Nathan VanderVeer-Harris, Zachary D Zippi, Dev P Patel, Murugesan Manoharan, Jorge R Caso, Georgeta D Vaidean
OBJECTIVE: In 2018, the United States Preventive Services Task Force promoted shared decision making between healthcare provider and patient for men aged 55 to 69. This study aimed to analyze rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing across racial and ethnic groups following this new recommendation. METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted of the 2020-2021 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System database to assess men aged 55 or older without a history of prostate cancer...
April 22, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
Chisato Hamashima, Hirokazu Takahashi
National screening programs for gastric, colorectal, lung, breast, and cervical cancers are offered in Japan. The initial introduction of cancer screening programs was decided based on experts' opinions. Since 2003, the research groups funded by the National Cancer Center have published screening guidelines for gastric, colorectal, lung, prostate, cervical, and breast cancers. Although such guidelines have increasingly contributed to promoting evidence-based screening, it is still insufficient. Cancer screenings have mainly been provided in communities and workplaces...
March 28, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
Jessica O'Driscoll, Therese Mooney, Paul Kearney, Yvonne Williams, Suzanne Lynch, Alissa Connors, Aideen Larke, Sorcha McNally, Ann O'Doherty, Laura Murphy, Kathleen E Bennett, Patricia Fitzpatrick, Maeve Mullooly, Fidelma Flanagan
OBJECTIVE: Many population-based breast screening programmes temporarily suspended routine screening following the COVID-19 pandemic onset. This study aimed to describe screening mammography utilisation and the pattern of screen-detected breast cancer diagnoses following COVID-19-related screening disruptions in Ireland. METHODS: Using anonymous aggregate data from women invited for routine screening, three time periods were examined: (1) January-December 2019, (2) January-December 2020, and (3) January-December 2021...
March 21, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
Sophia Salingaros, Yiwey Shieh, Madelon L Finkel, Margaret Polaneczky, Deborah Korenstein, Jennifer L Marti
Though widespread adoption of cervical cancer screening (CCS) in the US has been associated with a reduction in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, screening also carries with it potential risks. Newer national guidelines recommend decreased screening frequency to optimize the benefit/risk balance and to prevent over-screening. Here, we examined the alignment of US cancer center websites' public recommendations on CCS with national guidelines. We reviewed the websites of 1024 cancer centers accredited by the US Commission on Cancer during January-August 2022...
March 20, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
Darren R Brenner, Chantelle Carbonell, Linan Xu, Nicole Nemecek, Huiming Yang
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the associations between time to colonoscopy after a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT+) and colorectal cancer (CRC)-related outcomes in the context of a provincial, population-based CRC screening program. SETTING: Population-based, retrospective cohort study in Alberta, Canada, including Albertans aged 50-74 with at least one FIT+ in 2014-2017. METHODS: Study outcomes were CRC diagnosis after a FIT+ and a diagnostic follow-up colonoscopy in 2014-2019 and CRC stage at diagnosis...
March 15, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
Nicholas J Wald, Aroon D Hingorani, Stephen H Vale, Jonathan P Bestwick, Joan Morris
This commentary, linked to our paper in the same issue of the Journal of Medical Screening , discusses the reluctance to consider and adopt the polypill in the primary prevention of heart attacks and strokes, access to the polypill as a public health service, the formulation of the polypill in current use, its prescription as an unlicensed medicine, and what can be done to facilitate the adoption of the polypill approach as a routine public health service.
March 15, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
Nicholas J Wald, Aroon D Hingorani, Stephen H Vale, Jonathan P Bestwick, Joan Morris
OBJECTIVE: To compare the NHS Health Check Programme with the Polypill Prevention Programme in the primary prevention of heart attacks and strokes. DESIGN: Use of published data and methodology to produce flow charts of the two programmes to determine screening performance and heart attacks and strokes prevented. SETTING: The UK population. INTERVENTION: The NHS Health Check Programme using a QRISK score on people aged 40-74 to select those eligible for a statin is compared with the Polypill Prevention Programme in people aged 50 or more to select people for a combination of a statin and three low-dose blood pressure lowering agents...
March 15, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
Håkan Jonsson, Anne Andersson, Zheng Mao, Lennarth Nyström
OBJECTIVE: To analyze differences between screen-detected and non-screen-detected invasive breast cancers by tumour characteristics and age at diagnosis in the nationwide population-based mammography screening program in Sweden. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the National Quality Register for Breast Cancer for 2008-2017. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the likelihood for a tumour to be screen-detected by tumour characteristics and age group at diagnosis...
March 7, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
Jiaxun Kang, Shanshan Wang, Jingna Yi, Qiushi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the effects of educational intervention on the screening rate of first-degree relatives of cancer patients. METHODS: A total of eight Chinese and English databases were searched (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, Medline and China Biology Medicine disc) from the time of library establishment to June 2023, for randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of educational intervention on screening rate of first-degree relatives of cancer patients...
February 26, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
Susanne Fogh Jørgensen, Eliane Kellen, Annemie Haelens, Koen Van Herck, Sisse Helle Njor
OBJECTIVES: This study compares the follow-up rates of non-normal cervical screening samples between Denmark and Flanders (Belgium) to illuminate whether organizational differences between the health systems might affect the follow-up rates, e.g. sending of reminders in Denmark since 2012 compared to Flanders with no such system in place. METHODS: The study population included 48,082 Danish women and 22,271 Flemish women who received abnormal or inadequate primary screening results from 2014 to 2016...
February 21, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
Sarah L Nicholson, Heidi Douglas, Stephen Halcrow, Patsy Whelehan
OBJECTIVES: Individuals from deprived areas are less likely to attend breast screening. Inequalities in the coverage of breast screening are associated with poorer cancer outcomes. Individuals who have a positive first experience are more likely to attend subsequent mammograms. This work evaluates the provision of an additional telephone call to individuals who have never attended breast screening, to establish whether this increases attendance. SETTING AND METHODS: 1423 patients from four general practitioner practices within socially deprived areas of National Health Service Tayside (UK) comprised the study population...
February 12, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
James Y Dai, Jing Zhang, Jerome V Braun, Noah Simon, Earl Hubbell, Nan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Designing cancer screening trials for multi-cancer early detection (MCED) tests presents a significant methodology challenge, as natural histories of cell-free DNA-shedding cancers are not yet known. A microsimulation model was developed to project the performance and utility of an MCED test in cancer screening trials. METHODS: Individual natural history of preclinical progression through cancer stages for 23 cancer classes was simulated by a stage-transition model under a broad range of cancer latency parameters...
February 2, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
Jim Peters, Jos A A M van Dijck, Sjoerd G Elias, Johannes D M Otten, Mireille J M Broeders
OBJECTIVES: Insight into the aggressiveness of potential breast cancers found in screening may optimize recall decisions. Specific growth rate (SGR), measured on mammograms, may provide valuable prognostic information. This study addresses the association of SGR with prognostic factors and overall survival in patients with invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) from a screened population. METHODS: In this historic cohort study, 293 women with NST were identified from all participants in the Nijmegen screening program (2003-2007)...
January 31, 2024: Journal of Medical Screening
Debora Xavier, Isabele Miyawaki, Carlos Alberto Campello Jorge, Gabriela Batalini Freitas Silva, Maxwell Lloyd, Fabio Moraes, Bhavika Patel, Felipe Batalini
OBJECTIVE: Deep learning (DL) has shown promising results for improving mammographic breast cancer diagnosis. However, the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on the breast cancer screening process has not yet been fully elucidated in terms of potential workload reduction. We aim to assess if AI-based triaging of breast cancer screening mammograms could reduce the radiologist's workload with non-inferior sensitivity. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for studies that evaluated AI algorithms on computer-aided triage of breast cancer screening mammograms...
December 20, 2023: Journal of Medical Screening
Samantha J Westrop, Ashley Thomas, Alun Williams, Fiona Johnson, Hui Liao, Kirsty Edlin, Karen Burgess, Olive Kearins, Rebecca Maclean
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a temporary change in policy was implemented in 2020. Breast screening services in England were advised to change from timed appointments to an open invitation for invitees to contact the service and arrange an appointment. This change to invitation methodology had potential benefits and risks including impacting inequalities in uptake. Qualitative data were collected by online questionnaire from 23 service providers and routinely collected quantitative uptake data were analysed to investigate the impact of open invitations on the National Programme in the South of England...
December 17, 2023: Journal of Medical Screening
Johannes D M Otten, André L M Verbeek, Mireille J M Broeders
OBJECTIVE: Early detection through mammographic screening and various treatment modalities of cancer may have changed life expectancy and cause-specific mortality of breast cancer patients. We aimed to determine the long-term cause of death patterns in screening-detected patients and clinically diagnosed patients in the Netherlands compared with the general population. METHODS: Using data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and Statistics Netherlands of around 26,000 women, aged 50-75 at diagnosis and surgically treated for invasive breast cancer in 2004-2008, we compared patients with screening-detected and clinically diagnosed cancer for major causes of death until 2020...
December 2023: Journal of Medical Screening
Glenn E Palomaki, Geralyn M Lambert-Messerlian, Donna Fullerton, Madhuri Hegde, Stéphanie Conotte, Matthew L Saidel, Jacques C Jani
OBJECTIVE: A rolling circle amplification (RCA) based commercial methodology using cell-free (cf)DNA to screen for common trisomies became available in 2018. Relevant publications documented high detection but with a higher than expected 1% false positive rate. Preliminary evidence suggested assay variability was an issue. A multi-center collaboration was created to explore this further and examine whether subsequent manufacturer changes were effective. METHODS: Three academic (four devices) and two commercial (two devices) laboratories provided run date, chromosome 21, 18, and 13 run-specific standard deviations, number of samples run, and reagent lot identifications...
December 2023: Journal of Medical Screening
Heather Bittner Fagan, Claudine Jurkovitz, Zugui Zhang, L Anna Thompson, Freda Patterson, Martha A Zazzarino, Ronald E Myers
INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening rates are very low despite a level B recommendation from the United States Preventive Services Task Force since 2013 and clear evidence that lung cancer screening reduces mortality. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services requires shared decision-making (SDM) for lung cancer screening reimbursement. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of an SDM intervention on lung cancer screening in primary care. METHODS: The study design was a single-arm clinical trial design...
November 21, 2023: Journal of Medical Screening
Wilber Deck, James A Hanley
INTRODUCTION: Screening trials and meta-analyses emphasize the ratio of cancer death rates in screening and control arms. However, this measure is diluted by the inclusion of deaths from cancers that only became detectable after the end of active screening. METHODS: We review traditional analysis of cancer screening trials and show that ratio estimates are inevitably biased to the null, because follow-up (FU) must continue beyond the end of the screening period and thus includes cases only becoming detectable after screening ends...
November 21, 2023: Journal of Medical Screening
Zohar Levi, Naim Abu-Frecha, Doron Comanesther, Tania Backenstein, Arnon D Cohen, Sapir Eizenstein, Anath Flugelman, Orly Weinstein
OBJECTIVES: Israel is regarded as a country with a developed economy and a moderate income inequality index. In this population-based study, we aimed to measure the inequalities in colorectal cancer screening within Clalit Health, an organization with universal insurance, before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. SETTING: Retrospective analysis within Clalit Health Services, Israel. METHODS: We evaluated the rate of being up to date with screening (having a colonoscopy within 10 years or a fecal occult blood test within 1 year) and the colonoscopy completion rate (having a colonoscopy within 6 months of a positive fecal occult blood test) among subjects aged 50-75 in 2019-2021...
November 14, 2023: Journal of Medical Screening
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