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Sabrina Sarrocco, Fabio Valenti, Sara Manfredini, Pilar Esteban, Rodolfo Bernardi, Grazia Puntoni, Riccardo Baroncelli, Miriam Haidukowski, Antonio Moretti, Giovanni Vannacci
Trichoderma gamsii T6085 was used in combination with a Fusarium oxysporum isolate (7121) in order to evaluate, in a multitrophic approach, their competitive ability against F. graminearum, one of the main causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. The two antagonists and the pathogen were coinoculated on two different natural substrates, wheat and rice kernels. Both T6085 and 7121, alone and coinoculated, significantly reduced the substrate colonization and mycotoxin production by the pathogen. The two antagonists did not affect each other...
February 18, 2019: Phytopathology
Neha Potnis, Sandra E Branham, Jeffrey B Jones, William Patrick Wechter
Bacterial spot Xanthomonas species cause significant disease outbreaks on tomato and pepper in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. Host resistance has been one of the key components of integrated disease management approaches to mitigate plant pathogens. Although a number of resistance genes have been identified in pepper against bacterial spot xanthomonads, emergence of bacterial spot pathogen variants capable of overcoming these sources and changing pathogen distributions reinforce the importance of identifying novel candidates to incorporate into breeding programs...
February 18, 2019: Phytopathology
Lu Liu, Meinan Wang, Junyan Feng, Deven R See, Xianming Chen
Winter wheat Eltan has been one of the most widely grown cultivars in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. It has shown variable levels of resistance to stripe rust in different years since it was released in 1990. To map all currently effective and defeated resistance genes in Eltan and understand the factors causing the resistance changes, 112 F2:5 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were developed from a cross of Eltan with Avocet S. The RILs were evaluated in fields of Pullman, WA in 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018 and Mount Vernon, WA in 2016 and 2017 under natural infections; and in the greenhouse with races PSTv-4 and PSTv-40 of Puccinia striiformis f...
February 7, 2019: Phytopathology
Wei Guo, Jie Gao, Qingshan Chen, Bojun Ma, Yuan Fang, Xia Liu, Gongyou Chen, Jianzhong Liu
The global regulator Clp (Crp-like protein) is positively involved in the production of virulence factors in some of the Xanthomonas spp.. However, the functional importance of Clp in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag) has not been investigated previously. Here, we showed that deletion of clp led to significant reduction in the virulence of Xag in soybean, which was highly correlated with the drastically reductions in carbohydrates utilization, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, biofilm formation, cell motility, and synthesis of cell-wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs)...
February 7, 2019: Phytopathology
Matthew G Bakker, Susan McCormick
Characteristics or constituents of plant-associated microbiomes may assist in constraining disease development. To investigate this possibility for the wheat-Fusarium head blight pathosystem, we assessed seed weight, pathogen load, deoxynivalenol content, and microbiome profiles for individual wheat kernels collected over two years from a disease-conducive environment. We find that the microbiomes of individual, hulled wheat kernels consist of dozens to greater than a hundred bacterial taxa and up to several dozen fungal taxa, and that year-to-year variation in microbiome structure was large...
February 4, 2019: Phytopathology
Shuangchen Chen, Jingjing Ren, Hongjiao Zhao, Xiangli Wang, Taihang Wang, Sunda Jin, Chongyang Li, Airong Liu, Xiaomin Lin, Golam Jalal Ahammed
Plant survival in the terrestrial ecosystem is influenced by both beneficial and harmful microbes. Trichoderma spp. are a group of filamentous fungi that promote plant growth and resistance to harmful microbes. Previously, we showed that Trichoderma could effectively suppress Fusarium wilt in cucumber. However, the mechanisms that underlie the effects of Trichoderma on plant defense have not been fully substantiated. Recently, two essential metabolic pathways such as ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) cycle and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) have been shown to participate in plant tolerance to biotic stressors, nevertheless, the involvement of these pathways in Trichoderma-induced enhanced defense remains elusive...
February 4, 2019: Phytopathology
Francisco J Hernandez, Brian Joel Steffenson, Tanya P Filichkin, Scott P Fisk, Laura J Helgerson, Brigid Meints, Kelly J Vining, David Marshall, Isabel Del Blanco, Xianmeng Chen, Patrick Hayes
Stem rust (incited by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Pgt) is a devastating disease of wheat and barley in many production areas. The widely virulent African Pgt race TTKSK is of particular concern because most cultivars are susceptible. In order to prepare for the possible arrival of race TTKSK in North America, we crossed a range of barley germplasm - representing different growth habits and end-uses- with donors of stem rust resistance genes Rpg1 and rpg4/Rpg5. The former confers resistance to prevalent races of Pgt in North America, and the latter confers resistance to TTKSK and other closely related races from Africa...
February 4, 2019: Phytopathology
Denise L Caldwell, Anjali S Iyer-Pascuzzi
Observing pathogen colonization and localization within specific plant tissues is a critical component of plant pathology research. High resolution imaging, in which the researcher can clearly view the plant pathogen interacting with a specific plant cell, is needed to enhance our understanding of pathogen lifestyle and virulence mechanisms. However, it can be challenging to find the pathogen along the plant surface or in a specific cell type. Because of the time-consuming and expensive nature of high resolution microscopy, techniques that allow a researcher to find a region of pathogen colonization more quickly at low resolution and subsequently move to a high-resolution microscope for detailed observation are needed...
January 29, 2019: Phytopathology
Priscila Alves da Silva, Camila Giacomo Fassini, Lais Simões Sampaio, Gabriel Dequigiovanni, Maria Imaculada Zucchi, Nelson Arno Wulff
'Ca. L. asiaticus' (Las) is the predominant Liberibacter associated with HLB worldwide and in citrus orchards in São Paulo and Minas Gerais States, the major growing regions in Brazil. Las was subject of intense research related to genomics, allowing the development of molecular diversity tools. Methods to characterize bacterial strains are important for epidemiological analyzes and to elucidate the populations genetic structure. Among these methods, short tandem repeats (STR) present in variable number in genomic loci, have been used as markers to differentiate, characterize and to explore diversity in several bacterial species, including Las...
January 29, 2019: Phytopathology
Bi Qin, Meng Wang, Hai-Xia He, Hua-Xing Xiao, Yu Zhang, Li-Feng Wang
Mlo gene was first found in barley as a powdery mildew susceptibility gene, and recessive mlo alleles confer durable resistance to barley powdery mildew. In order to identify candidate Mlo susceptibility genes in rubber tree, HbMlo12 was cloned from rubber tree clone CATAS7-33-97 which is susceptible to powdery mildew. Protein architecture analysis showed that HbMlo12 was a typical Mlo protein with seven transmembrane domains. Protein blast search in the Arabidopsis thaliana proteome database demonstrated that HbMlo12 shared the highest similarity with AtMlo12 with 63% sequence identity...
January 22, 2019: Phytopathology
Sheo Shankar Pandey, Nian Wang
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most severe disease of citrus plants caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and transmitted by the insect vector Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). To date, no effective curative measure is available against HLB. For citrus production areas without HLB or with low HLB disease incidence, removal of Las inoculum is critical to prevent HLB spread. Such strategy requires robust early diagnosis of HLB for inoculum removal to prevent ACP acquisition and transmission of Las. However, early diagnosis of HLB is challenging because the citrus trees remain asymptomatic for several months to years after Las transmission by ACP...
January 22, 2019: Phytopathology
Slavica Matić, Giovanna Gilardi, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Angelo Garibaldi
The genera Paramyrothecium and Albifimbria have recently been established from the former genus Myrothecium and they generally comprise common soil-inhabiting and saprophytic fungi. Within these genera, only two fungi have been recognized as phytopathogenic thus far: Paramyrothecium roridum and Albifimbria verrucaria, both of which cause necrotic leaf spots and plant collapse. Severe leaf necrosis and plant decay have recently been observed in Northern and Southern Italy on leafy vegetable crops. Thirty-six strains of Paramyrothecium- and Albifimbria-like fungi were isolated from affected plants belonging to eight different species...
January 22, 2019: Phytopathology
Andrew Robinson, Dojin Ryu, Hyun Jung Jung Lee
The plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum represents an inoculum source capable of contaminating grains with deoxynivalenol (DON) in the Inland Northwest (INW) region of the United States. A multilevel modelling approach utilizing varying intercepts for different sampling quadrats, fields, and iterations in the dataset was performed to characterize differences in isolation frequency of F. culmorum collected during a two-year soil survey. Differences in the isolation frequency of F. culmorum varied the most by sampled field followed by quadrat and iteration, respectively...
January 17, 2019: Phytopathology
Leonard Nunney, Hamid Azad, Richard Stouthamer
Nonrecombinant strains of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (those lacking evidence of significant intersubspecific homologous recombination) infect the xylem of a wide range of native and nonnative trees in North America. However, the degree to which different strains have a specialized host range remains poorly understood. We tested eight strains isolated from five different tree species (almond, olive, sweetgum, and plum in California and oak in Washington, DC). Experiments were conducted in greenhouses in Riverside, CA, and each strain was tested on 11 to 15 of the 17 plant species tested...
January 15, 2019: Phytopathology
Steven Lindow
Xylella fastidiosa has emerged from relative obscurity into one of the most well-studied bacterial plant pathogens. While Pierce's disease of grape caused by this pathogen has been recognized as an important disease in warmer regions of the United States for nearly 100 years, the causal pathogen, X. fastidiosa has spread throughout much of the world and now also causes serious diseases of citrus, coffee, almond, olive, and other important crop plants. Our knowledge of this pathogen has been driven by the recent substantial research support justified by the economic importance of these diseases...
January 15, 2019: Phytopathology
Chunxian Chen, Clive H Bock, Phillip M Brannen
Epidemics of phony peach disease (PPD), caused by Xylella fastidiosa, are of increasing concern to peach (Prunus persica) producers in the southeastern United States. Primers suitable for both conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR), along with optimal tissue and sampling time, are needed for comparative and reliable detection of X. fastidiosa. In this study, we developed and assessed novel primers for X. fastidiosa and for peach and compared detection of X. fastidiosa in four peach tissue types sampled at three time points using both cPCR and qPCR...
January 15, 2019: Phytopathology
Shuo Huang, Jianhui Wu, Xiaoting Wang, Jingmei Mu, Zhi Xu, Qingdong Zeng, Shengjie Liu, Qilin Wang, Zhensheng Kang, Dejun Han
Breeding for resistance to stripe rust (caused by Puccinis striiformis f. sp. tritici) is essential for reducing losses in yield and quality in wheat. To identify genes for use in breeding, a biparental population of 186 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross of the Chinese landrace Mingxian 169 and CIMMYT-derived line P9936 was evaluated in field nurseries either artificially or naturally inoculated in two crop seasons. Each of the RILs and parents was genotyped with the Wheat55K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 'Breeders' array and a genetic linkage map with 8,225 polymorphic SNP markers spanning 3,593...
January 15, 2019: Phytopathology
Peter M Henry, Ana M Pastrana, Johan Leveau, Tom Gordon
Asymptomatic plant colonization is hypothesized to enhance persistence of pathogenic forms of Fusarium oxysporum in the absence of a susceptible host. However, a correlation between pathogen populations on living, asymptomatic plant tissues and soilborne populations after tillage has not been demonstrated. Living and dead tissues of broccoli, lettuce, spinach, wheat, cilantro, raspberry, and strawberry plants grown in soil infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (the cause of Fusarium wilt of strawberry) were assayed to quantify the incidence of infection and extent of colonization by this pathogen...
January 15, 2019: Phytopathology
Junsu Gong, Hye-Kyoung Ju, Ik-Hyun Kim, Eun-Young Seo, In-Sook Cho, Wen-Xing Hu, Jae-Yeong Han, Jungkyu Kim, Su Ryun Choi, Yong Pyo Lim, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim
Infectious clones were generated from 17 new Korean radish isolates of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all new isolates, and three previously characterized Korean radish isolates, belong to the basal-BR group. Pairwise analysis revealed genomic nucleotide (nt) and polyprotein amino acid (aa) identities of >87.9% and >95.7% respectively. Five clones (HJY1, HJY2, KIH2, BE, and prior isolate R007) had lower sequence identities than other isolates, and produced mild symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana...
January 10, 2019: Phytopathology
Manuel Miras, Miguel Juarez, Miguel A Aranda
Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) represents an emerging threat to cucurbit production in the Mediterranean basin. We have sequenced the near complete genome of MWMV-SQ10_1.1, a cloned Spanish isolate; it has the typical potyvirus genomic structure, and phylogenetic analysis showed that it shared a common ancestor with other Mediterranean MWMV isolates. We used MWMV SQ10_1.1 to inoculate plants of a collection of commercial squash cultivars, including some described as potyvirus-resistant. All inoculated plants from all cultivars showed severe infection symptoms...
January 8, 2019: Phytopathology
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