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Molecular Membrane Biology

Marta Ceccon, Elisa Millana Fananas, Marta Massari, Andrea Mattevi, Francesca Magnani
NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are membrane enzymes whose sole function is the generation of reactive oxygen species. Humans have seven NOX isoenzymes that feature distinct functions in immune response and cell-signaling but share the same catalytic core comprising a FAD-binding dehydrogenase domain and a heme-binding transmembrane domain. We previously described a mutation that stabilizes the dehydrogenase domain of a prokaryotic homolog of human NOX5. The thermostable mutant exhibited a large 19°C increase in the melting temperature (Tm ) and a much tighter binding of the FAD cofactor, which allowed the crystallization and structure determination of the domain holo-form...
October 11, 2018: Molecular Membrane Biology
Martin Baron
Notch is a conserved cell signalling receptor regulating many aspects of development and tissue homeostasis. Notch is activated by ligand-induced proteolytic cleavages that release the Notch intracellular domain, which relocates to the nucleus to regulate gene transcription. Proteolytic activation first requires mechanical force to be applied to the Notch extracellular domain through an endocytic pulling mechanism transmitted through the ligand/receptor interface. This exposes the proteolytic cleavage site allowing the signal to be initiated following removal of the Notch extracellular domain...
September 24, 2018: Molecular Membrane Biology
Ensaf Y Almomani, Nicolas Touret, Emmanuelle Cordat
Mutations in the gene encoding the kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) can lead to distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). dRTA mutations reported within the carboxyl (C)-terminal tail of kAE1 result in apical mis-targeting of the exchanger in polarized renal epithelial cells. As kAE1 physically interacts with the μ subunit of epithelial adaptor protein 1 B (AP-1B), we investigated the role of heterologously expressed μ1B subunit of the AP-1B complex for kAE1 retention to the basolateral membrane in polarized porcine LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells that are devoid of endogenous AP-1B...
April 13, 2018: Molecular Membrane Biology
Xiaoyun Bai, Trevor F Moraes, Reinhart A F Reithmeier
The human solute carriers (SLCs) comprise over 400 different transporters, organized into 65 families ( ) based on their sequence homology and transport function. SLCs are responsible for transporting extraordinarily diverse solutes across biological membranes, including inorganic ions, amino acids, lipids, sugars, neurotransmitters and drugs. Most of these membrane proteins function as coupled symporters (co-transporters) utilizing downhill ion (H+ or Na+ ) gradients as the driving force for the transport of substrate against its concentration gradient into cells...
April 13, 2018: Molecular Membrane Biology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Molecular Membrane Biology
Deepak Anand, Arunima Chaudhuri
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) (∼50-250 nm in diameter) are produced by both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria as a canonical end product of secretion. In this review, we focus on the OMVs produced by gram-negative bacteria. We provide an overview of the OMV structure, various factors regulating their production, and their role in modulating host immune response using a few representative examples. In light of the importance of the diverse cargoes carried by OMVs, we discuss the different modes of their entry into the host cell and advances in the high-throughput detection of these OMVs...
September 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Han Qin, Hong-Zhi Xu, Yong-Qing Gong
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present work was to investigate a possible mechanism of NF-κB signaling pathway and autophagy in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation, and provide experimental basis for the study of tooth eruption disorder. METHODS: Mouse osteoblast-like (MC3T3-E1) cells were inoculated with a cell density of 70%. According to the grouping experimental design, Western blot and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) detection were conducted after dosing for 24 h...
September 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Rabih Roufayel
Apoptosis is often deregulated in a number of human diseases. Heat-induced apoptosis is a model system for studying the consequences of protein misfolding and is mediated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. This family consists of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members that control mitochondrial integrity. The BH3-only pro-apoptotic members are strong inducers of apoptotic cell death. Protein damaging stress can activate a process of cellular destruction known as apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins and transcription factors activate this death pathway by inhibiting the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins eliminating cancer cells in a short period of time...
September 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Bor Luen Tang
K+ -Cl- co-transporter 2 (KCC2/SLC12A5) is a neuronal specific cation chloride co-transporter which is active under isotonic conditions, and thus a key regulator of intracellular Cl- levels. It also has an ion transporter-independent structural role in modulating the maturation and regulation of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. KCC2 levels are developmentally regulated, and a postnatal upregulation of KCC2 generates a low intracellular chloride concentration that allows the neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine to exert inhibitory neurotransmission through its Cl- permeating channel...
September 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Elizabeth R Cleverdon, Kayleigh R McGovern-Gooch, James L Hougland
Ghrelin is a small peptide hormone that requires a unique post-translational modification, serine octanoylation, to bind and activate the GHS-R1a receptor. Initially demonstrated to stimulate hunger and appetite, ghrelin-dependent signaling is implicated in a variety of neurological and physiological processes influencing diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and Prader-Willi syndrome. In addition to its cognate receptor, recent studies have revealed ghrelin interacts with a range of binding partners within the bloodstream...
September 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Mokhtar Ganjali Koli, Khaled Azizi
A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with atomistic details was performed to examine the partitioning and transport behavior of moderately cytotoxic ionic liquids (ILs), namely choline bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (CBEH), choline bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate (CTMP) and choline O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (CDEP) in a fully hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer in the fluid phase at 323 K. The structure of ILs was so selected to understand if the role of dipole and dispersion forces in the ILs distribution in the membrane can be possible...
May 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Yumei Yang, Yanjuan Liu, Hang Yuan, Xian Liu, Yanxiu Gao, Ming Gong, Zhurong Zou
Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (PPases) are involved in the adaption of organisms to stress conditions, which was substantiated by numerous plant transgenic studies with H(+)-PPase yet devoid of any correlated evidences for other two subfamilies, Na(+)-PPase and Na(+),H(+)-PPase. Herein, we demonstrate the gene cloning and functional evaluation of the membrane-bound PPase (CmPP) of the human gut microbe Clostridium methylpentosum. The CmPP gene encodes a single polypeptide of 699 amino acids that was predicted as a multi-spanning membrane and K(+)-dependent Na(+),H(+)-PPase...
May 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Mohan C Pereira, Monica Pianella, Da Wei, Anna Moshnikova, Carlotta Marianecci, Maria Carafa, Oleg A Andreev, Yana K Reshetnyak
Nanomedicine is becoming very popular over conventional methods due to the ability to tune physico-chemical properties of nano vectors, which are used for encapsulation of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. However, the success of nanomedicine primarily relies on how specifically and efficiently nanocarriers can target pathological sites to minimize undesirable side effects and enhance therapeutic efficacy. Here, we introduce a novel class of targeted nano drug delivery system, which can be used as an effective nano-theranostic for cancer...
May 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Ahmi Öz, Ömer Çelik
Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are mostly Ca(2+) permeable cation channels. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-like 2 (TRPM2) is expressed in neurological tissues such as brain, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, hippocampus and also liver, heart and kidney. The SH-SY5Y cells are mostly used as a cellular model of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Curcumin, shows phenolic structure, synthesized by Curcuma longa L. (turmeric), has powerful non-enzymatically antioxidant effects compared with Vitamin E...
May 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Erika Olivia Gómez, Yolanda Irasema Chirino, Norma Laura Delgado-Buenrostro, Alejandro López-Saavedra, Noemí Meraz-Cruz, Rebeca López-Marure
Metastases, responsible for most of the solid tumor associated deaths, require angiogenesis and changes in endothelial cells. In this work, the effect of the secretomes of three breast tumor cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and ZR-75-30) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) morphology was investigated. HUVEC treated with secretomes from breast cells were analyzed by confocal and time-lapse microscopy. Secretomes from ZR-75-30 and MDA-MB-231 cells modify the morphology and adhesion of HUVEC. These changes may provoke the loss of endothelial monolayer integrity...
March 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Shaun Rawson, Simon Davies, Jonathan D Lippiat, Stephen P Muench
Membrane proteins are ubiquitous in biology and are key targets for therapeutic development. Despite this, our structural understanding has lagged behind that of their soluble counterparts. This review provides an overview of this important field, focusing in particular on the recent resurgence of electron microscopy (EM) and the increasing role it has to play in the structural studies of membrane proteins, and illustrating this through several case studies. In addition, we examine some of the challenges remaining in structural determination, and what steps are underway to enhance our knowledge of these enigmatic proteins...
March 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Sherry S Agabiti, Yilan Liang, Andrew J Wiemer
Geranylgeranyl diphosphate is a 20-carbon isoprenoid phospholipid whose lipid moiety can be post-translationally incorporated into proteins to promote membrane association. The process of geranylgeranylation has been implicated in anti-proliferative effects of clinical agents that inhibit enzymes of the mevalonate pathway (i.e. statins and nitrogenous bisphosphonates) as well as experimental agents that deplete geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Inhibitors of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase are an attractive way to block geranylgeranylation because they possess a calcium-chelating substructure to allow localization to bone and take advantage of a unique position of the enzyme within the biosynthetic pathway...
March 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Chi-Jung Weng, Ju-Ping Wu, Ming-Yen Kuo, Ya-Wei Hsueh
To investigate the effect of fluorescent probe on the properties of membranes, we studied model membranes composed of 1,2- dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) in the presence and absence of fluorescent probe. The morphology of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) has been observed as a function of temperature and composition by fluorescence microscopy using NBD-DOPE or C6 -NBD-PC as the probe. The phase behavior of model membranes containing no fluorescent probe was investigated by2 H-NMR spectroscopy...
March 2016: Molecular Membrane Biology
Audrey Montersino, Gareth M Thomas
Modification of proteins with the lipid palmitate, a process called palmitoylation, is important for the normal function of neuronal cells. However, most attention has focused on how palmitoylation regulates the targeting and trafficking of neurotransmitter receptors and non-enzymatic scaffold proteins. In this review we discuss recent studies that suggest that palmitoylation also plays additional roles in neurons by controlling the localization, interactions and perhaps even the activity of protein kinases that play key roles in physiological neuronal regulation and in neuropathological processes...
August 2015: Molecular Membrane Biology
Thieng Pham, Nadine S Henderson, Glenn T Werneburg, David G Thanassi, Anne H Delcour
The PapC usher, a β-barrel pore in the outer membrane of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, is used for assembly of the P pilus, a key virulence factor in bacterial colonization of human kidney cells. Each PapC protein is composed of a 24-stranded β-barrel channel, flanked by N- and C-terminal globular domains protruding into the periplasm, and occluded by a plug domain (PD). The PD is displaced from the channel towards the periplasm during pilus biogenesis, but the molecular mechanism for PD displacement remains unclear...
August 2015: Molecular Membrane Biology
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