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Emergency Radiology

Kheng Song Leow, Kian Ming Chew, Ashish Chawla, Tze Chwan Lim
Calf pain or swelling is a common presentation to the emergency department. The differential diagnoses are wide. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is often the first diagnosis to be excluded given its potentially fatal complications. Musculoskeletal causes of calf pain or swelling such as Baker's cyst, muscle or tendon tear, soft tissue infection, and inflammation are not uncommon and can often be confidently diagnosed with ultrasonography (US). Familiarity with these conditions and the sonographic findings would be useful in making timely and correct diagnosis...
February 13, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Matthew A Haber, Muhammad Abd-El-Barr, William Gormley, Srinivasan Mukundan, Aaron D Sodickson, Christopher A Potter
Visits to the emergency department by patients who have recently undergone neurosurgery are a common occurrence, and these patients frequently receive emergent cross-sectional head imaging in order to evaluate for complications. Different neurosurgical approaches may have typical postoperative imaging findings that can be confused with pathology. Furthermore, particular abnormal postoperative imaging findings may signal an evolving complication. It is essential for the radiologist to understand common neurosurgical procedures and their potential complications in order to provide proper diagnostic evaluation of the postoperative neurosurgical patient...
February 13, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Frank V Bensch, Elina A Varjonen, Tuomo T Pyhältö, Seppo K Koskinen
PURPOSE: BCVI may lead to ischemic stroke, disability, and death, while being often initially clinically silent. Screening criteria for BCVI based on clinical findings and trauma mechanism have improved detection, with Denver criteria being most common. Up to 30% of patients do not meet BCVI screening criteria. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of augmented Denver criteria on detection, and to determine the relative risk for ischemic stroke. METHODS: Denver screening criteria were augmented by any high-energy trauma of the cervical spine, thorax, abdomen, or pelvis...
February 12, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Jyoti Narayanswami, Daniel A Smith, Michael Enzerra, Amir Ata Rahnemai-Azar, Elias Kikano, Nikhil H Ramaiya
Oncologic emergencies have a high rate of morbidity and mortality. This review covers several scenarios of gastrointestinal malignancies presenting emergently as various acute abdominal pathologies. Radiologists should be familiar with the typical imaging findings, clinical presentations, and laboratory values which may suggest a background neoplasm, particularly when encountered in the context of an acute inflammatory state. Imaging plays a vital role in the workup of these patients; delays in appropriate diagnosis negatively affect outcomes, oftentimes resulting in the need for additional intervention...
February 4, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Danielle Byrne, John P Walsh, Peter J MacMahon
In this paper, we propose a CT imaging algorithm for patients presenting with suspected acute stroke that incorporates automated CT perfusion (CTP) imaging. The algorithm details evaluation of the non-contrast CT (NCCT) for hemorrhage and acute ischemia, calculation of ASPECTS, with performance and interpretation of CTP if appropriate. In particular, we consider the key steps in expeditious interpretation of non-contrast CT and CT angiography in the context of suspected acute ischemic stroke. Given the recent expansion of the "imaging based" treatment window for thrombectomy from 6 to 24 h in the 2018 American Heart Association stroke guidelines, we consider the key criteria in the decision to perform CT perfusion and the patient cohorts in which this might be most helpful...
February 1, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Peter Pruitt, Andrew Naidech, Jonathan Van Ornam, Pierre Borczuk, William Thompson
PURPOSE: Subdural hematoma (SDH) is the most common form of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, and radiographic characteristics of SDH are predictive of complications and patient outcomes. We created a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to extract structured data from cranial computed tomography (CT) scan reports for patients with SDH. METHODS: CT scan reports from patients with SDH were collected from a single center. All reports were based on cranial CT scan interpretations by board-certified attending radiologists...
January 28, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Kimia Khalatbari Kani, Felix S Chew
Terrible triad injury of the elbow is a complex injury that is classically defined as elbow dislocation along with fractures of the coronoid process of the ulna and the radial head. The injury is usually associated with typical soft-tissue disruptions (with common involvement of the lateral collateral ligament complex, elbow joint capsule, as well as the common extensor and flexor-pronator tendons) that are best understood in the context of injury mechanism as well as the role and relevance of the various elbow stabilizers...
January 28, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Gerald M Hefferman, David W Swenson, Rama S Ayyala, Brian Murphy, Michele Johnson, Gaurav Jindal
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to detail the current state of the websites of each of the currently established emergency radiology fellowship programs within the USA, in terms of publicly available information. The goal of the project is to present data for emergency radiology fellowship programs to tailor that information to attract those most interested in the pursuit of an emergency radiology fellowship position. METHODS: Emergency radiology fellowship programs were identified using the American Society of Emergency Radiology website and recent published literature...
January 25, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Anuradha Rao, Raghuram Parampalli
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to evaluate the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), its sensitivity and specificity in recognizing the complications related to oncology, and its treatment in patients with known malignancies and to determine how clinician's diagnosis, diagnostic dilemma, and management decisions are affected by the results of computed tomography (CT) in a tertiary care oncology setup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough retrospective search of the database of 1 year in the Department of Radiology was done at our tertiary oncology center, of patients who were diagnosed or suspected with complications associated with cancer...
January 21, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Jihee Choe, Jeremy R Wortman, Aya Michaels, Asha Sarma, Urvi P Fulwadhva, Aaron D Sodickson
Bowel pathology is a common unexpected finding on routine abdominal and pelvic ultrasound. However, radiologists are often unfamiliar with the ultrasound appearance of the gastrointestinal tract due to the underutilization of ultrasound for bowel evaluation in the USA. The purpose of this article is to familiarize radiologists with the characteristic ultrasound features of a variety of bowel pathologies. Basic ultrasound technique for bowel evaluation, ultrasound appearance of normal bowel, and key ultrasound features of common acute bowel abnormalities will be reviewed...
January 19, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Alexandre Orbion, Abdellah Mouman, Julien Behr, Zaher Lakkis, Paul Calame, Eric Delabrousse
OBJECTIVE: To study the association of a continent ileocecal valve and the degree of severity of the CT signs in patients presenting with large bowel obstruction due to colonic cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-six patients undergoing emergency surgery for confirmed obstructive colonic cancer were included. The CT examinations were analyzed without consultation of the surgical results. For each patient, the diameter of the cecum at its widest point and that of the last ileal loop were measured...
January 18, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Franco Verde, Hazem Hawasli, Pamela T Johnson, Elliot K Fishman
Gastric volvulus is a rare entity with a spectrum of acute and chronic clinical presentations. Body radiologists must be cognizant of the subtypes of gastric volvulus and identify potential complications. Mortality can be high if unrecognized from gastric necrosis, perforation, and sepsis. CT with multiplanar reformations is critical for complete evaluation beyond radiography and fluoroscopy. This article reviews clinical and imaging features of uncomplicated and complicated gastric volvulus, with the aim of guiding appropriate management...
January 14, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Benjamin Hirshberg, Matthew Rheinboldt
Over the past 40 years since the first in vitro fertilization was performed, both the role of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in establishing viable pregnancy as well as the available treatment options have expanded enormously. Annually in the USA, nearly 2% of pregnancies now employ some form of ART assistance, with in vitro fertilization (IVF) being the most commonly utilized methodology. Both maternal and fetal risks are elevated in ART pregnancies, the latter including adverse outcome due to both increased gestational number as well as advanced maternal age...
January 10, 2019: Emergency Radiology
James P Nugent, Jun Wang, Luck J Louis, Tim W O'Connell, Faisal Khosa, Graham C Wong, Jacqueline W L Saw, Savvas Nicolaou, Patrick D McLaughlin
PURPOSE: It is uncertain whether patients with elevated troponin and non-classical presentation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) should receive coronary CT angiography (CCTA). A proportion of these patients will have no coronary artery disease (CAD) and would benefit from non-invasive investigations and expedited discharge. Objectives were to determine most common diagnoses and rate of ACS among patients with positive troponin and low clinical suspicion of ACS who received CCTA. METHODS: IRB approved retrospective analysis of 491 consecutive patients in a level I trauma center ED referred for CCTA between April 4, 2015 to April 2, 2017...
January 10, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Jesse T Brandfass, Adam C Ulano, Joshua P Nickerson, Michael P Bazylewicz
PURPOSE: Although dental caries can be identified on CT and may be treatable, the literature provides little, if any, guidance on the responsibility of a neuroradiologist in reporting them. Untreated dental caries can impact diet and nutrition and can result in a variety of complications such as an odontogenic abscess, tooth loss, sinusitis, and dental pain, which can impact quality of life. The estimated prevalence of untreated dental caries in adults is 27%. In our experience, the prevalence of untreated dental caries in patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) is higher but dental caries are often unmentioned or unrecognized...
January 7, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Yogesh Sean Gupta, Stephen Ling, Omer Awan, Padmaja Jonnalagada, Sarah Fenerty, Sayed Ali
PURPOSE: The main purpose of the study is to determine if the presence of a particular computed tomography (CT) imaging finding, a bursal lipohematoma, portends the presence of a concomitant rotator cuff tear (RCT) in patients with proximal humerus fractures by reviewing previous CTs. METHODS: Three hundred eighty-six CT scans were retrospectively reviewed by two board-certified radiologists to determine the presence of a proximal humerus fracture and to assess for the presence of a subacromial/subdeltoid or subcoracoid bursal hematoma...
January 6, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Maham Jehangir, Christopher Mallory, Jonathan R Medverd
A 46-year-old schizophrenic male presented to the emergency department (ED) after deliberate ingestion of an undetermined number of open razor blades. Abdominal radiograph revealed one razor blade but raised suspicion of a second blade which was subsequently confirmed by digital tomosynthesis (DTS), seen as two razor blades superimposed upon each other placed at slightly different angles. A careful search was made during endoscopy and the two razor blades were retrieved from the stomach and duodenum, respectively...
January 6, 2019: Emergency Radiology
Bhavya Rehani, Yi Zhang, Simon Ammanuel, Wade Smith, Ramon G Gonzalez, Daniel L Cooke, Steven W Hetts, S Andrew Josephson, Anthony Kim, J Claude Hemphill, William Dillon
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Standard treatment for stroke is intravenous (IV) injection of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) rapidly after symptom onset. However, there are limitations of IV t-PA treatment, such as a short time window for administration and risk for hemorrhage. Recent trials have demonstrated the benefit of endovascular treatment when added to standard treatment to improve outcomes for patients. Advanced imaging was utilized in some trials to identify patients with proximal intracranial occlusion to target for endovascular reperfusion therapy, and to exclude patients with large infarct cores or poor collateral circulation who would not be expected to benefit from intervention...
December 14, 2018: Emergency Radiology
David M Thomas, Patrick D McLaughlin, James P Nugent, Sarah A Barrett, John R Mayo, Ana-Maria Bilawich, Graham C Wong, Savvas Nicolaou
PURPOSE: This retrospective study reports the frequency and severity of coronary artery motion on dual-source high-pitch (DSHP), conventional pitch single-source (SS), and dual-source dual-energy (DE) CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) studies. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients underwent CTPA scans for suspected pulmonary embolism between September 1, 2013 and January 31, 2014. One hundred ninety-four at DSHP scans, 57 SS scans, and 37 DE scans were analyzed...
December 12, 2018: Emergency Radiology
Jacob C Mandell, William C Wrobel, Olga Laur, Nandish Shah, Cory Robinson-Weiss, Michael J Weaver, Bharti Khurana
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the effect of teaching a simplified treatment-based classification of proximal femoral fractures on the accuracy, confidence, and inter-reader agreement of radiology residents. The authors hypothesize that these measures will improve after viewing an educational presentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three radiology residents independently classified 100 operative proximal femoral fractures, both before and after viewing a 45-min educational video describing the simplified classification scheme, with a washout period of at least 12 weeks between sessions...
November 23, 2018: Emergency Radiology
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