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Medical Oncology

S V Saju, Venkatraman Radhakrishnan, Trivadi S Ganesan, Manikandan Dhanushkodi, Anand Raja, Ganesarajah Selvaluxmy, Tenali Gnana Sagar
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are one of the most common tumors in adolescents and young adults. There is paucity of data on GCT from low-middle-income countries (LMIC). The present study was conducted to assess the demographic features, clinical manifestations, pathology, and outcomes of GCT patients treated at our center. Patients with testicular GCT above the age of 18 years, treated at our center from 2001 to 2015 were included in the study. Data were extracted retrospectively from the case records. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the variables were compared using the log-rank test...
February 6, 2019: Medical Oncology
Steven C Weindorf, Alexander S Taylor, Chandan Kumar-Sinha, Dan Robinson, Yi-Mi Wu, Xuhong Cao, Daniel E Spratt, Michelle M Kim, Amir Lagstein, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Rohit Mehra
Histologic variants are uncommon but well reported amongst cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma, including those in the setting of hormonal and/or chemoradiation therapy and castration resistance. However, the spectrum of morphologic phenotypes and molecular alterations present in such histologic variants are still incompletely understood. Herein, we describe a case of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma with hormonal and chemoradiation therapy-associated differentiation, displaying a combination of squamous cell, small cell, and sarcomatoid elements...
February 2, 2019: Medical Oncology
Omar Abdel-Rahman, Winson Y Cheung
This analysis aims to evaluate the performance characteristics of alternative baseline imaging thresholds in a cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. HCC patients within the SEER database (2010-2015) who had complete information on clinical T and N stages as well as complete information on metastatic sites were eligible for the current study. Various performance characteristics associated with baseline imaging were investigated, including specificity, sensitivity, positive likelihood ratio (LR), negative LR, number needed to investigate (NNI), negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), and accuracy...
February 1, 2019: Medical Oncology
Takahiro Kamiya, Tomonori Nakazato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2019: Medical Oncology
Kellie J Ryan, Karen E Skinner, Ancilla W Fernandes, Rajeshwari S Punekar, Melissa Pavilack, Mark S Walker, Noam A VanderWalde
This study examined real-world clinical outcomes such as progression-free survival (PFS), time to metastasis (TTM), overall survival (OS), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with unresected stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated in the community setting. A retrospective review of medical records extracted from 10 US community oncology practices was conducted. Eligible patients were adults diagnosed with stage III NSCLC from 1/1/2011 to 3/1/2016 without evidence of surgical resection within 6 months after stage III NSCLC diagnosis (index date)...
January 31, 2019: Medical Oncology
Yosuke Hirotsu, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Kenji Amemiya, Hiroshi Ohyama, Dai Yoshimura, Hiroyuki Amano, Yuko Miura, Hiroshi Ashizawa, Keiko Nakagomi, Shinya Takaoka, Kenji Hosoda, Yoji Suzuki, Toshio Oyama, Masao Hada, Yuichiro Kojima, Masao Omata
Signet ring cell (SRC) gastric cancer at advanced stage has poor prognosis. While a recent study reported nearly one-third of SRC cases contain tumors with deficient mismatch repair (MMR) genes, other studies in SRC have been inconclusive. To re-analyze the results, we performed immunohistochemical staining of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 proteins in 38 SRC gastric tumors compared with 109 non-SRC (NSRC) tumors from 94 patients. In contrast to the previous study, all SRC gastric tumors normally expressed MMR proteins, whereas 22 of 109 of NSRC (20%) showed deficient MMR proteins...
January 29, 2019: Medical Oncology
Alicia A Manning, Lei Zhao, Ziwen Zhu, Huaping Xiao, Chase G Redington, Vivi A Ding, Theodore Stewart-Hester, Qian Bai, Jacob Dunlap, Mark R Wakefield, Yujiang Fang
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the text of the entire article. The word "IL-39" should read as "meteorin-like protein". This has been corrected with this correction.
January 22, 2019: Medical Oncology
Cheemala Ashok, Sheikh Owais, Loudu Srijyothi, Murugan Selvam, Saravanaraman Ponne, Sudhakar Baluchamy
CUL4A; an E3 ubiquitin ligase is involved in the degradation of negative regulators of cell cycle such as p21, p27, p53, etc., through polyubiquitination-mediated protein degradation. The functional role(s) of CUL4A proteins on their targets are well characterized; however, the transcriptional regulation of CUL4A, particularly at its promoter level is not yet studied. Therefore, in this study, using computational tools, we found cAMP responsive elements (CRE) at the locations of - 926 and - 764 with respect to transcription state site + 1 of CUL4A promoter...
January 21, 2019: Medical Oncology
Jakub Kucharz, Paulina Dumnicka, Beata Kusnierz-Cabala, Tomasz Demkow, Pawel Wiechno
Clinical practice shows significant differences in treatment outcomes across patients treated with cabozantinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). It is not known whether cabozantinib-induced adverse events are predictive factors of survival as in case of drugs such as sunitinib or axitinib. The study participants were 30 adult patients with mRCC treated with cabozantinib as a second- or further line setting. All adverse events were evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4...
January 21, 2019: Medical Oncology
Glenda M Delgado-Ramos, Fridtjof Thomas, Ari VanderWalde, Benjamin King, Matthew Wilson, Arnel M Pallera
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. We describe the characteristics of UM patients at a tertiary referral center in the Mid-Southern United States, and explore associations and predictors of outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with UM seen at West Cancer Center, from 07/2006 to 08/2017. Clinical characteristics and their relationship to outcomes (time-to-death and metastasis) were explored using Cox regression analysis. We identified 208 patients, 51% males, 97% Caucasians, 80% were symptomatic, with a median follow-up of 2...
January 21, 2019: Medical Oncology
Igal Kushnir, Kim Koczka, Michael Ong, Christina Canil, Dominick Bossé, Elham Sabri, M Neil Reaume
Docetaxel pharmacokinetics are affected by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which is attributed to changes in liver metabolism induced by castration. In this retrospective analysis, we assessed whether initiating docetaxel treatment in close proximity to the start of ADT therapy for metastatic castrate-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) is associated with more treatment-related toxicity. We identified all patients with mCSPC treated at The Ottawa Hospital that received docetaxel chemotherapy between June 2014 and September 2017...
January 21, 2019: Medical Oncology
Nuttapong Ngamphaiboon, Teeranuch Chureemas, Teerada Siripoon, Lalida Arsa, Narumol Trachu, Chuleeporn Jiarpinitnun, Poompis Pattaranutaporn, Ekaphop Sirachainan, Noppadol Larbcharoensub
BACKGROUND: No predictive biomarker of immune checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been well established. The impact of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and p16 status in HNSCC is unclear and may vary according to ethnicity. METHODS: HNSCC patients treated between 2007 and 2013 were reviewed. Archival tissues were retrieved for PD-L1, CD8+ TILs, and p16 analyses. PD-L1 expression was evaluated by using the validated SP142 assay on the VENTANA platform...
January 21, 2019: Medical Oncology
Grzegorz Helbig, Agata Wieczorkiewicz-Kabut, Mirosław Markiewicz, Helena Krzemień, Michał Wójciak, Krzysztof Białas, Małgorzata Kopera, Ewa Rzenno, Krzysztof Woźniczka, Anna Kopińska, Iwona Grygoruk-Wiśniowska, Anna Koclęga
Splenectomy before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for patients with myelofibrosis (MF) remains a matter of debate, and conflicting results have been reported to date. The procedure seems to fasten post-transplant hematological recovery, but it does not have an impact on survival. The role of pre-transplant splenic irradiation (SI) is much more difficult to evaluate. Forty-four patients (25 males and 19 females) with MF at median age of 49 years at diagnosis (range 14-67) underwent ASCT. The post-transplant outcome was compared between irradiated and non-irradiated patients...
January 8, 2019: Medical Oncology
Takayuki Ota, Takeshi Ishikawa, Yuki Endo, Shinya Matsumura, Juichirou Yoshida, Tomoyo Yasuda, Tetsuya Okayama, Ken Inoue, Osamu Dohi, Naohisa Yoshida, Naoyuki Sakamoto, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Tomohisa Takagi, Hideyuki Konishi, Hirotaka Konishi, Atsushi Shiozaki, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Mitsuo Kishimoto, Yuji Naito, Yoshito Itoh
Undernutrition and sarcopenia are associated with a higher incidence of chemotherapy-related toxicity and a poor prognosis in several kinds of cancer, but the impact of sarcopenia on the outcomes of chemotherapy for esophageal cancer remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate whether sarcopenia affects the efficacy and toxicities of chemotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer patients. Data were collected from 31 esophageal cancer patients who underwent neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery...
January 2, 2019: Medical Oncology
Igor Piotrowski, Katarzyna Kulcenty, Dawid Murawa, Wiktoria Suchorska
Breast cancer is the most common cancer occurring in women. The standard of breast cancer treatment is based on breast-conserving surgery with administration of adjuvant whole breast radiotherapy. Research shows that in-breast relapse is most likely to occur in the tumour bed, i.e. around the scar. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), in which radiation is delivered to the tumour bed, reduces the risk of local recurrence not only through direct cell killing, but also through modification of local microenvironment...
December 31, 2018: Medical Oncology
Aurelien Gobert, Jean-Philippe Spano, Jacques Cadranel
Since 1996, the life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) has improved, while their risk of cancer is 2-3 times higher than in the general population. HIV-associated cancers remain a critical issue in this population and represent a particular care challenge due to the high risk of drug interactions and additive toxicity. The new standards of care with immunotherapy will also become a major issue for PLWHIV because of the potential impact on immunology and virology. Thus, the National Cancer Institute created the CANCERVIH national network in 2014 in France, enabling the establishment of a multidisciplinary national board of experts...
December 5, 2018: Medical Oncology
Alicia A Manning, Lei Zhao, Ziwen Zhu, Huaping Xiao, Chase G Redington, Vivi A Ding, Theodore Stewart-Hester, Qian Bai, Jacob Dunlap, Mark R Wakefield, Yujiang Fang
Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal digestive cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US. IL-39, a heterodimer of p19 and EBI3, is a newly found cytokine and its role in the pathogenesis of neoplasia has not been studied yet. This study was designed to investigate the direct role of IL-39 in the growth of pancreatic cancer. Clonogenic survival assay, cell proliferation, and caspase-3 activity kits were used to evaluate the direct effects of IL-39 on cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis of the widely studied pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2...
December 1, 2018: Medical Oncology
Keisuke Miyake, Yoshifumi Baba, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Yukiharu Hiyoshi, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yuji Miyamoto, Naoya Yoshida, Masayuki Watanabe, Yoko Ogata, Megumi Nagayama, Atit Silsirivanit, Daiki Kobayashi, Norie Araki, Hideo Baba
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) are key metabolic enzymes that convert isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. Somatic point mutations in IDH1/2 confer a gain-of-function in cancer cells, resulting in overproduction of an oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). 2HG interferes with cellular metabolism and epigenetic regulation, contributing to oncogenesis. Given that IDH1 and IDH2 are attracting attention as promising therapeutic targets, better evaluation of the incidence of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations and 2HG level in human cancers is clinically important...
November 30, 2018: Medical Oncology
J E Freund, E I M L Liem, C D Savci-Heijink, T M de Reijke
Kidney-sparing surgery of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) requires a stringent follow-up with frequent ureteroscopies. Triage testing could reduce the number of follow-up ureteroscopies and hence minimize the invasiveness of follow-up. The use of urine-based markers for triage seems appealing but should be feasible with selective urine from outpatient cystoscopy to maximize the reduction of invasiveness. In this study, the feasibility of UroVysion® fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the detection of UTUC in 1 mL of selective urine is investigated...
November 29, 2018: Medical Oncology
B A Jereczek-Fossa, A Maucieri, G Marvaso, S Gandini, C Fodor, D Zerini, G Riva, O Alessandro, A Surgo, S Volpe, G Fanetti, S Arculeo, M A Zerella, S Parisi, P Maisonneuve, A Vavassori, F Cattani, R Cambria, C Garibaldi, A Starzyńska, G Musi, O De Cobelli, M Ferro, F Nolè, D Ciardo, R Orecchia
To report toxicity and efficacy outcome of moderately hypofractionated image-guided external-beam radiotherapy in a large series of patients treated for prostate cancer (PCa). Between 10/2006 and 12/2015, 572 T1-T3N0M0 PCa patients received 70.2 Gy in 26 fractions at 2.7 Gy/fraction: 344 patients (60%) with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and 228 (40%) with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria and Houston definition (nadir + 2) were used for toxicity and biochemical failure evaluation, respectively...
November 27, 2018: Medical Oncology
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