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Plant & Cell Physiology

Wen-Jing You, Yun-Ru Feng, Ya-Han Shen, Yi-Ru Chen, Tzy-Yi Chen, Shih-Feng Fu
DNA methylation is a chromatin mark that has a crucial role in regulating gene expression. The chromomethylase (CMT) protein family is a plant-specific DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) that mediates growth and development. However, the roles of CMT3 in autophagy remain to be elucidated. Here, we identified the potential targets of CMT3 in Nicotiana benthamiana (NbCMT3) during developmental programs. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbCMT3/3-2 in N. benthamiana had pleiotropic effects on plant morphology, which indicates its indispensible role in development...
February 20, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Panneerselvam Krishnamurthy, Yukiko Fujisawa, Yuya Takahashi, Hanako Abe, Kentaro Yamane, Kyosuke Mukaiyama, Hae-Reon Son, Susumu Hiraga, Akito Kaga, Toyoaki Anai, Chigen Tsukamoto, Masao Ishimoto
Triterpenes (C30) constitute one of the diverse class of natural products with potential applications in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Soyasaponins are oleanane-type triterpenoids widespread among legumes and particularly abundant in soybean seeds. They have associated with various pharmacological implications and undesirable taste properties of soybean-based food products. Uncovering the biosynthetic genes of soyasaponins will provide new opportunities to control the pathway for human benefits...
February 12, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Makio Yokono, Atsushi Takabayashi, Junko Kishimoto, Tomomichi Fujita, Masakazu Iwai, Akio Murakami, Seiji Akimoto, Ayumi Tanaka
Energy dissipation is crucial for land and shallow-water plants exposed to direct sunlight. Almost all green plants dissipate excess excitation energy to protect the photosystem reaction centers, PSII and PSI, and continue to grow under strong light. In our previous work, we reported that about half of photosystem reaction centers form a PSI-PSII megacomplex in Arabidopsis thaliana, and that the excess energy was transferred from PSII to PSI fast. However, the physiological function and structure of the megacomplex remained unclear...
February 11, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
William C Plaxton
The aim of this article is to discuss approaches to diagnose and prevent unwanted proteolysis during extraction and isolation of active enzymes from plant tissues. Enzymes are protein catalysts that require great care during sample processing in order to ensure that they remain intact and fully active. Preventing artefactual enzyme modifications ex planta is of utmost importance in order to obtain biologically relevant data. This is particularly problematic following enzyme extraction from plant tissues, which relative to microbes or animals contain relatively low protein amounts coupled with high concentrations of vacuolar proteases...
February 8, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Florian Chevalier, Laura Cuyas, Juliette Jouhet, Valérie Gros, Serge Chiarenza, David Secco, James Whelan, Khawla Seddiki, Maryse A Block, Laurent Nussaume, Eric Marechal
Jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signaling are activated in Arabidopsis cultivated in phosphate (Pi) deprived conditions. This activation occurs mainly in photosynthetic tissues and is less important in roots. In leaves, the enhanced biosynthesis of JA coincides with membrane glycerolipid remodeling triggered by the lack of Pi. We addressed the possible role of JA on the dynamics and magnitude of glycerolipid remodeling in response to Pi-deprivation and resupply. Based on combined analyses of gene expression, JA biosynthesis and glycerolipid remodeling in wild type Arabidopsis and in the coi1-16 mutant, JA signaling seems important in the determination of the basal levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG)...
February 8, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yanping Wang, Josh P Clevenger, Eudald Illa-Berenguer, Tea Meulia, Esther van der Knaap, Liang Sun
Elongated tomato fruit shape is the result of the action of the fruit shape genes possibly in coordination with the phytohormone auxin. To investigate the possible link between auxin and the fruit shape genes, a series of auxin (2,4-D) treatments were performed on the WT and the fruit shape NILs in Solanum pimpinellifolium accession LA1589 background. Morphological and histological analyses indicated that auxin application approximately three weeks before anthesis (WBA) led to elongated pear-shaped ovaries and fruits, which was mainly attributed to the increase of ovary/fruit proximal end caused by the increase of both cell number and cell size...
February 8, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hongcheng Fang, Yuhui Dong, Xuanxuan Yue, Xiaoliu Chen, Naibo He, Jiafei Hu, Shenghui Jiang, Haifeng Xu, Yicheng Wang, Mengyu Su, Jing Zhang, Zongying Zhang, Nan Wang, Xuesen Chen
In many plants, anthocyanin biosynthesis is affected by environmental conditions. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation promotes anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in apple skin, whereas high temperature suppresses these processes. In this study, we characterized a B-box transcription factor, MdCOL4, from 'Fuji' apple, and identified its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis by overexpressing its encoding gene in apple red callus. The expression of MdCOL4 was reduced by UV-B, but promoted by high temperature...
February 1, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shige-Hiro Sugiyama, Yukiko Yasui, Suzuha Ohmori, Wakana Tanaka, Hiro-Yuki Hirano
The ABC model in flower development represents a milestone of plant developmental studies and is essentially conserved across a wide range of angiosperm species. Despite this overall conservation, individual genes in the ABC model are not necessarily conserved and sometimes plays a species-specific role, depending on the plant. We previously reported that carpels are specified by the YABBY gene DROOPING LEAF (DL) in rice (Oryza sativa), which bears flowers that are distinct from those of eudicots. By contrast, another group reported that carpels are specified by two class C genes, OsMADS3 and OsMADS58...
February 1, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Johanna A Bac-Molenaar, Selena Mol, Maarten G Verlaan, Joke van Elven, Hye Kyong Kim, Peter G L Klinkhamer, Kirsten A Leiss, Klaas Vrieling
Western Flower Thrips (WFT) are a major pest on many crops, including tomato. Thrips cause yield losses, not only through feeding damage, but also by the transmission of viruses of which the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus is the most important one. In cultivated tomato genetic diversity is extremely low and all commercial lines are susceptible to WFT. Several wild relatives are WFT resistant and these resistances are based on glandular trichome derived traits. Introgression of these traits in cultivated lines did not lead to WFT resistant commercial varieties so far...
February 1, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Fantao Kong, Yasuyo Yamaoka, Takeshi Ohama, Youngsook Lee, Yonghua Li-Beisson
Microalgae constitute a highly diverse group of eukaryotic and photosynthetic microorganisms that have developed extremely efficient systems for harvesting and transforming solar energy into energy-rich molecules such as lipids. Although microalgae are considered to be one of the most promising platforms for the sustainable production of liquid oil, the oil content of these organismis is naturally low, and algal oil production is currently not economically viable. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) is an established algal model due to its fast growth, high transformation efficiency, and well-understood physiology and to the availability of detailed genome information and versatile molecular tools for this organism...
January 31, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Lifang Zhao, Tegan M Haslam, Annika Sonntag, Isabel Molina, Ljerka Kunst
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACSs) play diverse and essential roles in lipid metabolism. The genomes of model eukaryotic organisms encode multiple LACS genes, and the substrate specificities of LACS homologs often overlap substantially. Homologous LACSs instead tend to differ in their expression patterns, localizations, and, by extension, the metabolic pathways to which they contribute. The Arabidopsis genome encodes a family of nine LACS genes, which have been characterized largely by reverse-genetic analysis of mutant phenotypes...
January 31, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hanno C Resemann, Milena Lewandowska, Jasmin Gömann, Ivo Feussner
The moss Physcomitrella patens receives increased scientific interest since its genome was sequenced a decade ago. As a bryophyte, it represents the first group of plants that evolved in a terrestrial habitat still without a vascular system, that developed later in tracheophytes. It is easily transformable via homologous recombination, which enables the formation of targeted loss-of-function mutants. Even though genetics, development and life cycle in Physcomitrella are well studied nowadays, research on lipids in Physcomitrella is still underdeveloped...
January 30, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ryutaro Morita, Naoko Croft, Naoki Shibatani, Satoko Miura, Yuko Hosaka, Naoko F Oitome, Ken-Ichi Ikeda, Naoko Fujita, Hiroshi Fukayama
CO2 Responsive CCT protein (CRCT) is suggested to be a positive regulator of starch biosynthesis in the leaf sheaths of rice, regulating the expression levels of starch biosynthesis related genes. In this study, the effects of CRCT expression levels on the expression of starch biosynthesis related enzymes and the quality of starch were studied. Using native-PAGE/activity staining and immunoblotting, we found that the protein levels of starch synthase I, branching enzyme I, branching enzyme IIa, isoamylase 1 and phosphorylase 1 were largely correlated with the CRCT expression levels in the leaf sheaths of CRCT transgenic lines...
January 25, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
A A Lavell, C Benning
Great strides have been made in understanding how membranes and lipid droplets are formed and maintained in land plants, yet much more is to be learned given the complexity of plant lipid metabolism. A complicating factor is the multi-organellar presence of biosynthetic enzymes and unique compositional requirements of different membrane systems. This necessitates a rich network of transporters and transport mechanisms that supply fatty acids, membrane lipids, and storage lipids to their final cellular destination...
January 25, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Sun Liangliang, Ping Zhang, Ruling Wang, Jinpeng Wan, Qiong Ju, Steven J Rothstein, Jin Xu
Studies have indicated that the carbon starvation response leads to the reprogramming of the transcriptome and metabolome, and many genes, including several important regulators, such as the group S1 basic leucine zipper transcription factors bZIP1, bZIP11, and bZIP53, the SNAC-A transcription factor ATAF1, etc., are involved in these physiological processes. Here, we show that the SNAC-A transcription factor ANAC032 also plays important roles in this process. The overexpression of ANAC032 inhibits photosynthesis and induces ROS accumulation in chloroplasts, thereby reducing sugar accumulation and resulting in carbon starvation...
January 25, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Wan-Yi Chiou, Tadafumi Kawamoto, Eiko Himi, Rikiishi, Manabu Sugimoto, Mika Hayashi-Tsugane, Kazuo Tsugane, Masahiko Maekawa
Grain size is a key determiner of grain weight, one of the yield components in rice (Oryza sativa). Therefore, to increase grain yield, it is important to elucidate the detailed mechanisms regulating grain size. The Large grain (Lgg) mutant, found in the nDart1-tagged lines of Koshihikari, is caused by a truncated nDart1-3 and 355 bp deletion in the 5' UTR of LGG, which encodes a putative RNA-binding protein, through transposon display and cosegregation analysis between grain length and LGG genotype in F2 and F3...
January 25, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ángel Soria-García, María C Rubio, Beatriz Lagunas, Sara López-Gomollón, María de Los Ángeles Luján, Raúl Díaz-Guerra, Rafael Picorel, Miguel Alfonso
To overcome the difficulties to analyze membrane desaturases at the protein level, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the plastidial AtFAD7 and AtFAD8 ω-3 desaturases fused to GFP, under the control of their endogenous promoters, were generated and their tissue relative abundance was studied. Gene expression, GUS promoter activity, immunoblot and confocal microscopy analyses indicated that AtFAD7 is the major ω-3 desaturase in leaves when compared to AtFAD8. This higher abundance of AtFAD7 was consistent with its higher promoter activity and could be related with its specificity for the abundant leaf galactolipids...
January 25, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yoshinao Mori, Yusuke Kurokawa, Masaya Koike, Al Imran Malik, Timothy David Colmer, Motoyuki Ashikari, Ole Pedersen, Keisuke Nagai
Deepwater rice has a remarkable shoot elongation response to partial submergence. Shoot elongation to maintain air-contact enables 'snorkelling' of O2 to submerged organs. Previous research has focused on partial submergence of deepwater rice. We tested the hypothesis that leaf gas films enhance internode O2 status and stem elongation of deepwater rice when completely submerged. Diel patterns of O2 partial pressure (pO2) were measured in internodes of deepwater rice when partially or completely submerged, and with or without gas films on leaves, for the completely submerged plants...
January 22, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Haruka Shinkawa, Masataka Kajikawa, Yuko Nomura, Mayu Ogura, Yuri Sawaragi, Takashi Yamano, Hirofumi Nakagami, Naoyuki Sugiyama, Yasushi Ishihama, Yu Kanesaki, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Hideya Fukuzawa
Nutrient-deprived microalgae accumulate triacylglycerol (TAG) in lipid droplets. A dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase, TAG accumulation regulator 1 (TAR1) has been shown to be required for acetate-dependent TAG accumulation and the degradation of chlorophyll and photosynthesis-related proteins in photomixotrophic nitrogen (N)-deficient conditions (Kajikawa et al. 2015). However, this previous report only examined particular condition. Here, we report that in photoautotrophic N-deficient conditions, tar1-1 cells, with a mutation in the TAR1 gene, maintained higher levels of cell viability and lower levels of hydrogen peroxide generation and accumulated higher levels of TAG and starch compared with those of wild-type (WT) cells with bubbling of air containing 5% carbon dioxide...
January 22, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
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