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CNS Drugs

Matthew J Sharman, Giuseppe Verdile, Shanmugam Kirubakaran, Cristina Parenti, Ahilya Singh, Georgina Watt, Tim Karl, Dennis Chang, Chun Guang Li, Gerald Münch
Studies of the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have revealed key neuropathological features, such as the deposition of aggregates of insoluble amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). These pathological protein deposits, including Aβ peptides (which form senile plaques) and hyperphosphorylated tau (which aggregates into NFTs), have been assumed to be 'the cause of AD'. Aβ has been extensively targeted to develop an effective disease-modifying therapy, but with limited clinical success...
March 21, 2019: CNS Drugs
Richard B Lipton, Sagar Munjal, Elimor Brand-Schieber, Alan M Rapoport
BACKGROUND: The commercial formulation of sumatriptan nasal spray is an effective option for migraine patients requiring or preferring a non-oral route of drug administration, but its utility is limited by poor absorption and tolerability issues. DFN-02, a new formulation of sumatriptan 10 mg nasal spray, is co-formulated with a permeation enhancer that gives it pharmacokinetics comparable to subcutaneous sumatriptan. As reported previously, DFN-02 was significantly better than placebo on multiple efficacy endpoints at 2 h postdose, including pain freedom, absence of the most bothersome symptom, and pain relief, and its safety and tolerability profiles were excellent...
March 15, 2019: CNS Drugs
Mohammad Jafferany, Arsh Patel
Skin-picking disorder, also known as excoriation disorder or psychogenic skin excoriations, is an obsessive-compulsive and related disorder that is classified with other body-focused repetitive-behavior disorders in the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Skin-picking disorder is associated with significant comorbidity and psychosocial dysfunction. The disorder has a female predominance across studies, and the average age of onset is variable but commonly in adolescence and adulthood...
March 15, 2019: CNS Drugs
Alfried Kohlschütter, Angela Schulz, Udo Bartsch, Stephan Storch
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses comprise a group of neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders caused by mutations in at least 13 different genes and primarily affect the brain and the retina of children or young adults. The disorders are characterized by progressive neurological deterioration with dementia, epilepsy, loss of vision, motor disturbances, and early death. While various therapeutic strategies are currently being explored as treatment options for these fatal disorders, there is presently only one clinically approved drug that has been shown to effectively attenuate the progression of a specific form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, CLN2 disease (cerliponase alfa, a lysosomal enzyme infused into the brain ventricles of patients with CLN2 disease)...
March 15, 2019: CNS Drugs
Lesley Taylor, Barry Gidal, Graham Blakey, Bola Tayo, Gilmour Morrison
Page 1065, Discussion, Single and Multiple Dose CBD PK, column 2 - the equation that read.
March 4, 2019: CNS Drugs
Manel Pladevall-Vila, Anton Pottegård, Tania Schink, Johan Reutfors, Rosa Morros, Beatriz Poblador-Plou, Antje Timmer, Joan Forns, Maja Hellfritzsch, Tammo Reinders, David Hägg, Maria Giner-Soriano, Alexandra Prados-Torres, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Jesper Hallas, Lena Brandt, Jordi Cortés, Jaume Aguado, Gabriel Perlemuter, Bruno Falissard, Jordi Castellsagué, Emmanuelle Jacquot, Nicolas Deltour, Susana Perez-Gutthann
BACKGROUND: Agomelatine is a melatonin receptor agonist and serotonin 5-HT2C receptor antagonist indicated for depression in adults. Hepatotoxic reactions like acute liver injury (ALI) are an identified risk in the European risk management plan for agomelatine. Hepatotoxic reactions have been reported for other antidepressants, but population studies quantifying these risks are scarce. Antidepressants are widely prescribed, and users often have risk factors for ALI (e.g. metabolic syndrome)...
March 4, 2019: CNS Drugs
Denise Kreutzwiser, Qutaiba A Tawfic
Pain management is complex regardless of whether the pain is acute or chronic in nature or non-cancer or cancer related. In addition, relatively few pain pharmacotherapy options with adequate efficacy and safety data currently exist. Consequently, interest in the role of NMDA receptor antagonists as a pharmacological pain management strategy has surfaced. This narrative review provides an overview of the NMDA receptor and elaborates on the pharmacotherapeutic profile and pain management literature findings for the following NMDA receptor antagonists: ketamine, memantine, dextromethorphan, and magnesium...
March 2, 2019: CNS Drugs
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Lina Palaiodimou, Aristeidis H Katsanos, Konstantinos Voumvourakis, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis Heliopoulos, Theodore Karapanayiotides, Panagiotis Papathanasopoulos, Constantinos Kilidireas, Nikolaos Grigoriadis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2019: CNS Drugs
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Dimos-Dimitrios D Mitsikostas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2019: CNS Drugs
Yvonne Höller, Christoph Helmstaedter, Klaus Lehnertz
The Open Access license, which previously read.
February 26, 2019: CNS Drugs
Abdelrahman Elshafay, Truong Hong Hieu, Mohamed Fahmy Doheim, Mahmoud Attia Mohamed Kassem, Mohammed Fathi ELdoadoa, Sarah Keturah Holloway, Heba Abo-Elghar, Kenji Hirayama, Nguyen Tien Huy
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder classified into four types based on the age of onset of the disease. Early onset is correlated with a higher mortality rate, mainly due to respiratory complications. Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that has shown positive results on SMA both in experimental and cohort studies. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of VPA in patients with SMA...
February 22, 2019: CNS Drugs
Ariela Frieder, Madeleine Fersh, Rachel Hainline, Kristina M Deligiannidis
Postpartum depression is one of the most common complications of childbirth. Untreated postpartum depression can have substantial adverse effects on the well-being of the mother and child, negatively impacting child cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development with lasting consequences. There are a number of therapeutic interventions for postpartum depression including pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, neuromodulation, and hormonal therapy among others, most of which have been adapted from the treatment of major depressive disorder outside of the peripartum period...
February 21, 2019: CNS Drugs
Zeinab Gharaylou, Abbas Tafakhori, Elmira Agah, Vajihe Aghamollaii, Abbas Kebriaeezadeh, Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of cation-chloride cotransporters NKCC1 and KCC2 expression was shown to be related to drug-resistant epilepsy. Previous studies suggested that bumetanide, an inhibitor of NKCC1, might have antiepileptic effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of bumetanide add-on therapy in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and its relation to cation-chloride cotransporters NKCC1 and KCC2. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, single-arm clinical trial in drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients...
February 19, 2019: CNS Drugs
Shih-Yu Chen, Gopi Ravindran, Qichen Zhang, Steve Kisely, Dan Siskind
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is the most effective medication for treatment-refractory schizophrenia. However, it has a high burden of adverse events, including common adverse events such as sialorrhea. Sialorrhea can lead to severe physical complications such as aspiration pneumonia, as well as psychological complications including embarrassment and low self-esteem. Compromised adherence and treatment discontinuation can occur due to intolerability. There have been no meta-analyses examining strategies to mitigate clozapine-induced sialorrhea...
February 13, 2019: CNS Drugs
Anna Serafini, Elizabeth Gerard, Pierre Genton, Arielle Crespel, Philippe Gelisse
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is both a frequent and a very characteristic epileptic syndrome with female preponderance. Treatment of JME in women of childbearing potential must consider multiple factors such as desire for pregnancy, use of contraception, seizure control and previously used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Approximately 85% of cases are well controlled with valproate, which remains the reference AED in JME but is nowadays considered unsafe for the expecting mother and her fetus. The prescription of valproate is now severely restricted in women of childbearing potential but may still be considered, at the lowest possible dose and when pregnancies can be reliably planned, with temporary alternatives to valproate prescribed before fertilization...
February 11, 2019: CNS Drugs
Wenyu Hu, Yanguo Xin, Xin Chen, Zhuyin Song, Zhiyi He, Yinan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid functions as an antifibrinolytic medication and is widely used to treat or prevent excessive blood loss in menorrhagia and during the perioperative period. The efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing mortaligy and disability, and the occurrence of complications during treatment of cerebral hemorrhage remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in patients with cerebral hemorrhage, aiming to improve the evidence-based medical knowledge of treatment options for such patients...
February 11, 2019: CNS Drugs
Gin S Malhi, Kristina Fritz, Preeya Elangovan, Lauren Irwin
Our current conceptualisation of mixed states, defined as co-occurring manic and depressive symptoms, is unlikely to advance our knowledge or inform clinical practice. Episodes of mixed states can no longer be coded in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and the 'mixed features specifier' fails to capture the most common mixed state presentations. This reflects a lack of understanding of both the importance of mixed states and their underlying pathophysiology. Indeed, research into the nature of mixed states is scarce and uninformative, and most clinical practice guidelines fail to provide advice regarding their management...
February 2, 2019: CNS Drugs
Emma D Deeks
The article Cladribine Tablets: A Review in Relapsing MS, written by Emma D. Deeks, was originally published Online First without open access.
January 30, 2019: CNS Drugs
Mei-Tzu Wang, Hsin-Li Liang, Cheng Chung Hung, Pei-Ling Tang, Kun-Chang Lin, Cheng-Hung Chiang, Feng-You Kuo, Jin-Shiou Yang, Chun-Peng Liu, Guang-Yuan Mar, Wei-Chun Huang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combination therapy with dipyridamole and clopidogrel in stroke prevention and long-term outcomes in aspirin-intolerant patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and previous stroke are unknown. This nationwide study analyzed the impact of dipyridamole and clopidogrel on secondary stroke prevention and long-term outcomes in aspirin-intolerant stroke patients after AMI. METHODS: This was a nationwide, case-control study involving 186,112 first AMI patients, 78,607 of whom had a previous history of stroke...
January 16, 2019: CNS Drugs
John M Wild, Saleh Aljarudi, Philip E M Smith, Carlo Knupp
BACKGROUND: The antiepileptic drug vigabatrin is associated with characteristic visual field loss (VAVFL) and thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (PPRNFL); however, the relationship is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the function-structure relationship associated with long-term exposure to vigabatrin, thereby improving the risk/benefit analysis of the drug. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational design identified 40 adults who had received long-term vigabatrin for refractory seizures, who had no evidence of co-existing retino-geniculo-cortical visual pathway abnormality, and who had undergone a standardized protocol of perimetry and of optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the PPRNFL...
January 12, 2019: CNS Drugs
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