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Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691254/biosynthesis-of-chondroitin-in-engineered-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#1
Fangyu Cheng, Sijin Luozhong, Huimin Yu, Zhigang Guo
Chondroitin, the precursor of chondroitin sulfate, which is an important polysaccharide, has drawn significant attention due to its applications in many fields. In the present study, a heterologous biosynthesis pathway of chondroitin was designed in a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) strain C. glutamicum . CgkfoC and CgkfoA genes with host codon preference were synthesized and driven by promoter P tac , which was confirmed as a strong promoter via GFPuv reporter assessment. In a lactate dehydrogenase ( ldh ) deficient host, intracellular chondroitin titer increased from 0...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691253/oxidized-carbon-nanosphere-based-subunit-vaccine-delivery-system-elicited-robust-th1-and-cytotoxic-t-cell-responses
#2
Pritsana Sawutdeechaikul, Felipe Cia, Gregory J Bancroft, Supason Wanichwecharungruang, Chutamath Sittplangkoon, Tanapat Palaga
Subunit vaccine is safe and more stable than live vaccine but it has disadvantage in eliciting poor immune response. To develop a subunit vaccine, an effective delivery system targeting the key elements of the protective immune response is a prerequisite. In this study, oxidized carbon nanosphere (OCN) was used as a subunit vaccine delivery system and tuberculosis (TB) was chosen as a model disease. TB is among the deadliest infectious diseases worldwide and an effective vaccine is urgently needed. The ability of OCN to deliver recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins, Ag85B and HspX, into bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and dendritic cells (BMDCs) were investigated...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691252/characterization-of-the-transglycosylation-reaction-of-4-%C3%AE-glucanotransferase-malq-and-its-role-in-glycogen-breakdown-in-escherichia-coli
#3
Dang Hai Dang Nguyen, Sung-Hoon Park, Phuong Lan Tran, Jung-Wan Kim, Quang Tri Le, Winfried Boos, Jong-Tae Park
We first confirmed the involvement of MalQ (4-α-glucanotransferase) in Escherichia coli glycogen breakdown by both in vitro and in vivo assays. In vivo tests of the knock-out mutant, delta-MalQ, showed that glycogen slowly decreased after the stationary phase compared to the wild-type strain, indicating the involvement of MalQ in glycogen degradation. In vitro assays incubated glycogen-mimic substrate, branched cyclodextrin (maltotetraosyl-β-CD: G4-β-CD) and glycogen phosphorylase (GlgP)-limit dextrin with a set of variable combinations of E...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691251/oral-delivery-of-probiotics-using-ph-sensitive-phthalyl-inulin-tablets
#4
Whee-Soo Kim, Chong-Su Cho, Liang Hong, Geon Goo Han, Bum Ju Kil, Sang-Kee Kang, Dae-Duk Kim, Yun-Jaie Choi, Chul-Sung Huh
Probiotics show low cell viability after oral administration because they have difficulties surviving in the stomach due to low pH and enzyme. For the oral delivery of probiotics, developing a formula to protect the probiotic bacteria from gastric acidity and provide living cells are mandatory. In this study, we developed tablets using a new pH-sensitive phthalyl inulin (PI) to protect probiotic from the gastric conditions and investigated the effects of different compression forces on cell survival. We made three different tablets under different compression forces and checked the survivability, disintegration time, and kinetics in simulated gastric-intestinal fluid...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691250/changes-in-structural-and-functional-responses-of-bacterial-community-under-different-levels-of-long-term-compost-application-in-paddy-soils
#5
Sandipan Samaddar, Gwang Hyun Han, Puneet Singh Chauhan, Poulami Chatterjee, Sunyoung Jeon, Tongmin Sa
Soils amended for long-term with high levels of compost demonstrated greater abundance of bacterial members of the phylum Bacteroidetes whereas a decreasing trend in the relative abundance of phylum Acidobacteria was noted with increasing levels of compost. Metabolic profiles predicted by PICRUSt demonstrated differences in functional responses of the bacterial community according to the treatments. Soils amended with lower compost levels were characterized by abundance of genes encoding enzymes contributing to membrane transport, cell growth whereas genes encoding enzymes related to protein folding, transcription were enriched in soils amended with high levels of compost...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661325/engineer-biomolecules-by-linking-desired-properties-with-phage-propagation
#6
REVIEW
Gen Li, Wanzhong Zhang, Lijie He
Genetic diversity promotes laboratory based evolution and researchers can use mutagenesis and artificial selection to acquire expected phenotypes more frequently. Continuous evolution makes the important steps of laboratory evolution integrated into an uninterrupted cycle, enabling more generations to be evolved and scarcely any human interventions. Phages such as X174, T7 and λ bacteriophages with ideal mutation rates and feasibility to manipulate have been developed as an excellent platform for in vivo continuous evolution...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661324/characterization-of-a-fibrinolytic-enzyme-secreted-by-bacillus-velezensis-bs2-isolated-from-sea-squirt-jeotgal
#7
Zhuang Yao, Jeong A Kim, Jeong Hwan Kim
Bacillus sp. BS2 showing strong fibrinolytic activity was isolated from sea squirt (munggae) jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood. BS2 was identified as B. velezensis by molecular biological methods. B. velezensis BS2 grows well at 15% NaCl and at 10°C. When B. velezensis BS2 was cultivated in TSB broth for 96 h at 37°C, the culture showed the highest fibrinolytic activity (131.15 mU/μl) at 96 h. Three bands of 27, 35 and 60 kDa were observed from culture supernatant by SDS-PAGE, and fibrin zymography showed that the major fibrinolytic protein was the 27 kDa band...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661323/in-vivo-characterization-of-phosphotransferase-encoding-genes-istp-and-forp-as-interchangeable-launchers-of-the-c3-4-dideoxygenation-biosynthetic-pathway-of-1-4-diaminocyclitol-antibiotics
#8
Nguyen Lan Huong, Na Joon Lee, Hyun Ha Hwang, Hye Bin Son, Hye Ji Kim, Eun Gyo Seo, Nguyen Huu Hoang, Je Won Park
Deactivation of aminoglycosides by their modifying enzymes including a number of aminoglycoside O -phosphotransferases is the most ubiquitous resistance mechanism in aminoglycoside-resistant pathogens. Nonetheless, in a couple of biosynthetic pathways for gentamicins, fortimicins, and istamycins, phosphorylation of aminoglycosides seems to be a unique and initial step for the creation of a natural defensive structural feature such as a 3',4'-dideoxy scaffold. Our aim was to elucidate the biochemical details on the beginning of these C3',4'-dideoxygenation biosynthetic steps for aminoglycosides...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661322/discarded-egg-yolk-as-an-alternate-source-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate
#9
Yun-Gi Hong, Yu-Mi Moon, Ju-Won Hong, Tae-RIm Choi, Hye-Rim Jung, Soo-Yeon Yang, Dae-Won Jang, Ye-Rim Park, Christopher J Brigham, Jae-Seok Kim, Yoo-Kyung Lee, Yung-Hun Yang
Many poultry eggs are discarded worldwide because of infection (i.e., avian flu) or presence of high levels of pesticides. The possibility of adopting egg yolk as a source material to produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymer was examined in this study. Cupriavidus necator Re2133/pCB81 was used for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) or poly(3HHx), a polymer that would normally require long-chain fatty acids as carbon feedstocks for the incorporation of 3HHx monomers. The optimal medium contained 5% egg yolk oil and ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source, with a carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 20...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661321/comparison-of-the-gut-microbiota-of-centenarians-in-longevity-villages-of-south-korea-with-those-of-other-age-groups
#10
Bong-Soo Kim, Chong Won Choi, Hyoseung Shin, Seon-Pil Jin, Jung-Soo Bae, Mira Han, Eun Young Seo, Jongsik Chun, Jin Ho Chung
Several studies have attempted to identify factors associated with longevity and maintenance of health in centenarians. In this study, we analyzed and compared the gut microbiota of centenarians in longevity villages with the elderly and adults in the same region and urbanized towns. Fecal samples were collected from centenarians, elderly, and young adults in longevity villages, and the gut microbiota sequences of elderly and young adults in urbanized towns of Korea were obtained from public databases. The relative abundance of Firmicutes was found to be considerably higher in subjects from longevity villages than those from urbanized towns, whereas Bacteroidetes was lower...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609887/anti-aging-activity-of-lavandula-angustifolia-extract-fermented-with-pediococcus-pentosaceus-dk1-isolated-from-diospyros-kaki-fruit-in-uvb-irradiated-human-skin-fibroblasts-and-analysis-of-principal-components
#11
Ji Hoon Ha, A Rang Kim, Keon-Soo Lee, Song Hua Xuan, Hee Cheol Kang, Dong Hwan Lee, Mi Yeon Cha, Hye Jin Kim, Mi An, Soo Nam Park
Lavandula angustifolia extract fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus DK1 were determined on UVB-mediated MMP-1 expression and collagen decrease in human skin fibroblasts and the conversion of its components. Fermentation was performed at varying L. angustifolia extract and MRS medium concentrations, and optimal fermentation conditions were selected. L. angustifolia extracts showed decreased cytotoxicity after fermentation in the fibroblasts. UVB-irradiated fibroblasts treated with fermented L. angustifolia extract showed MMP-1 expression 8...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609886/change-of-ginsenoside-profiles-in-processed-ginsengs-by-drying-steaming-and-puffing
#12
Ji-Hye Shin, Young Joon Park, Wooki Kim, Dae-Ok Kim, Byung-Yong Kim, Hyungjae Lee, Moo-Yeol Baik
Korean ginseng ( Panax ginseng Meyer) was processed by drying, steaming, or puffing, and the effects of these processes on the ginsenoside profile were investigated. The main root of 4-year-old raw Korean ginseng was dried to produce white ginseng. Steaming, followed by drying, was employed to produce red or black ginsengs. In addition, these three processed ginsengs were puffed using a rotational puffing gun. Puffed ginsengs showed significantly higher extraction yields (49.87-58.60 g solid extract/100 g of sample) and crude saponin contents (59...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609885/effect-of-igy-on-periodontitis-and-halitosis-induced-by-fusobacterium-nucleatum
#13
Wu Qiao, Fang Wang, Bin Bao, Shujun Wang, Joe Mac Regenstein, Yile Shi, Wenhui Wu, Ming Ma
Fusobacterium nucleatum is a morbific agent in periodontitis and halitosis. Egg yolk antibody (IgY) was obtained from egg yolks afterward F. nucleatum stimulated chicken. This study was to access the effectiveness of IgY on periodontitis and halitosis lured by F. nucleatum in vitro and in vivo . The growth of F. nucleatum was inhibited ( p <0.05) by different concentration IgY in vitro and the results of Halimeter shows volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) were reduced to 904±57 ppb at concentration 40 mg/ml of IgY...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609884/characteristics-of-potential-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-producing-bacteria-isolated-at-korean-and-vietnamese-fermented-fish-products
#14
Thi Thu-Thao Vo, Jong-Hyun Park
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter that exerts several physiological functions and positive effects on human health. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the strains that had GABA-producing abilities from various fermented fish products. A total of 91 acid-producing strains were isolated from 41 samples of fermented fish products, and 27 strains showing GABA-producing abilities were identified by the 16S rDNA sequences. The 31% strains tolerated at high salty environment of 10-20% in the complete fermentation of fish sauces...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609883/impact-of-expanded-small-alkyl-binding-pocket-by-triple-point-mutations-on-substrate-specificity-of-thermoanaerobacter-ethanolicus-secondary-alcohol-dehydrogenase
#15
Amos K Dwamena, Robert S Phillips, Chang Sup Kim
Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to generate five different triple point mutations in the double mutant (C295A/I86A) of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus alcohol dehydrogenase (TeSADH) by computer-aided modeling with the aim of widening the small alkyl binding pocket. TeSADH engineering enables the enzyme to accept sterically hindered substrates which could not be accepted by the wild-type enzyme. The underline in the mutations highlights the additional point mutation on the double mutant TeSADH introduced in this work...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609882/comparison-of-immune-responses-to-the-pcv2-replicase-capsid-and-capsid-virus-like-particle-vaccines-in-mice
#16
Bo-Kyoung Jung, Hye-Ran Kim, Young-Hyeon Lee, Hyun Jang, Kyung-Soo Chang
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Replicase (Rep) protein is considered essential proteins for viral replication. Capsid (Cap) protein is the primary immunogenic protein that induces protective immunity. Little is known about comparison on the immunogenicity of PCV2 Rep and Cap fusion protein and Cap protein. In the present study, recombinant baculoviruses expressing the Rep-Cap fusion protein (Bac-Rep-Cap) and the Cap protein (Bac-Cap) of PCV2 were constructed and confirmed with western blot and indirect fluorescence assay...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609881/flavonoid-silibinin-increases-hair-inductive-property-via-akt-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-activation-in-3-dimensional-spheroid-cultured-human-dermal-papilla-cells
#17
Hye In Cheon, Seunghee Bae, Kyu Joong Ahn
Hair loss, also known as alopecia, is a common dermatological condition of psychosocial significance; development of therapeutic candidates for the treatment of this condition is, hence, important. Silibinin, a secondary metabolite from Silybum marianum , is an effective antioxidant that also prevents various cutaneous problems. In this study, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on hair induction using three-dimensional (3D) cultured human dermal papilla (DP) spheroids. Silibinin was found to significantly increase viability through AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT) activation in 3D DP spheroids...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609880/antioxidant-properties-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-bacillus-mojavensis-i4-lipopeptides-and-application-in-the-biocontrol-of-potato-dry-rots-caused-by-fusarium-solani
#18
Ghazala Imen, Charfeddine Safa, Charfeddine Mariam, Gargouri-Bouzid Radhia, Ellouz-Chaabouni Semia, Haddar Anissa
Lipopeptides are diverse metabolites produced by various bacterial and fungal genera known for their antimicrobial and surfactant activities with diverse environmental, pharmaceutical application and also agronomic applications as biocontrol agents. In this study, the presence of NRPS genes in Bacillus mojavensis I4 was confirmed by PCR and this bacterial strain could produce diverse lipopeptides which belonged to fengycin, and surfactin families. The antioxidant activity of I4 biosurfactants was determined through four different in vitro assays...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609879/substantial-protective-immunity-conferred-by-a-combination-of-brucella-abortus-recombinant-proteins-sodc-ribh-ndk-l7-l12-and-mdh-against-brucella-abortus-544-infection-in-balb-c-mice
#19
Lauren Togonon Arayan, Tran Xuan Ngoc Huy, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo Reyes, Huynh Tan Hop, Vu Hai Son, WonGi Min, Hu Jang Lee, Suk Kim
Chronic infection with intracellular Brucella abortus ( B. abortus ) in livestock remains to be a major problem worldwide. Thus, the search for an ideal vaccine is still ongoing. In this study, we evaluated the protection efficacy of a combination of B. abortus recombinant proteins; superoxide dismutase (rSodC), riboflavin synthase subunit beta (rRibH), nucleoside diphosphate kinase (rNdk), 50S ribosomal protein (rL7/L12) and malate dehydrogenase (rMDH) cloned and expressed into a pMal vector system and DH5α, respectively and further purified and applied intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609878/naringenin-attenuates-inflammation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-cigarette-smoke-induced-mouse-model-and-involves-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#20
Jinghua Liu, Jiandong Yao, Jing Zhang
Inflammation of lungs and airways is a primary symptom of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The COPD inflammation is known to be mediated by several factors such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), NF-κB. Patients with COPD respond very poorly to the corticosteroid therapy. Naringenin is a flavonoid known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. We studied the effect of naringenin on COPD induced due to cigarette smoke (CS) in BALB/c mouse model and in vitro in A549 cells...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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