Shilpa Kuttikrishnan, Kirti S Prabhu, Abdul Q Khan, Shahab Uddin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytokine-mediated signaling pathways, including JAK/STAT, PI3K/AKT, and Ras/MAPK pathways, play an important role in the process of erythropoiesis. These pathways are involved in the survival, proliferation, and differentiation function of erythropoiesis. RECENT FINDINGS: The JAK/STAT pathway controls erythroid progenitor differentiation, proliferation, and survival. The PI3K/AKT signaling cascade facilitates erythroid progenitor survival, proliferation, and final differentiation...
February 8, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Mark J Koury, Daniel J Hausrath
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the last century, the diseases associated with macrocytic anemia have been changing with more patients currently having hematological diseases including malignancies and myelodysplastic syndrome. The intracellular mechanisms underlying the development of anemia with macrocytosis can help in understanding normal erythropoiesis. Adaptations to these diseases involving erythroid progenitor and precursor cells lead to production of fewer but larger red blood cells, and understanding these mechanisms can provide information for possible treatments...
February 8, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Katsue Suzuki-Inoue, Nagaharu Tsukiji
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Platelets are essential for hemostasis and are also vital in lymphatic and lung development and the maintenance of vascular integrity. Platelet activation receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) and its endogenous ligand podoplanin (PDPN) in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and other cells regulate these processes. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the roles of platelet CLEC-2 and PDPN. This review also focuses on discussing the underlying mechanisms by which platelet CLEC-2 and PDPN mediate blood/lymphatic separation...
February 7, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Sonia Aguila, Rocio Gonzalez-Conejero, Constantino Martinez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thrombo-inflammation is a multifaceted pathologic process involving various cells such as platelets, neutrophils, and monocytes. In recent years, microRNAs have been consistently implicated as regulators of these cells. RECENT FINDINGS: MicroRNAs play a regulatory role in several platelet receptors that have recently been identified as contributing to thrombo-inflammation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. In addition, a growing body of evidence has shown that several intracellular and extracellular microRNAs directly promote NET formation...
January 25, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Sarah E Shelton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes innovations in vascular microphysiological systems (MPS) and discusses the themes that have emerged from recent works. RECENT FINDINGS: Vascular MPS are increasing in complexity and ability to replicate tissue. Many labs use vascular MPS to study transport phenomena such as analyzing endothelial barrier function. Beyond vascular permeability, these models are also being used for pharmacological studies, including drug distribution and toxicity modeling...
January 19, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Hematology
Tal Bacharach, Nathali Kaushansky, Liran I Shlush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Both aging and reduced diversity at the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) level are ubiquitous. What remains unclear is why some individuals develop clonal hematopoiesis (CH), and why does CH due to specific mutations occur in specific individuals. Much like aging, reduced diversity of HSCs is a complex phenotype shaped by numerous factors (germline & environment). The purpose of the current review is to discuss the role of two other age-related ubiquitous processes that might contribute to the dynamics and characteristics of losing HSC diversity and the evolution of CH...
December 18, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
Ann-Kathrin Eisfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize different contributors to survival disparities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. The focus is set on African-American (hereafter referred to as Black) patients, with separate consideration of self-reported race and ancestry. It aims to also highlight the interconnectivity of the different features that impact on despair survival. RECENT FINDINGS: The main themes in the literature covered in this article include the impact of social deprivation, clinical trial enrollment and biobanking, structural racism and ancestry-associated differences in genetic features on survival outcomes...
December 8, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
Daniela V Wenge, Scott A Armstrong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an update on the successes and ongoing challenges of Menin inhibition as a novel approach for the treatment of patients with acute leukemias that express HOXA cluster genes including leukemias with KMT2A-rearrangements, NPM1 mutations or NUP98-rearrangements. Initial clinical trials show promising response rates in heavily pretreated patients suggesting these inhibitors may have a significant impact on patient outcome. Furthermore, the development of resistance mutations that decrease drug binding affinity, validates Menin as a therapeutic target in human cancers...
November 24, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
Karen Guo, Kellie R Machlus, Virginia Camacho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Single-cell RNA sequencing studies have revealed transcriptional heterogeneity within the megakaryocytic lineage and the identified unique subsets. In this review, we discuss the functional and phenotypic plasticity of these subpopulations as well as the impacts on health and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Megakaryocytes (MKs) can be transcriptionally categorized into platelet generating, niche supporting, immune, and cycling cells, which are distinguished by their unique gene expression patterns and cellular markers...
November 2, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
Katherine H Tiemeyer, David J Kuter, Christopher W Cairo, Marie A Hollenhorst
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The platelet surface harbors a lush forest of glycans (carbohydrate polymers) attached to membrane proteins and lipids. Accumulating evidence suggests that these glycans may be relevant to the pathophysiology of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Here, we critically evaluate data that point to a possible role for loss of sialic acid in driving platelet clearance in ITP, comment on the potential use of neuraminidase inhibitors for treatment of ITP, and highlight open questions in this area...
November 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
Donald R Branch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (wAIHA) is the most common of the immune hemolytic anemias. Although there are numerous case reports and reviews regarding this condition, some of the unusual and more recent findings have not been fully defined and may be contentious. This review will provide insight into the common specificity of the warm autoantibodies and hypothesize a novel mechanism of wAIHA, that is proposed to be linked to the controversial subject of red blood cell senescence...
November 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
Olga An, Carsten Deppermann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Activated or aged platelets are removed from circulation under (patho)physiologic conditions, the exact mechanism of platelet clearance under such conditions remains unclear and are currently being investigated. This review focuses on recent findings and controversies regarding platelet clearance and the disruption of platelet life cycle. RECENT FINDINGS: The platelet life span is determined by glycosylation of platelet surface receptors with sialic acid...
October 31, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
Ingmar Schoen, Martin Kenny, Smita Patil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights how the perception of platelet function is evolving based on recent insights into platelet mechanobiology. RECENT FINDINGS: The mechanosensitive ion channel Piezo1 mediates activation of free-flowing platelets under conditions of flow acceleration through mechanisms independent of adhesion receptors and classical activation pathways. Interference with the initiation of platelet migration or with the phenotypic switch of migrating platelets to a procoagulant state aggravates inflammatory bleeding...
October 17, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
Amelia Drysdale, Azziza Zaabalawi, Sarah Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Models of arterial thrombus formation represent a vital experimental tool to investigate platelet function and test novel antithrombotic drugs. This review highlights some of the recent advances in modelling thrombus formation in vitro and suggests potential future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Microfluidic devices and the availability of commercial chips in addition to enhanced accessibility of 3D printing has facilitated a rapid surge in the development of novel in vitro thrombosis models...
October 13, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
Berk Taskin, Tia C L Kohs, Joseph J Shatzel, Cristina Puy, Owen J T McCarty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the pathophysiology and potential therapeutic options for treatment of multiple sclerosis, a common neuronal demyelinating disorder affecting 2.2 million people worldwide. As an autoimmune disorder, multiple sclerosis is associated with neuroinflammation and increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), although the cause linking multiple sclerosis with compromised barrier function remains ill-defined. It has been previously shown that coagulation factors, including thrombin and fibrin, exacerbate the inflammatory processes and permeability of the BBB...
September 6, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
Niketa C Shah, Hemalatha G Rangarajan, Alexander Ngwube, Shalini Shenoy
Sickle cell disease is a debilitating hemoglobinopathy with high morbidity and mortality. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is curative, but the presence of mixed donor/recipient chimerism post-HCT raises concerns about disease control long-term. Mixed donor/recipient chimerism is reported in significant numbers even after aggressive HCT conditioning regimens. Post-HCT, adequacy of donor erythropoiesis is crucial for disease control. This review explores the relationship between mixed donor/recipient chimerism and outcomes post-HCT...
September 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
Regan Bucciol, Maha Othman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), such as venous thromboembolism (VTE), is a frequent complication in cancer patients, resulting in poor prognosis. Breast cancer is not highly thrombogenic but is highly prevalent, resulting in increased VTE cases. Many cancers express tissue factor (TF), a glycoprotein that triggers coagulation. The cancer cells were shown to express and release substantial amounts of TF-positive microparticles (MPTF), associated with a prothrombotic state...
September 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
María Teresa Álvarez-Román, Raquel Díaz Merchán, Roberto Carlos Raynero Mellado, Victor Jiménez-Yuste
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present a case of a boy diagnosed in 2007 with severe haemophilia B [factor IX (FIX) concentration < 1%] at age of 9 months. He was initially treated with recombinant FIX concentrates, but changes in regimens were frequent due to spontaneous hemarthros. In 2013, he entered a phase III trial (NCT01662531) and received rIX-FP, IDELVION at 50 IU/kg once a week. Although the boy was safely maintained with this regimen (2015-2017), the number of hemarthros increased after he started to play football...
September 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2023: Current Opinion in Hematology
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