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Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745505/dr-tamio-yamakawa-1921-2018
#1
Kunihiko Suzuki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745504/dynamics-of-the-nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase-protein-dynamo2-correlates-with-the-changes-in-the-global-gtp-level-during-the-cell-cycle-of-cyanidioschyzon-merolae
#2
Yuuta Imoto, Yuichi Abe, Kanji Okumoto, Mio Ohnuma, Haruko Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi Kuroiwa, Yukio Fujiki
GTP is an essential source of energy that supports a large array of cellular mechanochemical structures ranging from protein synthesis machinery to cytoskeletal apparatus for maintaining the cell cycle. However, GTP regulation during the cell cycle has been difficult to investigate because of heterogenous levels of GTP in asynchronous cell cycles and genetic redundancy of the GTP-generating enzymes. Here, in the unicellular red algae Cyanidioschyzon merolae, we demonstrated that the ATP-GTP-converting enzyme DYNAMO2 is an essential regulator of global GTP levels during the cell cycle...
2019: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745503/analysis-of-%C3%AE-1405-production-data-in-the-%C3%AF-p-%C3%A2-k-0-%C3%AF-%C3%AE-reaction-at-p-%C3%AF-1-69-gev-c
#3
Maryam Hassanvand, Yoshinori Akaishi, Toshimitsu Yamazaki
We have been studying the (Σπ)0 mass distribution based on data from an old Hydrogen Bubble Chamber collected by Thomas et al. concerning the p(π- , K0 )Σπ reaction at pπ = 1.69 GeV/c. In this analysis we investigated the formation of the Λ(1405) state, using the Generalized Optical Theorem and T-matrix operator. We applied a combined transition operator, Tmix , which contains T21 (=TπΣ-KN ) and T22 (= TπΣ-πΣ ) due to the initial channel mixing in the Λ(1405) formation. We also considered a possible mixture of I = 0 and 1 in the wave function, as well as some background of the Σ(1385) population...
2019: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745502/coronary-artery-spasm-clinical-features-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#4
Hirofumi Yasue, Yuji Mizuno, Eisaku Harada
Coronary artery spasm (CAS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease, including angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and sudden death, occurring most often from midnight to early morning. CAS is prevalent among East Asians and is associated with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)-deficient genotype (ALDH2*2) and alcohol flushing, which is prevalent among East Asians but is virtually non-existent in other populations. ALDH2 eliminates not only acetaldehyde but also other toxic aldehydes from lipid peroxidation and tobacco smoking, thereby protecting tissues and cells from oxidative damage...
2019: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30643095/mammalian-o-mannosyl-glycans-biochemistry-and-glycopathology
#5
Tamao Endo
Glycosylation is an important posttranslational modification in mammals. The glycans of glycoproteins are classified into two groups, namely, N-glycans and O-glycans, according to their glycan-peptide linkage regions. Recently, O-mannosyl glycan, an O-glycan, has been shown to be important in muscle and brain development. A clear relationship between O-mannosyl glycans and the pathomechanisms of some congenital muscular dystrophies has been established in humans. Ribitol-5-phosphate is a newly identified glycan component in mammals, and its biosynthetic pathway has been elucidated...
2019: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30643094/are-fairy-chemicals-a-new-family-of-plant-hormones
#6
Hirokazu Kawagishi
2-Azahypoxanthine (AHX, 1) and imidazole-4-carboxamide (ICA, 2) were isolated from a fairy-ring-forming fungus Lepista sordida. AHX was converted into a metabolite 2-aza-8-oxo-hypoxanthine (AOH, 3) in plants. It was found out that these three compounds, named as fairy chemicals (FCs), endogenously exist in plants and are biosynthesized via a new purine metabolic pathway. FCs provided tolerance to the plants against various stresses and regulated the growth of all the plants. In addition, FCs increased the yield of rice, wheat, and other crops in the greenhouse and/or field experiments...
2019: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30643093/formation-of-the-first-generation-of-stars-and-blackholes-in-the-universe
#7
Naoki Yoshida
Modern sky surveys using large ground-based telescopes have discovered a variety of celestial objects. Prominent structures such as galaxies and galaxy clusters are found virtually everywhere, and their collective distribution forms the large-scale structure of the Universe. It is thought that all of the rich content in the present-day Universe developed through gravitational amplification of primeval density fluctuations generated in the very early phase of cosmic evolution. The standard theoretical model based on an array of recent observations accurately predicts the physical conditions in the early Universe, and powerful super-computers allow us to simulate in detail the formation and evolution of cosmic structure to the present epoch...
2019: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30643092/design-of-high-performance-chiral-phase-transfer-catalysts-with-privileged-structures
#8
Keiji Maruoka
In the end of the 20th century, due to various advantages of organocatalysis including environmental friendliness, operational simplicity, mild reaction conditions, easy recovery etc., had led to its recognition as a powerful strategy for the establishment of practical organic synthetic methods. Over the two decades since then, tremendous effort has been devoted to the design of novel high-performance organocatalysts to realize unprecedented reactions including asymmetric transformations. In this review, our recent results on the rational design of various types of chiral phase-transfer catalysts with privileged structures, and their successful application to a wide variety of asymmetric transformations are described...
2019: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30541969/diversity-of-ulbp5-in-old-world-monkeys-cercopithecidae-and-divergence-of-the-ulbp-gene-family-in-primates
#9
Taeko K Naruse, Hirofumi Akari, Tetsuro Matano, Akinori Kimura
Non-human primates such as rhesus macaque and cynomolgus macaque are important animals for medical research. These species are classified as Old-World monkeys (Cercopithecidae), in which the immune-related genome structure is characterized by gene duplications. In the present study, we investigated polymorphisms in two genes for ULBP5 encoding ligands for NKG2D. We found 18 and 11 ULBP5.1 alleles and 11 and 13 ULBP5.2 alleles in rhesus macaques and cynomolgus macaques, respectively. In addition, phylogenetic analyses revealed that ULBP5...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30541968/chemical-kinetics-study-through-observation-of-individual-reaction-events-with-atomic-resolution-electron-microscopy
#10
Eiichi Nakamura, Koji Harano
Single-molecule atomic-resolution real-time electron microscopic movie imaging is an emerging new tool for obtaining dynamic structural information on molecules and molecular assemblies. This method provides a hitherto inaccessible possibility to in situ observe the time evolution of chemical events at various temperatures from the beginning till the end, as demonstrated for the kinetics study of [2 + 2] cycloaddition of [60]fullerene molecules, which was found to occur via an excited state or via radical cation depending on the temperature...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30541967/current-perspectives-on-autoimmune-pancreatitis-and-igg4-related-disease
#11
REVIEW
Kazuichi Okazaki, Kazushige Uchida
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder recognized as a novel clinical entity with either synchronous or metachronous multi-organ involvement. Patients with IgG4-RD show diffuse or focal organ enlargement and mass-forming or nodular/thickened lesions with abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasmacytes and fibrosis, and such patients respond well to steroid treatment. It should be differentiated from mimics by a combination of serum IgG4 level, imaging features, and histopathological findings...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30541966/diversity-of-structure-and-function-of-gaba-b-receptors-a-complexity-of-gaba-b-mediated-signaling
#12
Miho Terunuma
γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB ) receptors are broadly expressed in the nervous system and play an important role in neuronal excitability. GABAB receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow and prolonged inhibitory action, via activation of Gαi/o-type proteins. GABAB receptors mediate their inhibitory action through activating inwardly rectifying K+ channels, inactivating voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Functional GABAB receptors are obligate heterodimers formed by the co-assembly of R1 and R2 subunits...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30541965/lysophospholipids-in-laboratory-medicine
#13
Yutaka Yatomi, Makoto Kurano, Hitoshi Ikeda, Koji Igarashi, Kuniyuki Kano, Junken Aoki
Lysophospholipids (LPLs), such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS), are attracting attention as second-generation lipid mediators. In our laboratory, the functional roles of these lipid mediators and the mechanisms by which the levels of these mediators are regulated in vivo have been studied. Based on these studies, the clinical introduction of assays for LPLs and related proteins has been pursued and will be described in this review. Although assays of these lipids themselves are possible, autotaxin (ATX), apolipoprotein M (ApoM), and phosphatidylserine-specific phospholipase A1 (PS-PLA1 ) are more promising as alternate biomarkers for LPA, S1P, and LysoPS, respectively...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30416176/evolutionary-history-of-carabid-ground-beetles-with-special-reference-to-morphological-variations-of-the-hind-wings
#14
Yûki Imura, Osamu Tominaga, Zhi-Hui Su, Nobuo Kashiwai, Munehiro Okamoto, Syozo Osawa
Most beetles belonging to the subfamily Carabinae of the family Carabidae (so-called carabid ground beetles) cannot fly, because their hind-wings are highly degenerated. However, about half of the species in the subtribe Calosomina within the same subfamily can fly. From extensive morphological examinations of the hind-wings of Carabinae species in conjunction with DNA molecular phylogenetic trees, the process and possible causes of hind-wing degeneration in the Carabinae are discussed.
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30416175/studies-on-single-molecule-bridging-metal-electrodes-development-of-new-characterization-technique-and-functionalities
#15
Manabu Kiguchi
A single molecular junction is a nanoscale structure prepared by bridging a single molecule between macroscopic metal electrodes. It has attracted significant attention due to its unique structure and potential applications in ultra-small single molecular electronic devices. It has two metal-molecule interfaces, and thus the electronic structure of the molecule can be significantly modulated from its original one. The single molecular junction can be regarded as a new material that includes metal electrodes, a so-called "double interface material"...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30416174/cytoskeletal-control-of-nuclear-migration-in-neurons-and-non-neuronal-cells
#16
Mineko Kengaku
Cell migration is a complex molecular event that requires translocation of a large, stiff nucleus, oftentimes through interstitial pores of submicron size in tissues. Remarkable progress in the past decade has uncovered an ever-increasing array of diverse nuclear dynamics and underlying cytoskeletal control in various cell models. In many cases, the microtubule motors dynein and kinesin directly interact with the nucleus via the LINC complex and steer directional nuclear movement, while actomyosin contractility and its global flow exert forces to deform and move the nucleus...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30305478/transcriptional-regulation-of-the-26s-proteasome-by-nrf1
#17
REVIEW
Shun Koizumi, Jun Hamazaki, Shigeo Murata
The 26S proteasome is a large protease complex that selectively degrades ubiquitinated proteins. It comprises 33 distinct subunits, each of which differ in function and structure, and which cannot be substituted by the other subunits. Owing to its complicated structure, the biogenesis of the 26S proteasome is elaborately regulated at the transcription, translation, and molecular assembly levels. Recent studies revealed that Nrf1 (NFE2L1) is a transcription factor that upregulates the expression of all the proteasome subunit genes in a concerted manner, especially during proteasome impairment in mammalian cells...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30078829/development-of-social-systems-neuroscience-using-macaques
#18
REVIEW
Masaki Isoda, Atsushi Noritake, Taihei Ninomiya
This paper reviews the literature on social neuroscience studies using macaques in the hope of encouraging as many researchers as possible to participate in this field of research and thereby accelerate the system-level understanding of social cognition and behavior. We describe how different parts of the primate brain are engaged in different aspects of social information processing, with particular emphasis on the use of experimental paradigms involving more than one monkey in laboratory settings. The description begins with how individual neurons are used for evaluating socially relevant information, such as the identity, face, and focus of attention of others in various social contexts...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30078828/functions-and-dysfunctions-of-the-basal-ganglia-in-humans
#19
REVIEW
Nobuo Yanagisawa
Involuntary movements and parkinsonism have been interesting and important topics in neurology since the last century. The development of anatomical and physiological studies of the neural circuitry of motor systems has encouraged the study of movement disorders by means of pathophysiology and brain imaging.Multichannel electromyography from affected muscles has generated objective and analytical data on chorea, ballism, athetosis, and dystonia. Studies using floor reaction forces revealed the pathophysiology of freezing of gait in parkinsonism...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30078827/importin-%C3%AE-functions-as-a-nuclear-transport-factor-and-beyond
#20
REVIEW
Masahiro Oka, Yoshihiro Yoneda
Nucleocytoplasmic transport is an essential process in eukaryotes. The molecular mechanisms underlying nuclear transport that involve the nuclear transport receptor, small GTPase Ran, and the nuclear pore complex are highly conserved from yeast to humans. On the other hand, it has become clear that the nuclear transport system diverged during evolution to achieve various physiological functions in multicellular eukaryotes. In this review, we first summarize the molecular mechanisms of nuclear transport and how these were elucidated...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
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