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Human Brain Mapping

Alex Mitko, David Rothlein, Victoria Poole, Meghan Robinson, Regina McGlinchey, Joseph DeGutis, David Salat, Michael Esterman
Several studies have examined how individual differences in sustained attention relate to functional brain measures (e.g., functional connectivity), but far fewer studies relate sustained attention ability, or cognition in general, to individual differences in cortical structure. Functional magnetic resonance imaging meta-analyses and patient work have highlighted that frontoparietal regions, lateralized to the right hemisphere, are critical for sustained attention, though recent work implicates a broader expanse of brain regions...
April 13, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
J Christopher Edgar, Marissa Dipiero, Emma McBride, Heather L Green, Jeffrey Berman, Matthew Ku, Song Liu, Lisa Blaskey, Emily Kuschner, Megan Airey, Judith L Ross, Luke Bloy, Mina Kim, Simon Koppers, William Gaetz, Robert T Schultz, Timothy P L Roberts
Age-related changes in resting-state (RS) neural rhythms in typically developing children (TDC) but not children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest that RS measures may be of clinical use in ASD only for certain ages. The study examined this issue via assessing RS peak alpha frequency (PAF), a measure previous studies, have indicated as abnormal in ASD. RS magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data were obtained from 141 TDC (6.13-17.70 years) and 204 ASD (6.07-17.93 years). A source model with 15 regional sources projected the raw MEG surface data into brain source space...
April 11, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Yuanqiang Zhu, Yibin Xi, Jinbo Sun, Fan Guo, Yongqiang Xu, Ningbo Fei, Xinxin Zhang, Xuejuan Yang, Hong Yin, Wei Qin
Total sleep deprivation (TSD) is common in modern society leading to deterioration of multiple aspects of cognition. Dynamic interaction effect of circadian rhythmicity and homeostatic sleep pressure on sustained attention have been intensively investigated, while how this effect was represented on performance and cerebral responses to working memory, another important element of many neurobehavioral tasks, was not well elucidated. Thirty-six healthy subjects with intermediate chronotype performed the Sternberg working-memory task (SWMT) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging every 2 hr from 10:00 p...
April 10, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Jana Klaus, Gesa Hartwigsen
While the involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in language production is undisputed, the role of specific subregions at different representational levels remains unclear. Some studies suggest a division of anterior and posterior regions for semantic and phonological processing, respectively. Crucially, evidence thus far only comes from correlative neuroimaging studies, but the functional relevance of the involvement of these subregions during a given task remains elusive. We applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over anterior and posterior IFG (aIFG/pIFG), and vertex as a control site, while participants performed a category member and a rhyme generation task...
April 10, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Zening Fu, Arvind Caprihan, Jiayu Chen, Yuhui Du, John C Adair, Jing Sui, Gary A Rosenberg, Vince D Calhoun
Subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) is a major subtype of vascular dementia with features that overlap clinically with Alzheimer's disease (AD), confounding diagnosis. Neuroimaging is a more specific and biologically based approach for detecting brain changes and thus may help to distinguish these diseases. There is still a lack of knowledge regarding the shared and specific functional brain abnormalities, especially functional connectivity changes in relation to AD and SIVD. In this study, we investigated both static functional network connectivity (sFNC) and dynamic FNC (dFNC) between 54 intrinsic connectivity networks in 19 AD patients, 19 SIVD patients, and 38 age-matched healthy controls...
April 5, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Chenbo Wang, Tingyu Zhang, Zhoukuidong Shan, Jieqiong Liu, Di Yuan, Xianchun Li
Individuals in pain are motivated to be cooperative in social interaction. Yet, there has been little research on how pain dynamically affects cooperation at a neural level. The present study investigated the cooperative behavior under acute physical pain by asking dyads to complete three blocks of button-press cooperative task, while neural activities were recorded simultaneously on each subject by the fNIRS-based hyperscanning. Results showed that individuals in pain improved their cooperation rate across task blocks...
April 4, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Katherine S F Damme, Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Henry R Cowan, Joseph M Orr, Vijay A Mittal
Self-reference is impaired in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, associated with disability, and closely related to characteristic patterns of aberrant brain connectivity. However, at present, it is unclear whether self-reference is impacted in pathogenesis of the disorder. Alterations in connectivity during a self-reference task or resting-state in the psychosis risk (i.e., prodromal) period may yield important clues for biomarker development, as well as for novel treatment targets. This study examined a task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis (n = 22) and healthy control unaffected peers (n = 20)...
April 2, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Yi-Chia Kung, Chia-Wei Li, Shuo Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju Chen, Chun-Yi Z Lo, Timothy J Lane, Bharat Biswal, Changwei W Wu, Ching-Po Lin
Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is associated with fading consciousness in humans. Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the spatiotemporal alterations of the brain functional connectivity (FC) in NREM sleep, suggesting the changes of information integration in the sleeping brain. However, the common stationarity assumption in FC does not satisfactorily explain the dynamic process of information integration during sleep. The dynamic FC (dFC) across brain networks is speculated to better reflect the time-varying information propagation during sleep...
April 2, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Janice Hau, Saba Aljawad, Nicole Baggett, Inna Fishman, Ruth A Carper, Ralph-Axel Müller
The cingulum is the major fiber system connecting the cingulate and surrounding medial cortex and medial temporal lobe internally and with other brain areas. It is important for social and emotional functions related to core symptomatology in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). While the cingulum has been examined in autism, the extensive system of cingulate U-fibers has not been studied. Using probabilistic tractography, we investigated white matter fibers of the cingulate cortex by distinguishing its deep intra-cingulate bundle (cingulum proper) and short rostral anterior, caudal anterior, posterior, and isthmus cingulate U-fibers in 61 ASD and 54 typically developing children and adolescents...
April 2, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Ignacio Aracil-Bolaños, Frederic Sampedro, Juan Marín-Lahoz, Andrea Horta-Barba, Saül Martínez-Horta, Mariángeles Botí, Jesús Pérez-Pérez, Helena Bejr-Kasem, Berta Pascual-Sedano, Antonia Campolongo, Cristina Izquierdo, Alexandre Gironell, Beatriz Gómez-Ansón, Jaime Kulisevsky, Javier Pagonabarraga
Cognitive decline is a major disabling feature in Parkinson's disease (PD). Multimodal imaging studies have shown functional disruption in neurocognitive networks related to cognitive impairment. However, it remains unknown whether these changes are related to gray matter loss, or whether they outline network vulnerability in the early stages of cognitive impairment. In this work, we intended to assess functional connectivity and graph theoretical measures and their relation to gray matter loss in Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI)...
April 1, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Yuchao Jiang, Li Song, Xuan Li, Yaodan Zhang, Yan Chen, Sisi Jiang, Changyue Hou, Dezhong Yao, Xiaoming Wang, Cheng Luo
Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECT) is the most common childhood idiopathic focal epilepsy syndrome, which characterized with white-matter abnormalities in the rolandic cortex. Although diffusion tensor imaging research could characterize white-matter structural architecture, it cannot detect neural activity or white-matter functions. Recent studies demonstrated the functional organization of white-matter by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), suggesting that it is feasible to investigate white-matter dysfunctions in BECT...
April 1, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Kendra L Seaman, Christopher T Smith, Eric J Juarez, Linh C Dang, Jaime J Castrellon, Leah L Burgess, M Danica San Juan, Paul M Kundzicz, Ronald L Cowan, David H Zald, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin
Theories of adult brain development, based on neuropsychological test results and structural neuroimaging, suggest differential rates of age-related change in function across cortical and subcortical sub-regions. However, it remains unclear if these trends also extend to the aging dopamine system. Here we examined cross-sectional adult age differences in estimates of D2-like receptor binding potential across several cortical and subcortical brain regions using PET imaging and the radiotracer [18 F]Fallypride in two samples of healthy human adults (combined N = 132)...
April 1, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Fanny Quandt, Marlene Bönstrup, Robert Schulz, Jan E Timmermann, Maike Mund, Maximilian J Wessel, Friedhelm C Hummel
Hand motor function is often severely affected in stroke patients. Non-satisfying recovery limits reintegration into normal daily life. Understanding stroke-related network changes and identifying common principles that might underlie recovered motor function is a prerequisite for the development of interventional therapies to support recovery. Here, we combine the evaluation of functional activity (multichannel electroencephalography) and structural integrity (diffusion tensor imaging) in order to explain the degree of residual motor function in chronic stroke patients...
March 29, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Stephen A McGuire, Meghann C Ryan, Paul M Sherman, John H Sladky, Laura M Rowland, S Andrea Wijtenburg, L Elliot Hong, Peter V Kochunov
Occupational exposure to hypobaria (low atmospheric pressure) is a risk factor for reduced white matter integrity, increased white matter hyperintensive burden, and decline in cognitive function. We tested the hypothesis that a discrete hypobaric exposure will have a transient impact on cerebral physiology. Cerebral blood flow, fractional anisotropy of water diffusion in cerebral white matter, white matter hyperintensity volume, and concentrations of neurochemicals were measured at baseline and 24 hr and 72 hr postexposure in N = 64 healthy aircrew undergoing standard US Air Force altitude chamber training and compared to N = 60 controls not exposed to hypobaria...
March 29, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Chiara Serra, Claudio Galletti, Sara Di Marco, Patrizia Fattori, Gaspare Galati, Valentina Sulpizio, Sabrina Pitzalis
Monkey neurophysiology and human neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that passive viewing of optic flow stimuli activates a cortical network of temporal, parietal, insular, and cingulate visual motion regions. Here, we tested whether the human visual motion areas involved in processing optic flow signals simulating self-motion are also activated by active lower limb movements, and hence are likely involved in guiding human locomotion. To this aim, we used a combined approach of task-evoked activity and resting-state functional connectivity by fMRI...
March 28, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Edoardo G Spinelli, Federica Agosta, Pilar M Ferraro, Giorgia Querin, Nilo Riva, Cinzia Bertolin, Ilaria Martinelli, Christian Lunetta, Andrea Fontana, Gianni Sorarù, Massimo Filippi
The extent of central nervous system involvement in Kennedy's disease (KD) relative to other motor neuron disease (MND) phenotypes still needs to be clarified. In this study, we investigated cortical and white matter (WM) MRI alterations in 25 patients with KD, compared with 24 healthy subjects, 25 patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and 35 cases with lower motor neuron-predominant disease (LMND). LMND patients were clinically differentiated into 24 fast and 11 slow progressors. Whole-brain cortical thickness, WM tract-based spatial statistics and corticospinal tract (CST) tractography analyses were performed...
March 28, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Hualou Liang, Fengqing Zhang, Xin Niu
Brain age prediction using machine-learning techniques has recently attracted growing attention, as it has the potential to serve as a biomarker for characterizing the typical brain development and neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet one long-standing problem is that the predicted brain age is overestimated in younger subjects and underestimated in older. There is a plethora of claims as to the bias origins, both methodologically and in data itself. With a large neuroanatomical dataset (N = 2,026; 6-89 years of age) from multiple shared datasets, we show this bias is neither data-dependent nor specific to particular method including deep neural network...
March 28, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Sarah M Israel, Shiva Hassanzadeh-Behbahani, Peter E Turkeltaub, David J Moore, Ronald J Ellis, Xiong Jiang
Gray matter (GM) atrophy is frequently detected in persons living with HIV, even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the specificity of regions affected remains elusive. For instance, which regions are consistently affected in HIV? In addition, atrophy at which regions is frequently associated with neurocognitive impairment in HIV? Resolving these questions can potentially help to establish the possible neural profiles of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) severity, which currently is solely defined by neurobehavioral assessments...
March 28, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Patrick S Malone, Silvio P Eberhardt, Klaus Wimmer, Courtney Sprouse, Richard Klein, Katharina Glomb, Clara A Scholl, Levan Bokeria, Philip Cho, Gustavo Deco, Xiong Jiang, Lynne E Bernstein, Maximilian Riesenhuber
The grouping of sensory stimuli into categories is fundamental to cognition. Previous research in the visual and auditory systems supports a two-stage processing hierarchy that underlies perceptual categorization: (a) a "bottom-up" perceptual stage in sensory cortices where neurons show selectivity for stimulus features and (b) a "top-down" second stage in higher level cortical areas that categorizes the stimulus-selective input from the first stage. In order to test the hypothesis that the two-stage model applies to the somatosensory system, 14 human participants were trained to categorize vibrotactile stimuli presented to their right forearm...
March 28, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
Taylor Bolt, Jason S Nomi, Sierra A Bainter, Michael W Cole, Lucina Q Uddin
Investigations of between-person variability are enjoying a recent resurgence in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research. Several recent studies have found persistent between-person differences in blood-oxygenated-level dependent (BOLD) activation patterns and resting-state functional connectivity. Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the extent to which (a) between-person or (b) within-person cognitive state differences explain differences in BOLD activation patterns. These discrepancies may arise due to statistical analysis choices, parcellation resolution, and limited sampling of task-fMRI datasets...
March 28, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
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