Sameer Ullah Khan, Kaneez Fatima, Umed Singh, Parvinder Paul Singh, Fayaz Malik
Metastasis is the leading cause of death in cancer patients and a major challenging aspect of cancer biology. Various adaptive molecular signaling pathways play a crucial role in cancer metastasis and later in the formation of secondary tumors. Aggressive cancer cells like triple negative breast cancer (TNBCs) are more inclined to undergo metastasis hence having a high recurrence rate and potential of micro-metastasis. Tumor cells in circulation known as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) offer an attractive drug target to treat metastatic disease...
March 20, 2023: Medical Oncology
Ponmathi Panneerpandian, Kumaresan Ganesan
Targeting the extracellular matrix (ECM) is considered as a promising strategy in cancer therapeutics. This study was designed to identify the potential ECM modulators for gastric cancer therapeutics. Exploration of the expression profiles of gastric tumors revealed the elevated expression of ECM genes in gastric tumor tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues with increased expression in diffuse subtype gastric tumors and specifically in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) molecular subtype tumors...
March 19, 2023: Medical Oncology
Ginia Ghosh, Sandip Misra, Rachayeeta Ray, Sougata Ghosh Chowdhury, Parimal Karmakar
PTEN, dual phosphatase tumor suppressor protein, is found to be frequently mutated in various cancers. Post-translational modification of PTEN is important for its sub-cellular localization and catalytic functions. But how these modifications affect cytological damage and aneuploidy is not studied in detail. We focus on the role of phosphatase activity along with C-terminal phosphorylation of PTEN in perspective of cytological damage like micronucleus, nuclear bud, and nuclear bridge formation. Our data suggest that wild-type PTEN, but not phospho-mutant PTEN significantly reduces cytological damage in PTEN null PC3 cells...
March 17, 2023: Medical Oncology
Li Li, Ling-Ling Wang, Tao-Li Wang, Fei-Meng Zheng
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death. Cancer immune evasion is a key barrier in the treatment of lung cancer and the development of effective anticancer therapeutics. Long-chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADL), a key enzyme that regulates β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs, has been found to act as a tumor suppressor in cancers. However, the role of ACADL in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) has not been explored. In the current study, we find that ACADL functions as a tumor suppressor in LUAD to inhibit proliferation and enhanced chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis...
March 17, 2023: Medical Oncology
Zohreh Sadat Miripour, Alireza Ghahremani, Koosha Karimi, Fahimeh Jahanbakhsh, Fereshteh Abbasvandi, Parisa Hoseinpour, Mohammad Parniani, Mohammad Abdolahad
There is a critical need for re-evaluation of electrochemical therapy (EChT) approaches of solid tumors to address the challenges of the currently used method: incomplete pathological response. The coexistence of anode and cathode in the tumor region resulted in acid-alkaline mixation (buffered pH) when the electrodes are so near each other (d < 1 cm), and in the non-affected lesions when the electrodes are far from each other (d > 1 cm), both have resulted in intact tumoral lesions in EChT field...
March 16, 2023: Medical Oncology
Sadra Samavarchi Tehrani, Fataneh Esmaeili, Moein Shirzad, Golnaz Goodarzi, Tooba Yousefi, Mahmood Maniati, Mortaza Taheri-Anganeh, Amir Anushiravani
Nowadays, drug resistance (DR) in gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, as the main reason for cancer-related mortality worldwide, has become a serious problem in the management of patients. Several mechanisms have been proposed for resistance to anticancer drugs, including altered transport and metabolism of drugs, mutation of drug targets, altered DNA repair system, inhibited apoptosis and autophagy, cancer stem cells, tumor heterogeneity, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
March 14, 2023: Medical Oncology
Beihui Huang, Huixin Liu, Szehoi Chan, Junru Liu, Jingli Gu, Meilan Chen, Lifen Kuang, Xiaozhe Li, Xingding Zhang, Juan Li
RUNX2 is a transcription factor that participates in osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte maturation and plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of cancers. With the deepening of research, evidence has indicated the correlation between RUNX2 and bone destruction in cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in multiple myeloma remain unclear. By observing the induction effects of conditioned medium from myeloma cells on preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and preosteoclasts (RAW264.7) and constructing myeloma-bearing mice, we found that RUNX2 promotes bone destruction in multiple myeloma...
March 10, 2023: Medical Oncology
Vladimir Florin Niculescu
The present paper compares the statements of the evolutionary cancer gene-network theory (cancer genome theory) with the statements of embryogenic hypotheses like the embryonic rest hypothesis, the very small embryonic-like stem cells hypothesis, (VSEL), the para-embryonic p-ESC hypothesis, and the PGCC-life cycle hypothesis, including the life code theory. In my opinion, the evolutionary gene network theory is the only theory that can satisfactorily explain the homologies between carcinogenesis, tumorigenesis, metastasis, gametogenesis, and early embryogenesis...
March 9, 2023: Medical Oncology
Di Jin, Lei Qian, Jun Xia, Ruiyun Zhang, Guoliang Yang, Lianhua Zhang, Wei Xue, Ming Cao, Liang Dong, Haige Chen
Previous studies have suggested the potential diagnostic value of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). This study aims to validate the efficacy of in vivo detection of CTCs in bladder cancer (BC) patients. A total of 216 BC patients were enrolled in this study. All patients had one in vivo detection of CTCs before initial treatment as a baseline parameter. The results of CTCs were associated with different clinicopathological features including molecular subtypes. PD-L1 expression on CTCs was also assessed and compared with its expression on tumors...
March 8, 2023: Medical Oncology
Nicole Erickson, Erin Stella Sullivan, Marianna Kalliostra, Alessandro Laviano, Joost Wesseling
While healthcare is becoming more patient-centred, evidence-based nutrition interventions are still not accessible to all patients with cancer. As nutrition interventions directly improve clinical and socioeconomic outcomes, patient-centred care is not complete without nutrition care. While awareness of the negative impact of malnutrition on clinical outcomes, quality of life, and functional and emotional wellbeing in cancer is growing, there is relatively poor awareness amongst patients, clinicians, policymakers, and payers that nutrition interventions -particularly those begun in the early stages of the disease course- are an effective method for improving such outcomes...
March 7, 2023: Medical Oncology
Navneet Singh, Anupam Kumar
Ovarian cancer has been one of the serious concerns for female health and medicinal practitioner all over the world. The wellness of over cancer patient is associated with survival responses which depends on many factors including chemotherapeutic diversity; treatment protocol; dose-dependent toxicity such as hematological toxicity and non-hematological toxicity. We found that the studied treatment regimens (TRs) (1-9) showed varying degree of hematological toxicities like moderate neutropenia (< 20%) critical neutropenia (> 20%), negligible leucopenia, critical leucopenia (> 20%), moderate thrombocytopenia (< 20%), critical thrombocytopenia (> 20%), moderate anemia (< 20%) and critical anemia (> 20%)...
March 4, 2023: Medical Oncology
Geng Li, Shahryar Khoshtinat Nikkhoi, Arash Hatefi
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are believed to be responsible for cancer recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, a therapeutic approach is needed to eliminate both rapidly proliferating differentiated cancer cells and slow-growing drug-resistant CSCs. Using established ovarian cancer cells lines as well as ovarian cancer cells isolated from a patient with high-grade drug-resistant ovarian carcinoma, we demonstrate that ovarian CSCs consistently express lower levels of NKG2D ligands (MICA/B and ULBPs) on their surfaces, a mechanism by which they evade natural killer (NK) cells' surveillance...
March 2, 2023: Medical Oncology
Anuraag Bukkuri, Kenneth J Pienta, Ian Hockett, Robert H Austin, Emma U Hammarlund, Sarah R Amend, Joel S Brown
In this didactic paper, we present a theoretical modeling framework, called the G-function, that integrates both the ecology and evolution of cancer to understand oncogenesis. The G-function has been used in evolutionary ecology, but has not been widely applied to problems in cancer. Here, we build the G-function framework from fundamental Darwinian principles and discuss how cancer can be seen through the lens of ecology, evolution, and game theory. We begin with a simple model of cancer growth and add on components of cancer cell competition and drug resistance...
February 28, 2023: Medical Oncology
Gisha Rose Antony, Ajeesh Babu Littleflower, Sulfath Thottungal Parambil, Lakshmi Subhadradevi
Therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have recently been implemented for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) management with limited efficacy, indicating that this axis may promote tumor growth by means other than immune suppression. Because PD-L1 overexpression causes resistance to the chemotherapeutic response in many cancers, here we explored the tumor promoting role of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in breast cancer. We observed that the downregulation of PD-L1 by specific siRNA and pharmacological inhibitor significantly suppressed tumor cell proliferation, invasion and migration thereby enhancing T cell-mediated cell killing in vitro...
February 26, 2023: Medical Oncology
Emma L Herbach, Bradley D McDowell, Mary Charlton, Benjamin J Miller
Patients with metastatic disease of the bone (MDB) often require surgical stabilization; however, there is not widespread consensus on subsequent adjuvant management. This study aimed to characterize utilization of perioperative adjuvant treatment among MDB patients. We identified 9413 surgically treated MDB patients with primary (breast, kidney, lung, prostate, or multiple myeloma) cancer from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for receipt of chemotherapy, radiation, and bisphosphonates, respectively, in the adjuvant setting (90 days before or after surgery) by hospital characteristics-medical school affiliation, surgery volume, and Commission on Cancer (CoC) accreditation...
February 24, 2023: Medical Oncology
Priyanga Paranthaman, Shanthi Veerappapillai
Immunotherapy is revamping the therapeutic strategies for TNBC owing to its higher mutational burden and tumour-associated antigens. One of the most intriguing developments in cancer immunotherapy is the focus on peptide-based cancer vaccines. Thus, the current work aims to develop an efficient peptide-based vaccine against TNBC that targets Sema4A, which has recently been identified as a major regulator of TNBC progression. Initially, the antigenic peptides derived from Sema4A were determined and evaluated based on their capability to provoke immunological responses...
February 23, 2023: Medical Oncology
Semra Paydas
Gestational trophoblastic neoplasias (GTNs) are chemosensitive disorders with very high cure rates. However, individuals with chemoresistant diseases pass away as a result of their illness, necessitating the use of innovative medications. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a critical component of the strategy for the management of drug-resistant GTD due to the high rate of PD-1 expression and the paternal genetic inheritance in GTNs. Immunotherapy is mentioned as a potential therapeutic approach for chemotherapy-resistant GTD in the most recent worldwide recommendations...
February 23, 2023: Medical Oncology
Juan Carlos Gallardo-Pérez, María Cristina Trejo-Solís, Diana Xochiquetzal Robledo-Cadena, Rebeca López-Marure, Lourdes Teresa Agredano-Moreno, Luis Felipe Jimenez-García, Laura Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent brain cancer and more lethal than other cancers. Characteristics of this cancer are its high drug resistance, high recurrence rate and invasiveness. Invasiveness in GBM is related to overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are mediated by wnt/β-catenin and induced by the activation of signaling pathways extracellularly activated by the cytokine neuroleukin (NLK) in cancer stem cells (CSC). Therefore, in this work we evaluated the effect of the tetrose saccharide, erythrose (Ery), a NLK inhibitor of invasiveness and drug sensitization in glioblastoma stem cells (GSC)...
February 23, 2023: Medical Oncology
Figen Abatay-Sel, Ayse Erol, Mediha Suleymanoglu, Gokhan Demirayak, Cigdem Kekik-Cinar, Durdane Serap Kuruca, Fatma Savran-Oguz
Colorectal cancer is the most common tumor of the gastrointestinal system. The conventional treatment options for colorectal cancer are troublesome for both patients and clinicians. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been the novel focus for cell therapy due to their migration to tumor sites. In this study, the apoptotic effect of MSCs on colorectal cancer cell lines has been aimed. HCT-116 and HT-29 were selected as the colorectal cancer cell lines. Human umbilical cord blood and Wharton's jelly were used as mesenchymal stem cell sources...
February 22, 2023: Medical Oncology
Maoshu Bai, Xin Liu, Lingling Wang
In lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), tumor antigens and immune phenotypes are important for cancer immunotherapy. This study aims to identify potential tumor antigens and immune subtypes for LUAD. In this study, the gene expression profiles and related clinical data of LUAD patients were collected from the TCGA and the GEO database. Then, we first identified four genes with copy number variation and mutation related to the survival of LUAD patients, in which FAM117A, INPP5J, and SLC25A42 were screened as potential tumor antigens...
February 21, 2023: Medical Oncology
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