Nouf Alfaidi, Salama Karmastaji, Alexandria Matic, Vera Bril
In the last decade, the landscape of treating autoimmune diseases has evolved with the emergence and approval of novel targeted therapies. Several new biological agents offer selective and target-specific immunotherapy and therefore fewer side effects, such as neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-targeting therapy. Neonatal Fc receptor-targeted therapies are engineered to selectively target FcRn through various methods, such as Fc fragments or monoclonal anti-FcRn antibodies. These approaches enhance the breakdown of autoantibodies by blocking the immunoglobulin G recycling pathway...
May 9, 2024: CNS Drugs
Megan Galbally, Karen Wynter, Dan Siskind, Christoph U Correll, Korinne Northwood, Susanna Every-Palmer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotics are core treatments for people living with psychotic disorders. Understanding individualised factors that influence both efficacy and adverse responses will improve outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine sex differences in antipsychotic-related efficacy and tolerability. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data from phase 1 and 1a of Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE); participants with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to double-blinded treatment with oral olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone or perphenazine...
May 7, 2024: CNS Drugs
Loretta Giuliano, Vania Durante, Giulia Battaglia, Sara Gasparini, Elena Zambrelli, Caterina Ermio, Angela La Neve, Barbara Mostacci
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in epilepsy have been described in prevalence, seizure propensity and response to treatment. Therefore, taking into account sex-based differences in epilepsy is important for both diagnostic purposes and therapeutic considerations. However, little is known about sex differences in adverse effects of antiseizure medications (ASMs). OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review searching for sex differences in adverse effects of ASMs in adult persons with epilepsy (PWE) as part of a wider project aimed to assess sex-based differences in efficacy and adverse effects of ASMs in PWE...
April 30, 2024: CNS Drugs
Rebecca De Lorenzo, Mario G Mazza, Clara Sciorati, Roberto Leone, Francesco Scavello, Mariagrazia Palladini, Aurora Merolla, Fabio Ciceri, Barbara Bottazzi, Cecilia Garlanda, Francesco Benedetti, Patrizia Rovere-Querini, Angelo A Manfredi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often persist after acute disease resolution. Underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. The objective of this original article was to longitudinally measure plasma levels of markers of the innate immune response to investigate whether they associate with and predict post-COVID symptomatology. METHODS: Adult patients with previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during the first pandemic wave who underwent the 6-month multidisciplinary follow-up were included...
April 24, 2024: CNS Drugs
Hasan Çağın Lenk, Robert Løvsletten Smith, Kevin S O'Connell, Ole A Andreassen, Espen Molden
INTRODUCTION: Adequate antipsychotic treatment intensity is required before diagnosing resistant schizophrenia and initiating clozapine treatment. We aimed to investigate potential rapid drug metabolism underlying low dose-adjusted serum concentration (CD) of non-clozapine atypical antipsychotics preceding clozapine treatment. METHODS: Patients using non-clozapine, atypical antipsychotics (aripiprazole, risperidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine) within 1 year before starting clozapine were included in this study from a therapeutic drug monitoring service in Oslo, Norway, between 2005 and 2023...
April 18, 2024: CNS Drugs
Mohamed G Zeinhom, Ahmed Elbassiouny, Ahmed Mahmoud Mohamed, Sherihan Rezk Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Large-vessel ischemic stroke represents about 25-40% of all ischemic strokes. Few clinical trials compared ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in ischemic stroke patients; all these studies included only patients with a transient ischemic attack or minor stroke; moreover, none of these studies included patients from North Africa. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in the first-ever large-vessel occlusion (LVO) acute ischemic stroke in Egypt...
April 15, 2024: CNS Drugs
Federico Carbone, Atbin Djamshidian
Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are relatively common drug-induced addictive behaviours that are usually triggered by the dopamine agonists pramipexole, ropinirole and rotigotine. This narrative review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease. We summarised the prevalence, clinical features, risk factors and potential underlying mechanisms of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease. Moreover, recent advances in behavioural and imaging characteristics and management strategies are discussed...
April 13, 2024: CNS Drugs
Libat Weizman, Haggai Sharon, Lior Dayan, Joumana Espaniol, Silviu Brill, Hadas Nahman-Averbuch, Talma Hendler, Giris Jacob
BACKGROUND: Disordered autonomic nervous system regulation and supraspinal pain inhibition have been repeatedly described in chronic pain. We aimed to explore the effects of δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), an emerging treatment option, on autonomic nervous system and central pain modulation measures in patients with chronic pain. METHODS: Twelve male patients with chronic radicular neuropathic pain participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-administration trial...
April 10, 2024: CNS Drugs
Fernando L Pagan, Paul E Schulz, Yasar Torres-Yaghi, Gregory M Pontone
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with the development of psychosis (PDP), including hallucinations and delusions, in more than half of the patient population. Optimal PD management must therefore involve considerations about both motor and non-motor symptoms. Often, clinicians fail to diagnosis psychosis in patients with PD and, when it is recognized, treat it suboptimally, despite the availability of multiple interventions. In this paper, we provide a summary of the current guidelines and clinical evidence for treating PDP with antipsychotics...
April 8, 2024: CNS Drugs
Amira Salim, Elise Hennessy, Claire Sonneborn, Olivia Hogue, Sudipa Biswas, MaryAnn Mays, Aarushi Suneja, Zubair Ahmed, Ignacio F Mata
BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic migraine do not achieve clinically meaningful improvement in their headache frequency with monotherapy. The burden associated with chronic migraine calls for a multifaceted treatment approach targeting multiple aspects of migraine pathophysiology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and onabotulinumtoxinA (onabot) treatment on median monthly migraine days (MMD) in patients with chronic migraine, through a retrospective study...
April 7, 2024: CNS Drugs
Ming Sun, Martijn L Manson, Tingjie Guo, Elizabeth C M de Lange
Neurotropic viruses may cause meningitis, myelitis, encephalitis, or meningoencephalitis. These inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS) may have serious and devastating consequences if not treated adequately. In this review, we first summarize how neurotropic viruses can enter the CNS by (1) crossing the blood-brain barrier or blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier; (2) invading the nose via the olfactory route; or (3) invading the peripheral nervous system. Neurotropic viruses may then enter the intracellular space of brain cells via endocytosis and/or membrane fusion...
April 5, 2024: CNS Drugs
Jian-Shun Zhou, Zhen Chen, Ying-Ying Liu, Mao-Lin Zhong, Qiong Zhong, Jun Wei, Qian Hu, Jia-Sheng Wang, Li-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal discectomy (PETD) is an effective method for treating lumbar disc herniation, and is typically performed under local anesthesia. However, inadequate analgesia during the procedure remains a concern, prompting the search for a medication that can provide optimal pain control with minimal impact on the respiratory and circulatory systems. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of different doses of esketamine combined with dexmedetomidine on reducing visual analog scale (VAS) scores during surgical interventions...
April 4, 2024: CNS Drugs
Elisa Menozzi, Anthony H V Schapira
The concept of a 'microbiota-gut-brain axis' has recently emerged as an important player in the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease (PD), not least because of the reciprocal interaction between gut bacteria and medications. The gut microbiota can influence levodopa kinetics, and conversely, drugs administered for PD can influence gut microbiota composition. Through a two-step enzymatic pathway, gut microbes can decarboxylate levodopa to dopamine in the small intestine and then dehydroxylate it to m-tyramine, thus reducing availability...
April 3, 2024: CNS Drugs
Rachel Goldstein, Natalie Rabkin, Noa Buchman, Aviya R Jacobs, Khaled Sandouka, Bruria Raccah, Tamar Fisher Negev, Ilan Matok, Meir Bialer, Mordechai Muszkat
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Post-stroke epilepsy represents an important clinical challenge as it often requires both treatment with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and antiseizure medications (ASMs). Levetiracetam (LEV), an ASM not known to induce metabolizing enzymes, has been suggested as a safer alternative to enzyme-inducing (EI)-ASMs in patients treated with DOACs; however, current clinical guidelines suggest caution when LEV is used with DOACs because of possible P-glycoprotein induction and competition (based on preclinical studies)...
March 23, 2024: CNS Drugs
Nora Vanegas-Arroyave, Stanley N Caroff, Leslie Citrome, Jovita Crasta, Roger S McIntyre, Jonathan M Meyer, Amita Patel, J Michael Smith, Khody Farahmand, Rachel Manahan, Leslie Lundt, Samantha A Cicero
Drug-induced movement disorders (DIMDs) are associated with use of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs), including antipsychotics. The most common forms are drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP), dystonia, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia (TD). Although rare, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially life-threatening consequence of DRBA exposure. Recommendations for anticholinergic use in patients with DIMDs were developed on the basis of a roundtable discussion with healthcare professionals with extensive expertise in DIMD management, along with a comprehensive literature review...
March 19, 2024: CNS Drugs
Rosa Cortese, Giovanna Testa, Francesco Assogna, Nicola De Stefano
Numerous therapies are currently available to modify the disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a pivotal role in assessing treatment response by providing insights into disease activity and clinical progression. Integrating MRI findings with clinical and laboratory data enables a comprehensive assessment of the disease course. Among available MS treatments, cladribine is emerging as a promising option due to its role as a selective immune reconstitution therapy, with a notable impact on B cells and a lesser effect on T cells...
March 15, 2024: CNS Drugs
Kathrine Bang Madsen, Mette Bliddal, Charlotte Borg Skoglund, Henrik Larsson, Trine Munk-Olsen, Malene Galle Madsen, Per Hove Thomsen, Veerle Bergink, Chaitra Srinivas, Jacqueline M Cohen, Isabell Brikell, Xiaoqin Liu
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of women of reproductive age are treated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication; however, patterns of ADHD medication use for women in the perinatal period have not been well described. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe ADHD medication use patterns from 1 year before pregnancy to 1 year after delivery, and to describe sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features by medication trajectories...
March 15, 2024: CNS Drugs
Gemma Mestre-Bach, Marc N Potenza
Compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) has recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. Pharmacological treatments for CSBD have received little study and thus have limited empirical support. The main objective of the present work is to review existing literature on the efficacy of different drugs on the symptomatology of CSBD, including the subtype of problematic pornography use (PPU). The main pharmacological approaches to treating CSBD have included opioid antagonists (naltrexone and nalmefene), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (paroxetine, citalopram, fluoxetine, and sertraline), mood stabilizers (topiramate), tricyclic antidepressants (clomipramine), serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors (nefazodone), and N-acetylcysteine...
March 14, 2024: CNS Drugs
Kordula Lang-Illievich, Johanna Lang, Gudrun Rumpold-Seitlinger, Christian Dorn, Connor T A Brenna, Christoph Klivinyi, Helmar Bornemann-Cimenti
INTRODUCTION: The administration of opioids can be followed by enduring neuroplastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems. This remodeling can lead to opioid-induced hyperalgesia, causing an increased sensitivity to painful stimuli. The description of opioid-induced changes in the somatosensory system has seldom been described in the setting of opioid agonist therapy in the treatment of opioid use disorders, and the few existing reports provide no guidance with respect to the effect of varied doses or substances...
February 29, 2024: CNS Drugs
Andreas W Wolff, Jörg Peine, Josef Höfler, Gabriela Zurek, Claus Hemker, Paul Lingor
BACKGROUND: The intravenous (IV) formulation of Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor fasudil has been approved for the treatment of subarachnoid haemorrhage since 1995. Additionally, fasudil has shown promising preclinical results for various chronic diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and dementia, in which long-term intravenous (IV) administration might not be suitable. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the absolute bioavailability of oral, in comparison to IV, application of the approved formulation of fasudil (ERIL®) and to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the oral application of fasudil...
April 2024: CNS Drugs
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