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Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology

Shan-Chwen Chang, Jann-Tay Wang, Li-Min Huang, Yee-Chun Chen, Chi-Tai Fang, Wang-Huei Sheng, Jiun-Ling Wang, Chong-Jen Yu, Pan-Chyr Yang
The serum antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus of 18 SARS patients were checked at 1 month and every 3 months after disease onset. All of them except one, who missed blood sampling at 1 month, tested positive for the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody at 1 month. Fifteen out of 17 tested positive for the IgM antibody at 1 month. The serum IgM antibody of most patients became undetectable within 6 months after the onset of SARS. The IgG antibody of all 17 patients, whose serum was checked 1 year after disease onset, remained positive...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Kyoung Yong Jeong, Haeseok Lee, Jae Sik Lee, Jongweon Lee, In-Yong Lee, Han-Il Ree, Chein-Soo Hong, Jung Won Park, Tai-Soon Yong
Storage mites may cause allergic respiratory diseases in urban areas as well as pose an occupational hazard in rural areas. Characterization of storage mite allergens is important for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents against mite-associated allergic disorders. Here we report on the cloning and expression of alpha-tubulin from the storage mite (Tyrophagus putrescentiae). The deduced amino acid sequence of the alpha-tubulin from the storage mite showed as much as 97.3% identity to the alpha-tubulin sequences from other organisms...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Snorre Stuen, Hilde Dahl, Karin Bergström, Truls Moum
Five-month-old lambs were simultaneously infected with different doses of two 16S rRNA genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and thereafter followed for clinical observation and blood sampling. The result of the study indicates a unidirectional suppression of genotypes in infected lambs, at least during a certain period of an A. phagocytophilum infection.
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Ching-Wen Wang, Li-Chieh Wang, Mei-Hwei Chang, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Huey-Ling Chen, Hong-Yuan Hsu, Ding-Shin Chen
The aims of the present study were to determine (i) the long-term immunogenicity and the decay rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antibody (anti-HBs) from universal hepatitis B vaccination at infancy for a healthy population in an area of hyperendemicity and (ii) whether the anti-HBs levels measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were closely correlated with those assayed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods during long-term monitoring. A total of 1,337 apparently healthy children (696 boys and 641 girls) who were vaccinated against HBV at infancy and monitored for anti-HBs annually from 7 to 16 years of age entered the study...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
R Sghiri, J Feinberg, F Thabet, K Dellagi, J Boukadida, A Ben Abdelaziz, J L Casanova, M R Barbouche
Previous studies have indicated that neopterin is synthesized in vitro by human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells upon stimulation with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Neopterin production under specific conditions in vitro has also been obtained upon stimulation with IFN-alpha and/or IFN-beta. However, it is unknown if any IFN-gamma-independent neopterin synthesis is possible in vivo. In the present study we investigated the serum neopterin concentrations in patients affected by the syndrome of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD)...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Neelima Sanakkayala, Anna Sokolovska, Jatinder Gulani, Harm Hogenesch, Nammalwar Sriranganathan, Stephen M Boyle, Gerhardt G Schurig, Ramesh Vemulapalli
Brucella abortus strain RB51 is an attenuated rough mutant used as the live vaccine against bovine brucellosis in the United States and other countries. We previously reported the development of strain RB51 as a bacterial vaccine vector for inducing Th1-type immune responses against heterologous proteins. Because safety concerns may preclude the use of strain RB51-based recombinant live vaccines, we explored the ability of a gamma-irradiated recombinant RB51 strain to induce heterologous antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
H Syed Iqbal, Suniti Solomon, K G Murugavel, Sunil Suhas Solomon, P Balakrishnan
Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is important for patient management and prevention of new infections. The number of test kits available for the detection of HIV antibodies is unprecedented. In order to identify appropriate test kits, we evaluated a variety of commercial kits manufactured abroad as well as in India. The plasma and serum specimens (n=264) were collected from individuals attending the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre at the YRG Centre for AIDS and Education. The specimens were used to evaluate six commercially available HIV test kits: Enzaids HIV 1+2, HIV-CheX, Murex HIV-1...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Kovit Pattanapanyasat, Surada Lerdwana, Egarit Noulsri, Thanyanan Chaowanachan, Punneeporn Wasinrapee, Natthaga Sakulploy, Vallerut Pobkeeree, Orapin Suksripanich, Sombat Thanprasertsuk, Thomas J Spira, Jordan W Tappero, William C Levine
Use of the standard dual-platform flow cytometric method for determination of CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts, which needs both a flow cytometer (FCM) and hematological analyzer, would inevitably lead to increased variability. The development of new single-platform (SP) FCMs that provide direct CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts for improved assay precision and accuracy have recently attracted attention. This study evaluated one of those systems, CyFlow(green) (Partec), a single-parameter SP volumetric FCM. The performance of CyFlow(green) was compared with those of two reference standard SP microbead-based technologies of the three-color TruCOUNT tube with the FACScan FCM and a two-color FACSCount system (Becton Dickinson Biosciences)...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
K M Kurkjian, L E Vaz, R Haque, C Cetre-Sossah, S Akhter, S Roy, F Steurer, J Amann, M Ali, R Chowdhury, Y Wagatsuma, J Williamson, S Crawford, R F Breiman, J H Maguire, C Bern, W E Secor
Several serology-based immunoassays are used to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a chronic protozoan parasitic disease caused by the Leishmania donovani complex. These tests are primarily designed to diagnose the most severe clinical form of VL, known as kala-azar. However, leishmanial infection is frequently asymptomatic and may manifest only as a positive serologic response or positive leishmanin skin test. We modified a previously described enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects patient antibodies reactive with the recombinant Leishmania protein K39 (rK39) to confirm suspected kala-azar and to detect asymptomatic infection in a community study in Bangladesh...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
J Frank T Griffin, Evelyn Spittle, Christie R Rodgers, Simon Liggett, Marc Cooper, Douwe Bakker, John P Bannantine
This study was designed to develop a customized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of Johne's disease (JD) in farmed deer. Two antigens were selected on the basis of their superior diagnostic readouts: denatured purified protein derivative (PPDj) and undenatured protoplasmic antigen (PpAg). ELISA development was based on the antigen reactivity of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype, which is a highly specific marker for mycobacterial disease seroreactivity in deer. Sensitivity estimates and test parameters were established using 102 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected animals from more than 10 deer herds, and specificity estimates were determined using 508 uninfected animals from 5 known disease-free herds...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Niranjan Bhat, James Gaensbauer, Richard M Peek, Karen Bloch, Kyi-Toe Tham, Martin J Blaser, Guillermo Perez-Perez
Colonization with Helicobacter pylori eventuates in varied clinical outcomes, which relate to both bacterial and host factors. Here we examine the relationships between cagA status, serum and gastric juice antibody responses, and gastric inflammation in dyspeptic patients. Serum, gastric juice, and gastric biopsy specimens were obtained from 89 patients undergoing endoscopy. H. pylori colonization and cagA status were determined by histology, culture, and PCR methods, and acute inflammation and chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa were scored by a single pathologist...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Hamid R Haghighi, Jianhua Gong, Carlton L Gyles, M Anthony Hayes, Babak Sanei, Payvand Parvizi, Haris Gisavi, James R Chambers, Shayan Sharif
Probiotic bacteria, including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, have been shown to enhance antibody responses in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a probiotic product containing the above bacteria in addition to Streptococcus faecalis on the induction of the chicken antibody response to various antigens, both systemically and in the gut. The birds received probiotics via oral gavage and subsequently were immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) to evaluate antibody responses in serum or with tetanus toxoid (TT) to measure the mucosal antibody response in gut contents...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Dionyssios N Sgouras, Effrosini G Panayotopoulou, Beatriz Martinez-Gonzalez, Kalliopi Petraki, Spyros Michopoulos, Andreas Mentis
In clinical settings, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 administration has been reported to have a favorable effect on Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, although the mechanism remains unclear. We administered, continuously through the water supply, live La1 to H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice and followed colonization, the development of H. pylori-associated gastritis in the lamina propria, and the levels of proinflammatory chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) and keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC) in the serum and gastric tissue over a period of 3 months...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
M E Hunt, D R Brown
Mycoplasma alligatoris causes acute lethal primary infection of susceptible hosts. A genome survey implicated sialidase and hyaluronidase, potential promoters of CD95-mediated eukaryotic cell death, as virulence factors of M. alligatoris. We used immunofluorescence imaging and flow cytometry to examine the effects of M. alligatoris infection in vitro on CD95 expression and apoptosis by alligator cardiac fibroblasts, a major cell type of a target organ of M. alligatoris infection in vivo. A uniform distribution of CD95 in primary cultured cardiac, skeletal muscle, and embryonic fibroblasts was demonstrated by using polyclonal antibodies against the N or C terminus of mouse or human CD95...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Yanwen Jin, Cheng Cao, Ping Li, Xuan Liu, Wei Huang, Chufang Li, Qingjun Ma
DNA vaccines induce protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in several animal models. However, compared to conventional vaccines, DNA vaccines usually induce poor antibody responses. In this study, we report that coadministration of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccine with prothymosin alpha as an adjuvant improves antibody responses to HBV S antigen. We also observed higher seroconversion rates and higher antibody titers. Prothymosin alpha appears to increase the number and affinity of hepatitis B surface antigen-specific, gamma interferon-secreting T cells and to enhance cellular immune response to the PreS2S DNA vaccine...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Alex Smithson, Maria Rosa Sarrias, Juanjo Barcelo, Belen Suarez, Juan Pablo Horcajada, Sara Maria Soto, Alex Soriano, Jordi Vila, Jose Antonio Martinez, Jordi Vives, Jose Mensa, Francisco Lozano
The migration of neutrophils through infected tissues is mediated by the CXC chemokines and its receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2). It has been proposed that a CXCR1 deficiency could confer susceptibility to acute pyelonephritis in children. The objective of the study is to assess the surface expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 and the existence of polymorphisms in the CXCR1 gene in premenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections. The study included 20 premenopausal women with recurrent urinary infections, with normal urinary tracts, and without diseases potentially associated with relapsing urinary infections and 30 controls without previous urinary infections...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Steven R Binder, Mark C Genovese, Joan T Merrill, Robert I Morris, Allan L Metzger
Immunoassay-based anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) screens are increasingly used in the initial evaluation of autoimmune disorders, but these tests offer no "pattern information" comparable to the information from indirect fluorescence assay-based screens. Thus, there is no indication of "next steps" when a positive result is obtained. To improve the utility of immunoassay-based ANA screening, we evaluated a new method that combines a multiplex immunoassay with a k nearest neighbor (kNN) algorithm for computer-assisted pattern recognition...
December 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
N E McKeown, T Opriessnig, P Thomas, D K Guenette, F Elvinger, M Fenaux, P G Halbur, X J Meng
To determine the effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) maternal antibodies on and response to experimental PCV2 infection, 24 piglets were divided into four groups on the basis of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers of PCV2 maternal antibodies: group A (n = 6; sample/positive [S/P] ratio, <0.2), group B (n = 5; S/P ratio, >0.2 to <0.5), and groups C (n = 8) and D (n = 5) (S/P ratio, >0.5). Piglets in groups A, B, and C were inoculated with PCV2 at day 0 and challenged with PCV2 at day 42...
November 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Maremichi Oyamada, Bernard Davoust, Mickaël Boni, Jacques Dereure, Bruno Bucheton, Awad Hammad, Kazuhito Itamoto, Masaru Okuda, Hisashi Inokuma
Babesia and Hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern Sudan were analyzed by using a single PCR and sequencing. Among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with Babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with B. canis vogeli. Thirty-three dogs were positive for Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis.
November 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Kemal Karaca, David E Swayne, Deborah Grosenbaugh, Michel Bublot, Amy Robles, Erica Spackman, Robert Nordgren
Vaccination of cats with fowlpox virus expressing the avian influenza (AI) virus H5 hemagglutinin gene (TROVAC AI) resulted in detectable hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses to the homologous A/Turkey/Ireland/1378/83 (H5N8) (A/tky/Ire/83) AI virus antigen. The HI antibody responses to heterologous A/Chicken/Indonesia/7/03 (H5N1) (A/ck/Indonesia/03) AI virus antigen were also detected in all vaccinated cats, but only after booster vaccinations. The vaccine described in this study and other poxvirus-vectored vaccines may be of value for the prophylaxis of AI virus-associated morbidity and mortality in mammals...
November 2005: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
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