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Journal of Public Health

Mahmoud E Elrggal, Nedaa A Karami, Bushra Rafea, Lama Alahmadi, Anwar Al Shehri, Ruba Alamoudi, Hassan Koshak, Saad Alkahtani, Ejaz Cheema
Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude of senior medical, dental, nursing and pharmacy students toward Middle East respiratory syndrome-corona virus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional survey using a 21-item questionnaire was conducted for a 3-month period from November 2015-January 2016 in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate students' understanding and perception of MERS-CoV. An ANOVA test was used to determine the association of study discipline and academic year with the student knowledge score on MERS...
2018: Journal of Public Health
Emma Berry, Lorna Aucott, Amudha Poobalan
Aim: This study aims to determine if current health promotion messages relating to diet and physical activity are sufficiently targeted towards young adults. In addition, we examine what elements of these messages might be improved to ensure they encourage improved diet and exercise behaviours within this underserved group. Subject and methods: Using qualitative methods, five focus group discussions (FGDs) and two semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted among 19 young adults in Aberdeen City...
2018: Journal of Public Health
Per Wändell, Sahar Ayoob, Lennart Mossberg, Anna Andreasson
Background: Vitamin D is associated with extra-skeletal processes, and vitamin D deficiency might contribute to the development of chronic diseases. Aim: To investigate vitamin D levels in an unselected patient population at a Swedish suburban primary care centre. Methods: Vitamin D levels were assessed in 102 patients aged 20 to 65 years visiting the primary care centre, independent of cause of visit, during 2 weeks in January 2014. The difference in vitamin D levels between patients born in Europe and patients born outside Europe was calculated using linear regression, adjusting for gender and age...
2018: Journal of Public Health
Rose Bernard, G Bowsher, C Milner, P Boyle, P Patel, R Sullivan
Purpose: Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) and Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) from the clandestine intelligence sector are being increasingly employed in infectious disease outbreaks. The purpose of this article is to explore how such tools might be employed in the detection, reporting, and control of outbreaks designated as a 'threat' by the global community. It is also intended to analyse previous use of such tools during the Ebola and SARS epidemics and to discuss key questions regarding the ethics and legality of initiatives that further blur the military and humanitarian spaces...
2018: Journal of Public Health
Mousumi Biswas, Kaushik Chattopadhyay
Background: Many coal-based sponge iron plant workers have poor health-related quality of life in general, and specifically a poor respiratory health status. However, the relationship between their health-related quality of life and respiratory health status is unknown. Aim: This study investigated the relationship between health-related quality of life, measured using the EuroQol-5D (EQ5D), and respiratory health status, measured using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), among coal-based sponge iron plant workers in Barjora, India...
2018: Journal of Public Health
Thomas Plümper, Denise Laroze, Eric Neumayer
Aim: Despite the country's explicit political goal to establish equivalent living conditions across Germany, significant inequality continues to exist. We argue that premature mortality is an excellent proxy variable for testing the claim of equivalent living conditions since the root causes of premature death are socioeconomic. Subject and methods: We analyse variation in premature mortality across Germany's 402 districts and cities in 2014. Results: Premature mortality spatially clusters among geographically contiguous and proximate districts/cities and is higher in more urban places as well as in districts/cities located further north and in former East Germany...
2018: Journal of Public Health
Sibylle Nideröst, Daniel Gredig, Benedikt Hassler, Franziska Uggowitzer, Patrick Weber
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the intention to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) when available and to identify predictors of the intention to use PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Switzerland. The theoretical model drew on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology and considered additional variables related specifically to PrEP, HIV protection and the resources of MSM. Subject and methods: For data collection, we used an anonymous, standardized self-administered online questionnaire...
2018: Journal of Public Health
Nils Kossack, Christian Schindler, Ines Weinhold, Lennart Hickstein, Moritz Lehne, Jochen Walker, Aljoscha S Neubauer, Dennis Häckl
Aim: Cataract extraction is one of the most frequent surgeries in Germany. In most cases, the clouded natural lens is replaced by a hydrophobic or hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) implant. The most common long-term complication after cataract surgery is the development of a posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Although no precise real world data are available, published evidence suggests a lower risk for PCO development for hydrophobic acrylic IOLs compared to hydrophilic acrylic IOLs...
2018: Journal of Public Health
Anne-Sophie Schwarz, Bent Nielsen, Anette Søgaard Nielsen
Aim: In 2007, the legal obligation to deliver alcohol treatment to the public was transferred to the 98 municipalities of Denmark. This resulted in changes in how alcohol treatment centers in Denmark work. The aim of the present study was to describe the patient profiles and treatment outcomes in the alcohol treatment centers regarding regional variation and changes over time. Subjects and methods: This is a descriptive, register-based study of patients enrolled in alcohol treatment centers from 2006-2014 in Denmark...
2018: Journal of Public Health
Santiago Lago, David Cantarero, Berta Rivera, Marta Pascual, Carla Blázquez-Fernández, Bruno Casal, Francisco Reyes
Aim: A comprehensive approach to health highlights its close relationship with the social and economic conditions, physical environment and individual lifestyles. However, this relationship is not exempt from methodological problems that may bias the establishment of direct effects between the variables studied. Thus, further research is necessary to investigate the role of socioeconomic variables, their composition and distribution according to health status, particularly on non-communicable diseases...
2018: Journal of Public Health
Anne K Reimers, Guido Knapp
Aim: Being outdoors is one of the strongest correlates of physical activity in children. Playgrounds are spaces especially designed to enable and foster physical activity in children. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the spatial features of public playgrounds and the usage and physical activity levels of children playing in them. Subjects and methods: A quantitative, observational study was conducted of ten playgrounds in one district of a middle-sized town in Germany...
2017: Journal of Public Health
Daniel Arriscado, Emily Knox, Mikel Zabala, Félix Zurita-Ortega, Jose Maria Dalmau, Jose Joaquin Muros
Aim: Healthy habits are influenced by several factors such as geographical location. The aims of this study were to describe and compare healthy habits within two populations of sixth-grade primary school children (aged 11-12 years) from northern and southern Spain. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study using two representative samples of school children was conducted. Participants came from Logroño ( n  = 329) in the north and Granada ( n  = 284) in the south of Spain...
2017: Journal of Public Health
Simon Boateng, Prince Amoako, Adjoa Afriyie Poku, Anthony Baabereyir, Razak Mohammed Gyasi
Purpose: As a social protection policy, Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) aims to improve access to healthcare, especially for the vulnerable. Migrant female head porters ( kayayoo ), who are part of the informal economic workforce, are underscored as an ethnic minority and vulnerable group in Ghana. This study aimed to analyse the factors associated with enrolment in and renewal and utilisation of the NHIS among migrant female head porters in the Kumasi Metropolis. Method: We purposively sampled 392 migrant female head porters in the Kejetia, Asafo and Bantama markets...
2017: Journal of Public Health
Sylviana Haji Moris, Orla Carty, Kristina L Wanyonyi, Jennifer E Gallagher
Objective: To evaluate patients' views on health service initiatives established to improve uptake of NHS primary dental care amongst adult patients in a socially deprived area, comparing practices with extended and regular contract capacity. Study design: Service evaluation and cross-sectional survey. Method: Questionnaire survey of patients attending a random sample of dental practices in three inner-metropolitan boroughs of south London following initiatives to improve access to dental care (across dental practices delivering regular and extended contracts for services) exploring attendance patterns and the influence and awareness of local initiatives to promote access...
2017: Journal of Public Health
Louise Persson, Mikael Svensson
AIM: A beneficial classroom climate is vital for school achievements, health, well-being, and school satisfaction. However, there is little knowledge as to how the classmate characteristics and class composition are related to the level of a perceived messy and disorderly classroom climate and whether the estimated relationships vary between different groups of children. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between classmate characteristics as well as class composition and children's perceived classroom climate...
2017: Journal of Public Health
Sebastian Hinde, Laura Bojke, Gerry Richardson, Lise Retat, Laura Webber
AIM: The English NHS currently has a policy of providing Health Checks to all 40-74 year olds. Administered in primary care, they aim to identify patients at risk of a range of diseases, including diabetes and heart disease, and facilitate care. This study is the first to use observed data on the effectiveness of the Checks to consider whether they represent a cost-effective use of limited NHS resources. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Using a publicly available evaluation tool we conducted an analysis of the Checks to establish the long-term cost and health-related outcomes of a cohort of patients...
2017: Journal of Public Health
Sandra Gijzen, Jessica Petter, Monique P L'Hoir, Magda M Boere-Boonekamp, Ariana Need
AIM: Child Death Review (CDR) is a method in which every child death is systematically and multidisciplinary examined to (1) improve death statistics, (2) identify factors that give direction for prevention, (3) translate the results into possible interventions, and (4) support families. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent procedures of organizations involved in the (health) care for children in The Netherlands cover these four objectives of CDR. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Organizations in the Eastern part of The Netherlands and Dutch umbrella organizations involved in child (health) care were asked to provide their protocols, guidelines or other working agreements that describe their activities and responsibilities in case of a child's death...
2017: Journal of Public Health
E S Koster, A Schmidt, D Philbert, E M W van de Garde, M L Bouvy
AIM: Patients with limited health literacy have poorer surgical outcomes. However, current studies assessing the prevalence of limited health literacy in patients expecting surgery are small scale. We aimed to provide insight into the health literacy level of patients undergoing planned surgery. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years visiting the preoperative screening department were approached in the waiting area and invited to participate in a brief interview including the Functional Communicative Critical Health Literacy (FCCHL)...
2017: Journal of Public Health
David Otieno Odongo, W J Wakhungu, Omuterema Stanley
PURPOSE: To determine causes of variability in communicable disease prevalence rates among students in secondary schools to inform policy formulation in the public health sector. METHODS: A representative cluster sample size for students was estimated using Fisher et al.'s formula while schools, sub-counties and education zones were clustered and sample size was calculated based on coefficient of variation by school type. Data were collected by questionnaire, medical examination using standard procedures, and focus group discussion, and descriptive analysis was performed on the completed questions...
2017: Journal of Public Health
Lorenzo D Stafford, Joe Salmon
AIM: Recent research has shown that adopting strong (i.e. high fear) visual health-warning messages can increase the perceived health risks and intentions to reduce alcohol consumption. Separately, it is known that the speed at which alcohol is consumed has dramatic effects on the level of intoxication. In the present study we aimed to combine these two separate areas to understand whether the speed of alcohol consumption is influenced by the type of alcohol health warning contained on the beverage...
2017: Journal of Public Health
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