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Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767352/quality-of-life-and-its-association-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-fatigue-ten-years-after-giardiasis
#1
Sverre Litleskare, Guri Rortveit, Geir Egil Eide, Knut Erik Emberland, Kurt Hanevik, Nina Langeland, Knut-Arne Wensaas
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis has been associated with complications such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic fatigue (CF). Little is known about the implications for quality of life (QoL) in this setting. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between exposure to Giardia infection and QoL ten years after the infection, and how this related to IBS and CF. METHODS: We followed 1252 patients with laboratory-verified Giardia lamblia infection and a matched control group for 10 years after an epidemic in Bergen, Norway, in 2004...
February 14, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761706/noradrenaline-inhibits-neurogenic-propulsive-motor-patterns-but-not-neurogenic-segmenting-haustral-progression-in-the-rabbit-colon
#2
Alicia Hanman, Ji-Hong Chen, Sean P Parsons, Jan D Huizinga
BACKGROUND: Excessive sympathetic inhibition may be a cause of colon motor dysfunction. Our aim was to better understand the mechanisms of sympathetic inhibition on colonic motor patterns using the rabbit colon, hypothesizing that noradrenaline selectively inhibits propulsive motor patterns. METHODS: Changes in motor patterns of the rabbit colon were studied ex vivo using noradrenaline and adrenoceptor antagonists and analyzed using spatiotemporal diameter maps...
February 13, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761698/comparative-analysis-reveals-ce3d-as-optimal-clearing-method-for-in-toto-imaging-of-the-mouse-intestine
#3
Gleison D P Bossolani, Isabel Pintelon, Jan D Detrez, Roeland Buckinx, Sofie Thys, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni, Winnok H De Vos, Jean-Pierre Timmermans
BACKGROUND: The intestinal wall has a complex topographical architecture. The multi-layered network of the enteric nervous system and its intercellular interactions are difficult to map using traditional section-based or whole-mount histology. With the advent of optical clearing techniques, it has become feasible to visualize intact tissue and organs in 3D. However, as yet, a gap still needs to be filled in that no in-depth analysis has been performed yet on the potential of different clearing techniques for the small intestine...
February 13, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740845/metformin-prevents-colonic-barrier-dysfunction-by-inhibiting-mast-cell-activation-in-maternal-separation-induced-ibs-like-rats
#4
Yong Li, Tingting Yang, Qing Yao, Songsong Li, En Fang, Yankun Li, Chao Liu, Weimin Li
BACKGROUND: Intestinal barrier dysfunction is a key etiologic factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Metformin improves intestinal barrier function, although the underlying mechanism has yet to be fully explained. This study evaluates the protective effect of metformin on colonic barrier integrity and explores the underlying cellular mechanisms. METHODS: IBS-like rats were induced by maternal separation. Metformin was administered daily by gavage at 08:30, and rat pups were then separated from their mother...
February 10, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740834/advances-in-the-physiology-of-gastric-emptying
#5
REVIEW
Raj K Goyal, Yanmei Guo, Hiroshi Mashimo
There have been many recent advances in the understanding of various aspects of the physiology of gastric motility and gastric emptying. Earlier studies had discovered the remarkable ability of the stomach to regulate the timing and rate of emptying of ingested food constituents and the underlying motor activity. Recent studies have shown that two parallel neural circuits, the gastric inhibitory vagal motor circuit (GIVMC) and the gastric excitatory vagal motor circuit (GEVMC), mediate gastric inhibition and excitation and therefore the rate of gastric emptying...
February 10, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734412/the-american-neurogastroenterology-and-motility-society-gastroparesis-cardinal-symptom-index-daily-diary-anms-gcsi-dd-psychometric-evaluation-in-patients-with-idiopathic-or-diabetic-gastroparesis
#6
Dennis A Revicki, Rebecca M Speck, Sara Lavoie, Jorge Puelles, Braden Kuo, Michael Camilleri, Cristina Almansa, Henry P Parkman
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary, a patient-reported outcome instrument developed to meet US FDA recommendations for a symptom-based clinical trial endpoint in gastroparesis. The ANMS GCSI-DD assesses nausea, early satiety, postprandial fullness, and upper abdominal pain on a severity score from none (0) to very severe (4) and number of vomiting episodes during the past 24 hours...
February 7, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30729663/the-role-of-psychological-factors-in-pediatric-functional-abdominal-pain-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Emily Newton, Alex Schosheim, Samit Patel, Denesh K Chitkara, Miranda A L van Tilburg
BACKGROUND: Pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) are disorders of brain-gut dysregulation. Psychological factors are known to be related to etiology, maintenance, and exacerbation of pediatric FAPDs. With the evolving literature in the past two decades, a better understanding has emerged of precisely which psychological factors are associated with childhood FAPDs. PURPOSE: This narrative literature review summarizes the literature of both child and parent psychological factors in pediatric FAPD...
February 6, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30729624/sex-related-differences-in-resting-state-brain-activity-and-connectivity-in-the-orbital-frontal-cortex-and-insula-in-patients-with-functional-constipation
#8
Qingchao Jin, Shijun Duan, Guanya Li, Lijuan Sun, Yang Hu, Chunxin Hu, Jizheng Zhao, Karen M von Deneen, Long Qian, Huaning Wang, Gang Ji, Kaichun Wu, Daiming Fan, Guangbin Cui, Yongzhan Nie, Yi Zhang
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to investigate sex-related differences in brain abnormalities in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Like IBS, women with functional constipation (FC) are 2.1 times as many as men. No study has been performed yet to examine sex-related differences in brain activity and connectivity in patients with FC. Here, we employed resting-state fMRI with amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) to investigate brain functional differences in 51 patients with FC (34 females) and 52 healthy controls (34 females)...
February 6, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714267/fecal-urgency-is-common-in-constipated-patients-and-is-associated-with-anxiety
#9
Prashant Singh, Eve Takazawa, Vikram Rangan, Sarah Ballou, Jesse Katon, Courtney McMahon, Ha-Neul Lee, Johanna Iturrino, Judy Nee, Anthony Lembo
BACKGROUND: Fecal urgency is a symptom generally associated with diarrhea but is also reported by patients with constipation. Our aim was to (a) assess the prevalence and burden of fecal urgency in constipated patients (b) evaluate gastrointestinal and psychiatric predictors of moderate to severe fecal urgency in these patients. METHODS: Patients presenting consecutively to a tertiary outpatient gastroenterology clinic with constipation were included. Patients were considered to have moderate to severe fecal urgency if ≥50% of bowel movements (BMs) in the past 3 months were associated with fecal urgency...
February 3, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706652/influence-of-itopride-and-domperidone-on-gastric-tone-and-on-the-perception-of-gastric-distention-in-healthy-subjects
#10
Karen Van den Houte, Florencia Carbone, Ans Pauwels, Rita Vos, Tim Vanuytsel, Jan Tack
OBJECTIVE: Itopride, a prokinetic with dopamine D2-antagonistic and cholinesterase inhibitor properties, is used for treating functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. However, the effects of itopride on sensitivity to gastric distention and impaired gastric accommodation, major pathophysiological mechanisms of FD, are unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of itopride on gastric distention and on gastric accommodation in healthy volunteers, compared to placebo and domperidone. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers (6 male, mean age 28...
January 31, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706646/gastroparesis-syndromes-response-to-electrical-stimulation
#11
Thomas L Abell, Archana Kedar, Abigail Stocker, Karen Beatty, Lindsay McElmurray, Michael Hughes, Hani Rashed, William Kennedy, Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb, Xiu Yang, Mostafa Fraig, Endashaw Omer, Ed Miller, Michael Griswold, Christina Pinkston
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Factors underlying gastroparesis are not well defined, nor is the mechanism of action of gastric electrical stimulation (GES). We hypothesized that GES acts via several mechanisms related to underlying disordered pathophysiology. METHODS: We studied 43 consecutive eligible patients with gastroparetic symptoms, previously evaluated by two methods in each of five core areas: inflammatory, autonomic, enteric, electrophysiologic, and hormonal; and also categorized by GI symptoms, metabolic status, illness quantification, and gastric physiology...
January 31, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703851/anorectal-physiology-in-health-a-randomized-trial-to-determine-the-optimum-catheter-for-the-balloon-expulsion-test
#12
Yoav Mazor, Gillian Prott, Mike Jones, John Kellow, Anastasia Ejova, Allison Malcolm
BACKGROUND: Anorectal manometry (ARM) and balloon expulsion test (BET) are pivotal in investigation of anorectal disorders. There is controversy, however, about normal values and optimum methodology for performing these tests. Our aims were to compare BET using three different balloons and to establish normal values for ARM and BET in health. METHODS: Forty-four female healthy subjects (mean age 56 ± 12 years) underwent ARM, followed by BET which was performed in a private toilet using three different catheters (party balloon, Foley catheter and a commercially available catheter) in a single-blinded randomized order...
January 31, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697952/efficacy-and-safety-of-pneumatic-dilation-in-achalasia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Froukje B van Hoeij, Leah I Prins, André J P M Smout, Arjan J Bredenoord
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: One of the most used treatments for achalasia is pneumatic dilation of the lower esophageal sphincter to improve esophageal emptying. Multiple treatment protocols have been described with a varying balloon size, number of dilations, inflation pressure, and duration. We aimed to identify the most efficient and safe treatment protocol. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on pneumatic dilation in patients with primary achalasia...
January 30, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697884/risk-factors-for-upper-and-lower-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-persian-gulf-war-veterans-during-and-post-deployment
#14
Ashok K Tuteja, Nicholas J Talley, Gregory J Stoddard, Matthew H Samore, G Nicholas Verne
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but its role in other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is less clear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of FGIDs in Gulf War (GW) Veterans before, during, and after deployment and to determine whether gastroenteritis was a risk factor for upper and lower FGIDs. METHODS: The Veterans who served during the Persian GW were mailed validated questionnaires inquiring about their bowel habits, psychological and extra-intestinal symptoms, and quality of life (QOL)...
January 29, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30688391/a-pilot-study-of-the-effects-of-high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-dysphagia-in-the-elderly
#15
Jin-Woo Park, Hyojun Kim, Taejune Park, Jeong-Seok Yeo, Ho-Jin Hong, Jin-Young Oh
BACKGROUND: Swallowing difficulty is common in the geriatric population and is associated with brain activity alteration with advancing age. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive approach to stimulate cortical neurons and can produce changes in cortical excitability. The objective of this study is to determine whether rTMS induces positive changes in the cortical areas and facilitates swallowing function in the elderly diagnosed with dysphagia. METHODS: Eight right-handed elderly dysphagia patients without any neurologic deficits received 5 Hz rTMS to a pharyngeal motor hot spot in the right hemisphere for 10 minutes every weekday for 2 weeks...
January 28, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30680849/high-frequency-ultrasound-imaging-of-the-anal-sphincter-muscles-in-normal-subjects-and-patients-with-fecal-incontinence
#16
Melissa Ledgerwood-Lee, Ali Zifan, David C Kunkel, Robert Sah, Ravinder K Mittal
INTRODUCTION: The current "gold standard" to diagnose anal sphincter morphology and disruptions utilizes low-frequency (3-9 MHz) ultrasound (US) imaging techniques that provide a general outline of the sphincter muscles, but not their microstructural details. High-frequency US transducers (7-15 MHz) have been used to study the muscle architecture (direction of muscle fascicles) in the limb muscle. AIMS: The goal of our study was to visualize the microstructural anatomy of the anal sphincters, specifically the external anal sphincter (EAS), using high-frequency US imaging...
January 24, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676686/24-hour-monitoring-of-transient-lower-esophageal-sphincter-relaxation-events-by-long-term-high-resolution-impedance-manometry-in-normal-volunteers-the-mirror-phenomenon
#17
Suyu He, Alissa Jell, Norbert Hüser, Nils Kohn, Hubertus Feussner
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and circadian changes in transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) in normal volunteers using 24-hour high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM). METHODS: Fifteen volunteers underwent HRIM. TLESRs were recorded during the mealtime, 2-hour postprandial, daytime, and supine periods. The catheter was firmly secured to the nose, and subjects went home, ate normal meals, and continued routine daily activities...
January 24, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30672071/electroacupuncture-promotes-the-gastrointestinal-motility-of-diabetic-mice-by-cnp-npr-b-cgmp-and-pde3a-cgmp-signaling
#18
Jing An, YingLi Li, ShuangNing Song, Shi Liu
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) can promote gastrointestinal (GI) motility of diabetic mice, but the mechanism is not clearly elucidated. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) were related to the diabetes-induced gut dysfunction of mice, which may be associated with ICC (interstitial cells of cajal). Besides, EA could increase the ICC of diabetic mice. Our aim was to explore whether EA can promote the gut motility by CNP/NPR-B-cGMP and PDE3A-cGMP signaling in diabetic mice, and the relationship between NPs and ICC...
January 22, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30667131/gastrointestinal-motility-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-on-chronic-hemodialysis
#19
Bo Broberg, Jan L Madsen, Stefan Fuglsang, Jens J Holst, Karl Bang Christensen, Casper Rydahl, Thomas Idorn, Bo Feldt-Rasmussen, Mads Hornum
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicated delayed gastric emptying in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) using indirect methods. The objective of the current study was to examine gastrointestinal motility using a direct method as well as the role of the incretin hormones and glucagon. METHODS: Patients on chronic hemodialysis and with either normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes, and healthy control subjects (N = 8, respectively) were studied...
January 22, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30667128/the-projection-of-anorectal-afferents-to-spinal-cord-and-effect-of-sacral-neuromodulation-on-dorsal-horn-neurons-which-receive-such-input-in-the-rat
#20
Keira Turner, Patrick Ronan O'Connell, James F X Jones
BACKGROUND: The rat has served usefully as a model for fecal incontinence and exploration of the mechanism of action of sacral neuromodulation (SNM). There remains a deficit in information regarding the location and type of spinal neurons which receive anorectal input and the effect of SNM on those neurons. METHODS: Single neuronal extracellular recordings of neurons receiving anorectal input were made at the S1 level of the spinal cord using sharp glass electrodes...
January 22, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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