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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

Thao Lan Le, Cynthia A Conklin, Tony P George, Robert D Levitan, Robert E Mann, Robert G Maunder
Cue-induced craving among smokers is a well-documented phenomenon. Conditioning theory is used to explain how stimuli elicit cravings. Attachment theory may explain additional influences on cue-induced craving. This study tested the effects of cigarette cues and attachment figure cues on craving and affect. Cue-reactivity as a function of cue type was examined to explore the magnitude of craving effect sizes for each cue type. Thirty-six smokers (27 men) were exposed to cigarette cues (i.e., cigarette) and attachment figure cues (i...
May 9, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Virginia G Weiss, Lindsey R Hammerslag, Michael T Bardo
Adolescence is a period associated with increased risk taking and peer relations. Research has shown that age is correlated with vulnerability to peer pressure, with youth being more influenced by peers compared with adults, leading to exacerbated risk taking, including risk for drug abuse. Preclinical research suggests that these findings may also be applicable to rodents, as younger rats find social interaction rewarding and are prone to risky behavior. However, there is little research on the effect of social interaction on rodent models of risky decision making...
May 9, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Lorenzo D Stafford, Kit Damant, Sophie Ashurst, Matthew O Parker
The present two studies aimed to look at alternative methods of assaying the changes underpinning drug consumption and dependence. Here, we focus on whether olfactory differences exist in habitual consumers in the form of recognition and sensitivity tasks to a caffeine-related odor. In Experiment 1, high ( n = 18), moderate ( n = 23), and non-consumers ( n = 21) of caffeine completed a threshold test for a coffee odor, followed by a recognition test for both a coffee and a neutral odor and, finally, a measure of caffeine craving...
May 9, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Michael J Sofis, Shea M Lemley, Alan J Budney, Catherine Stanger, David P Jarmolowicz
Prevalence of cannabis use in the United States continues to rise, and 30% of cannabis users eventually meet criteria for Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD). One response to this problem is to develop decision-making constructs that indicate vulnerability to CUD that might not be gleaned from diagnostic criteria. Unfortunately, there is limited evidence that decision-making constructs consistently relate to cannabis use. Interestingly, those who exhibit the sunk cost bias, an overgeneralized tendency to persist based on past investment, and those who use cannabis, both tend to focus on the past and perseverate more than their counterparts...
May 9, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Y Wendy Huynh, Anthony Raimondi, Courtney Schuster, Andrew Finkner, Carly Selleck, Rick A Bevins
Menthol is a commonly used tobacco constituent that also modulates nicotine reinforcement and metabolism. Little is known about the stimulus effects of menthol that mediate the behavior associated with reinforcement-learning. Our present research explored the interoceptive stimulus effects of intraperitoneally administered menthol in a drug discrimination task. For Experiment 1, Sprague-Dawley rats ( N = 20) received IP menthol (0.0183 or 5 mg/kg) or vehicle. For positive sessions, rats were given menthol before receiving 8 15-s light presentations, each followed by 4-s access to liquid sucrose...
May 9, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Roselyn S Peterson, Robert D Dvorak, Brittany L Stevenson, Matthew P Kramer, Daniel A Pinto, Erika T Mora, Angelina V Leary
Regretted sexual experiences are reported at higher rates among sexually active female college students than by their male counterparts. Moreover, alcohol is involved in approximately one third of regretted sex experienced by college students. Previous research has shown that students who implement protective behavioral strategies (PBS) while drinking are able to reduce alcohol-related negative consequences, including regretted sex. In order to compare differences in associations among alcohol use, PBS, and regretted sex, the current study examined these associations as a function of gender...
April 22, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Michael E Dunn, Abigail Fried-Somerstein, Jessica N Flori, Thomas V Hall, Robert D Dvorak
In this randomized trial, 121 mandated college students (33% female, 74% Caucasian, M age = 19.42 years) received either a Brief Motivational Intervention (BMI) with personalized normative feedback (PNF) or the Expectancy Challenge Alcohol Literacy Curriculum (ECALC) to compare effectiveness in reducing alcohol use and associated harms. All participants received either BMI content (n = 63) or ECALC (n = 58). ECALC was delivered as a web-based program with clinician assistance. Measures of alcohol use and harms were completed at baseline and 4 weeks postintervention...
April 22, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Kaycee E Faunce, Matthew L Banks
Repeated drug administration results in sensitization, tolerance, or no change in subsequent drug-induced alterations of motivated behaviors, such as intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). For example, repeated mu-opioid agonist administration results in increased expression of mu agonist-induced facilitation of ICSS. Acute kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist administration depresses ICSS; however, effects of repeated KOR agonist administration on ICSS are unknown. This study determined effects of daily KOR agonist U-50488 administration and subsequent termination on ICSS in male and female rats...
April 22, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Elisa Pabon, James MacKillop, Abraham A Palmer, Harriet de Wit
Risk-taking behavior can result in a range of maladaptive behaviors such as illicit substance use, unsafe driving, and high-risk sexual behavior. Perception of risk and preference for engaging in risky behaviors have been measured using both self-report measures and a range of behavioral tasks designed for the purpose, and these may predict future risk-taking behavior. However, the interrelationships between these measures and the latent constructs underlying them are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined data from over 1,000 men and women who completed measures of risk-related behaviors, including self-reports of perception of risk, propensity to engage in risky behaviors, and incentivized performance on tasks that involve risk...
April 18, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Matthew M Clasen, Thery V Sanon, Briana J Hempel, Katharine H Nelson, David N Kearns, Terry L Davidson, Anthony L Riley
In preclinical populations, binge consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) initiated during either adolescence or adulthood increases the intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of cocaine, whereas ad lib HFD consumption initiated during adulthood reduces or fails to influence cocaine intake. From this, it appears that binge exposure is a sufficient condition to increase cocaine IVSA and that such effects occur independent of the exposure period. It is not clear, however, if ad lib exposure would be sufficient to affect the IVSA of cocaine if initiated during adolescence, a developmental period associated with high-risk behavior...
April 18, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Russell M Marks, Jeffrey S Simons, Raluca M Simons, Harry Freeman
In the acquired preparedness model of risk, alcohol expectancies mediate the association between personality and alcohol problems. In the current study, we tested the associations between temperament (i.e., effortful control and reactivity) and temperament-congruent expectancies of distal and proximal effects. It was hypothesized that effortful control would be inversely associated with drinking and problems and that these effects would be mediated through consequence expectancies. Alternatively, it was hypothesized that reactivity would be positively associated with drinking and problems and that these effects would be mediated by expectancies of immediate stimulation and attenuated sedation...
April 18, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Robert D Ashford, Austin M Brown, Arielle Ashford, Brenda Curtis
Previous research has found language used to describe individuals with a substance use disorder (SUD; e.g., "addict," "substance abuser") contributes to and elicits negative bias among the general public and health care professionals. However, the prevalence in which recovering individuals use these labels to self-identify and the impact of such labels are unknown. The current pilot study, a cross-sectional design, examined the usage of two labels ("addict," "person with a SUD") as well as the differences in recovery outcomes among individuals in recovery...
April 18, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Amy L Friedman, Claire Meurice, Emily M Jutkiewicz
Cannabis is the most popular, illegal drug used by adolescents in the United States. Exposure to cannabis and its main psychoactive ingredient, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), during adolescence may have long-lasting effects on the development of behavioral and neurobiological processes. This study investigated the effects of chronic adolescent exposure to THC on sensitization to the psychomotor-stimulating effects of cocaine and on the reinforcing effects of cocaine in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. During adolescence (P28-P45), rats were given once-daily intraperitoneal injections of either vehicle or 1 mg/kg THC...
April 1, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Shawn P Gilroy, Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, Donald A Hantula, Steven R Hursh
Research applying the behavioral economic demand framework is increasingly conducted across disciplines. With respect to psychopharmacology and substance abuse, real and hypothetical purchase tasks are regularly used to evaluate the demand for various substances and reinforcers, such as alcohol. At present, a variety of methods has been introduced to solve for the point of unit elasticity, or Pmax, in the exponential model of demand; however, these methods vary in their potential for error. Current methods for determining Pmax are presented here and a novel exact solution for Pmax in the exponential model of demand is introduced...
March 28, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
David G Gilbert, Norka E Rabinovich, Elizabeth A Gilbert-Matuskowitz, Keith P Klein, Michele L Pergadia
Accurate knowledge of negative affect (NA)-related smoking abstinence symptoms (SAS) severity and duration and their moderation by pharmacotherapy and NA-related personality traits is critical for efficacious treatments given that elevated state and trait NA are predictors of relapse. However, SAS severity, duration, and moderation are not well characterized. To date, the longest randomized controlled trial (RCT) of NA-related SAS using randomized delayed-quit smoking controls only examined symptoms across 45 days, despite clinical evidence that SAS may last longer...
March 28, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Maria M Wong, Elizabeth A Craun, Adrian J Bravo, Matthew R Pearson
Previous research has reported that sleep problems longitudinally predict both onset of cannabis use and cannabis-related problems. However, the mediators of this relationship remain unclear. The present study examined (a) the concurrent relationship between insomnia symptoms and hazardous cannabis use and (b) examined whether use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) for cannabis mediated this relationship among college student cannabis users. Participants were 984 (69.9% female) college students who reported consuming cannabis at least once in the past month and completed measures of insomnia, cannabis PBS, and cannabis misuse...
March 25, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jin H Yoon, Guadalupe G San Miguel, Jessica N Vincent, Robert Suchting, Ilana Haliwa, Michael F Weaver, Joy M Schmitz, Scott D Lane
Individuals with cannabis use disorders (CUD) show inhibitory control deficits and differential attention toward marijuana (MJ) stimuli. The robustness and utility of these measures in the CUD literature are somewhat equivocal. The present study was designed to increase measurement sensitivity by capitalizing on (a) individually calibrated stimulus selection based on cue reactivity patterns and (2) eye-tracking based measurement. CUD (n = 42) and non-CUD controls (n = 11) served as subjects. Subjects were first exposed to MJ and neutral pictures while measuring physiological and subjective responses on a trial by trial basis...
March 25, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Tommy Gunawan, Christopher S Tripoli, Alan Silberberg, David N Kearns
According to behavioral economics, reinforcer value should be lower in an open economy than in a closed economy. An animal model was used to determine how economy type affected the value of heroin and saccharin. In a first phase, separate groups of rats worked for heroin or saccharin. The price of these reinforcers increased over sessions. For rats in the open heroin or open saccharin economies, the work period of each session was followed by a postwork period where a cheaper source of heroin or saccharin was available for three hours...
March 21, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Michael J Zvolensky, Jafar Bakhshaie, Justin M Shepherd, Lorra Garey, Natalia Peraza, Andres G Viana, Jason T Brown, Richard A Brown
Smoking is among the most important health behaviors linked to premature death and disability among the Latinx population. Yet there is limited understanding of whether transdiagnostic factors like anxiety sensitivity may help explain smoking expectancies among Spanish-speaking Latinx smokers. The present investigation evaluated anxiety sensitivity in regard to smoking outcome expectancy factors among a large sample of adult Latinx smokers. Participants were 363 Spanish-speaking Latinx daily smokers (58.7% female, Mage = 33...
March 21, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Beth Ann Rice, Meredith A Saunders, Julia E Jagielo-Miller, Mark A Prendergast, Chana K Akins
A devastating feature of drug dependence is the susceptibility of relapse (40-60%) after stretches of abstinence. In both animal and human research, it has been demonstrated that cues (e.g., levers, paraphernalia) associated with drug reward can instigate renewed drug taking. Research has shown animals that attend to a cue that predicts reward more than the location of reward delivery when the cue is present (sign trackers) have an increase in corticosterone (CORT), a primary stress hormone when compared with animals that do not sign track...
March 21, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
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