protein granules and polysaccharides that seem to be responsible to form the sperm plaque which was absent in Hypoconcha...
February 2019: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Markus Krings, Elena Müller-Limberger, Hermann Wagner
Owls are well adapted to nocturnal hunting. This includes vision tuned to low level light conditions, silent flight, and asymmetrical ears. Asymmetrical ears facilitate sound localization and evolved up to seven times independently in the evolutionary history of owls. However, there are also owl species with a crepuscular or diurnal lifestyle, like the little owl (Athene noctua), that have symmetrical ears as adults. Here we show that a small, but significant ear asymmetry occurs in the embryonic development of little owls, despite the presence of symmetrical ears in adults...
February 2019: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Noah R Bressman, Alice C Gibb, Stacy C Farina
Tidepool sculpins (Oligocottus maculosus) have been observed moving overland in the rocky intertidal, and we documented the terrestrial walking behavior that they use to accomplish this. We quantified the terrestrial movements of O. maculosus and compared them to (1) their aquatic locomotion, (2) terrestrial locomotion of closely-related subtidal species (Leptocottus armatus and Icelinus borealis), and (3) terrestrial movements of walking catfishes (Clarias spp.). We recorded sculpin movements (210 fps) on a terrestrial platform and in a water tank and tracked body landmarks for kinematic analysis...
December 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Arup Mistri, Usha Kumari, Swati Mittal, Ajay Kumar Mittal
The present study describes keratinization and mucogenesis in the epidermis of an angler catfish Chaca chaca, using a series of immunochemical, fluorescence and histochemical methods. The epidermis is primarily mucogenic and shows characteristic specialised structures at irregular intervals. These structures are identified keratinized in nature. The superficial layer epithelial cells in the keratinized structures often detach from the underlying epithelial cells and exfoliate either singly or in the form of sheet...
December 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Lorenzo Alibardi
Tail regeneration in lizard is stimulated from the apical epidermis and spinal cord, the principal sources of growth factors and signaling proteins that sustain regeneration. Immunolabeling shows that serpins (serine protease inhibitors), which genes are among those most up-regulated during tail regeneration, are prevalently immunolocalized in the regenerating epidermis and ependyma. Western blot detects main protein bands extracted from regenerating tail at 25-27 and 48-52 kDa. The former band may correspond to p27 serpin, a degraded immunogenic fragment of serpin detected in psoriasis and cancer...
December 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Chunmian Zhang, Tinglei Jiang, Guanjun Lu, Aiqing Lin, Keping Sun, Sen Liu, Jiang Feng
Evolutionary biologists had a long-standing interest in the evolutionary forces underlying geographical variation in the acoustic signals of animals. However, the evolutionary forces driving acoustic variation are still unclear. In this study, we quantified the geographical variation in the peak frequencies of echolocation calls in eight Miniopterus fuliginosus bat colonies, and assessed the forces that drive acoustic divergence. Our results demonstrated that seven of the colonies had very similar peak frequencies, while only one colony was significantly higher than the others...
December 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Jan Michels, Mario Vargas-Ramírez
Podocnemis erythrocephala, the Red-headed Amazon River Turtle, is distributed in the Amazon and Orinoco basins where it predominantly inhabits blackwater and has never been found in whitewater. The only permanent river connection between the habitats in the different river basins features considerable whitewater proportions and, therefore, is hypothesised to be a dispersal barrier for this turtle species. By using variable neutral nuclear and mitochondrial markers (microsatellite loci and control region sequences), the present study assessed the genetic structure, genetic diversity, gene flow and historical biogeography of P...
October 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Blandine Mbanga, Cobus van Dyk, John N Maina
The respiratory organs of the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were studied to broaden existing understanding of the adaptive stratagems that have evolved for air-breathing in fish. The gills were well-developed and the air-breathing organs (ABOs) comprised labyrinthine organs (LOs), suprabranchial chamber membranes (SBCMs) and gill fans (GFns). Respectively, the gills and the LOs had the highest mass-specific respiratory surface areas of 133.7 and 141.9 mm2 per gram and among the ABOs, with a harmonic mean thickness of the blood-barrier (BGB) of 0...
October 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Carolina Tropea, Sabrina María Luisa Lavarías, Laura Susana López Greco
The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of male presence on ovarian maturation in juvenile females and the role of potential chemical, visual and tactile cues emitted by males in that physiological process. A highly gregarious caridean shrimp with sexual dimorphism, Neocaridina davidi, was used as experimental model. We tested the hypothesis that male presence accelerates ovarian maturation, mainly through chemical cues. Two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, juvenile females were reared with adult males, adult females or alone, allowing full contact among shrimps...
October 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Luiza O Saad, Thomas Schwaha, Stephan Handschuh, Andreas Wanninger, José E A R Marian
Males from numerous animal taxa have evolved strategies for obstructing the female genitalia with copulatory plugs, reducing the risk of sperm competition and thus resulting in an advantage in sexual selection. Several lines of evidence suggest that sperm competition is a common feature in the complex squid mating systems, which include the evolution of alternative mating tactics (consort vs. sneaker). However, mating plugs have hitherto not been reported for the group. Investigating the female sperm-storage organ (i...
October 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Michael A Bar-Ziv, Aziz Subach, Armin Hirsch-Ionescu, Jonathan Belmaker, Adi Zweifler, Inon Scharf
Wormlions are fly larvae that construct pit-traps in loose soil and ambush prey that fall into their pits. They occur in high numbers in cities, below any man-made shelter providing protection from direct sunlight, such as a concrete roof with a thin layer of sand at the ground. Their natural habitat is either caves or any natural structure that provides full shade. We characterized a large urban habitat and compared it to two natural habitats, where wormlions occur in caves. Wormlions were abundant in all studied habitats...
October 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Marko D Prokić, Tamara G Petrović, Jelena P Gavrić, Svetlana G Despotović, Branka R Gavrilović, Tijana B Radovanović, Caterina Faggio, Zorica S Saičić
During their complex life cycle, anurans are faced with various physiological and biochemical demands that can result in increased free radical production. The antioxidative system (AOS), assumes a central role in protection from oxidative stress, and increased knowledge of its response would allow us to identify and quantify underlying costs of free radical production. In this study, we compared the patterns and levels of integration of the AOS during two life stages of Bufotes viridis toads from natural populations: young, fully developed, reproductively inactive subadults and reproductively active adults...
October 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
C H Fox, A C Gibb, A P Summers, W E Bemis
Video-based observations of voluntary movements reveal that six species of pleuronectid flatfishes use sequential portions of long-based dorsal and anal fins as "feet" (hereafter, fin-feet) to move on the substrate. All six species used a gait that we term "walking," which produced constant forward movement, and several of these species also used a second gait that we call "bounding" for intermittent movements over the substrate. We selected Pacific Sand Sole, Psettichthys melanostictus, and English Sole, Parophrys vetulus, for kinematic analyses of these two gaits...
October 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Taketeru Tomita, Minoru Toda, Kiyomi Murakumo
For benthic fishes, breathing motion (e.g., oral, pharyngeal, and branchial movements) can result in detection by both prey and predators. Here we investigate the respiratory behavior of the angelshark Squatina japonica (Pisces: Squatiniformes: Squatinidae) to reveal how benthic elasmobranchs minimize this risk of detection. Sonographic analyses showed that the angelshark does not utilize water-pumping in the oropharyngeal cavity during respiration. This behavior is in contrast with most benthic fishes, which use the rhythmical expansion/contraction of the oropharyngeal cavity as the main pump to generate the respiratory water current...
October 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Luiz Silva, Paulo Lana
In this paper, we have experimentally assessed tube-building strategies of Owenia caissaraSilva & Lana, 2017, including the particle size preferences. After acclimation, individual tubes were broken by their mid-region, and placed in experimental aquaria with four types of homogeneous substrates (from silt-clay to coarse sand) and four types of mixed substrates. Animals completely removed from their tubes were unable to build new tubes. Adults in broken tubes were able to use a wide range of particles, from fine to coarse sand, but not silt-clay...
August 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
María V Fernandez Blanco, Guillermo H Cassini, Paula Bona
Ontogenetic variation of cranial characters used in crocodylian phylogenetic systematics has never been studied. Furthermore, the relationship between diet and skull morphological transformation during ontogeny has not been properly explored yet. We quantify the inter- and intraspecific skull morphological variation in extant caiman species focusing on those areas relevant to systematics and, also investigate the relation between diet and morphological changes during ontogeny. We applied a three-dimensional approach of geometric morphometrics on post-hatching ontogenetic cranial series of Caiman latirostris and C...
August 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Stephen D Atkinson, Jerri L Bartholomew, Tamar Lotan
Myxozoans are endoparasites with complex life cycles that alternate between invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Though considered protozoans for over 150 years, they are now recognized as metazoans, given their multicellularity and ultrastructural features. In recognition of synapomorphies and cnidarian-specific genes, myxozoans were placed recently within the phylum Cnidaria. Although they have lost genetic and structural complexity on the path to parasitism, myxozoans have retained characteristic cnidarian cnidocysts, but use them for initiating host infection...
August 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
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