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Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601400/the-effects-of-endurance-sports-on-children-and-youth
#1
Anthony C Egger, L Morgan Oberle, Paul Saluan
In the United States, youth participation in sports continues to increase yearly. This increase in participation, in conjunction with the trend toward early sports specialization and year round training, has led to a similar increase in athletically developed injuries. These injuries vary in nature and acuity, with the type of injury often related to the athlete's age, sport, and level of training. Endurance athletes are at an elevated risk of injury as they frequently push their body to the limit during their arduous training...
March 2019: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601399/depression-in-ultra-endurance-athletes-a-review-and-recommendations
#2
John Onate
Depression affects 6.7% of the adult population each year and studies indicate the annual prevalence is similar or even higher in athletes. It is often insidious and not recognized. There continues to be stigma and misunderstanding about the disorder that is a barrier to getting an accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. It is important for people living with depression to get professional help because the condition itself can be disabling, increases risk of suicide, and reduces quality of life. There is some evidence that depression and suicide risk is higher in endurance athletes such as track and field, marathoner, and ultramarathoners...
March 2019: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601398/common-and-uncommon-injuries-in-ultra-endurance-sports
#3
REVIEW
Louis C Almekinders, Charles R Engle
Ultra-endurance sports are associated with prolonged physical exercise both during training and competition. Musculoskeletal injuries are common as a result of the repetitive physical stresses. Stress fractures in the weight-bearing bones should always be suspected when ultra-endurance athletes present with pain over bony structures. Most stress fractures can be treated with activity modifications but some such as femoral neck and tibial shaft stress fractures may require operative fixation. The knee seems to be the most frequent source of injuries in ultra-endurance athletes...
March 2019: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601397/cardiac-risk-of-extreme-exercise
#4
REVIEW
Zarina Sharalaya, Dermot Phelan
Habitual moderate intensity exercise is a vital component of a healthy lifestyle. For most of the population, increasing exercise duration and intensity beyond current recommendations appears to impart additional cardiovascular benefits; however, recent data has raised the possibility of an inflection point after which additional exercise no longer imparts benefit and may even result in negative cardiovascular outcomes. Exercise at the extremes of human endurance places a large hemodynamic stress on the heart and results in occasionally profound cardiac remodeling in order to accommodate the huge increases in cardiac output demanded by such endeavors...
March 2019: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601396/fueling-and-recovery
#5
REVIEW
Katherine Patton
As ultra-endurance races continue to rise in popularity, it is critical that athletes understand how to nourish their bodies with proper amounts of calories from carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The importance of carbohydrate for fueling endurance exercise and protein for recovery is well established; however, the role of fat is debated. Specific amounts of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight are recommended for before, during, and after ultra-endurance exercise. Total grams of protein per day and after exercise are established...
March 2019: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601395/the-physiology-and-biomechanics-of-the-master-runner
#6
Richard W Willy, Max R Paquette
The Master runner (age 35 y and above) represents a unique athletic patient. Lifelong participation in endurance running slows the inevitable age-related decline in aerobic function and muscular strength. Still, the Master runner does not escape the inevitable effects of aging. Master runners experience a steady decline in running performance, that is, typical and maximal running speeds, after the age of 50 years of age. Age-related declines in running performance are driven by a host of factors, including declining cardiovascular function, reduced muscular capacity, altered biomechanics, and greater susceptibility to running-related injury...
March 2019: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601394/proper-hydration-during-ultra-endurance-activities
#7
Martin D Hoffman
The health and performance of ultra-endurance athletes is dependent on avoidance of performance limiting hypohydration while also avoiding the potentially fatal consequences of exercise-associated hyponatremia due to overhydration. In this work, key factors related to maintaining proper hydration during ultra-endurance activities are discussed. In general, proper hydration need not be complicated and has been well demonstrated to be achieved by simply drinking to thirst and consuming a typical race diet during ultra-endurance events without need for supplemental sodium...
March 2019: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601393/participation-trends-of-ultra-endurance-events
#8
Volker Scheer
Ultra endurance events are defined as sporting activities lasting >6 hours and include events such as ultramarathon foot races, ultra triathlons, ultra distance swimming, ultra cycling, and cross-country skiing. Popularity in these events has risen especially over the last 25 years with increasing participation notably in ultramarathon races where an exponential increase in participation has been observed. This is in large part due to the increasing popularity and participation of women and master athletes in these events...
March 2019: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30601392/the-mystical-experience-an-editorial
#9
Jack T Andrish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30395068/surgery-in-tendinopathies
#10
REVIEW
Rocco Aicale, Domiziano Tarantino, Nicola Maffulli
Tendinopathies are challenging. The term "tendinopathy" refers to clinical condition characterized by pain, swelling, and functional limitations of tendons and nearby structures. Tendinopathies give rise to significant morbidity, and, at present, only limited scientifically proven management modalities exist. Achilles and patellar tendons are among the most vulnerable tendons, and among the most frequent lower extremity overuse injuries. Achilles and patellar tendinopathies can be managed conservatively and surgically...
December 2018: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30395067/the-surgical-applications-of-biologics-in-sports-medicine
#11
REVIEW
F Alan Barber
Over the past 25 years an increased appreciation of the positive impact of biologic interventions has driven significant advances in the surgical treatment of shoulder and knee conditions. These biologic adjuncts to treatment promote improved outcomes and have set the stage and increased research and development in this arena.
December 2018: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30395066/ankle-arthroscopic-surgery
#12
REVIEW
Yoshiharu Shimozono, Dexter Seow, John G Kennedy, James W Stone
Ankle arthroscopy is a diagnostic and therapeutic surgical procedure which was first attempted on cadavers by Dr Burman in 1931 and first successfully described in patients by Dr Takagi in 1939. Two general approaches to ankle arthroscopy currently exist: (1) anterior ankle arthroscopy and (2) posterior ankle arthroscopy. The indications for ankle arthroscopy have expanded as increased experience has been obtained treating various pathologic entities and as the surgical results have been reported in the literature...
December 2018: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30395065/hip-arthroscopy-state-of-the-art-in-2018
#13
REVIEW
Amit Nathani, Marc R Safran
The field of hip arthroscopy has undergone considerable change in the past 25 years and continues to evolve at a rapid pace. Lessons from the early complications and challenges of hip arthroscopy have led to improved safety and refinement of instrumentation and techniques. The pathophysiology of hip injuries is better understood, and advances in surgical technique have helped expand indications, particularly as a shift from pathology resection to anatomic repair and reconstructive procedures has occurred. As the field has progressed, longitudinal outcome studies are now available to help judge efficacy...
December 2018: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30395064/elbow-surgery-in-athletes
#14
REVIEW
Edward Lyle Cain, Nathan M Moroski
Injuries and disorders of the elbow in athletes are common especially among throwing athletes. Common injuries encountered in the throwing athlete include ulnar collateral ligament injuries, ulnar neuritis, capitellar osteochondritis dissecans, valgus extension overload with posterior olecranon impingement, olecranon stress fracture, and loose bodies. A thorough knowledge of both the functional anatomy as well as throwing biomechanics are required to properly diagnosis and treat these problems. Nonoperative and surgical techniques have continued to advance over the last 25 years allowing for improved prognosis and return to play for athletes affected with elbow pathology...
December 2018: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30395063/surgical-management-of-proximal-long-head-biceps-tendon-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Richard L Angelo
Disorders of the long head of the biceps tendon can make a significant contribution to shoulder pain and dysfunction. Historically, open biceps tenotomy or a proximal tenodesis of the tendon through a deltopectoral approach was used to manage biceps tendonitis and instability. Recent developments have added additional options. Arthroscopic techniques offer minimally invasive methods to secure the biceps in the suprapectoral region at the appropriate length. An open subpectoral tenodesis provides for simple exposure that secures the tendon just proximal to the musculotendinous junction and eliminates potentially diseased tendon and synovium from the biceps groove...
December 2018: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30395062/rotator-cuff-repair-single-row-repair-versus-double-row-repair-and-superior-capsular-reconstruction
#16
REVIEW
Andrew J Sheean, Robert U Hartzler, Stephen S Burkhart
The surgical management of rotator cuff (RC) tears has progressed considerably in recent decades. Arthroscopic procedures now represent the mainstay of contemporary treatment approaches. The success of repair is predicated upon the achievement of a secure, durable repair that promotes tendon-to-bone healing. Both single and double row (DR) suture anchor configurations have been described to achieve stable fixation. Although consensus is lacking with regard to the clinical superiority of one configuration over another, trends in the literature suggest that DR repairs may optimize the likelihood of tendon healing and restoration of shoulder strength...
December 2018: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30395061/shoulder-instability-anterior-posterior-multidirectional-arthroscopic-versus-open-bone-block-procedures
#17
REVIEW
Katherine J Coyner, Robert A Arciero
This article presents a retrospective comprehensive review of the history of anterior, posterior, and multidirectional shoulder instability and also reviews key concepts such as open versus arthroscopic repair and glenoid and humeral head bone loss and associated treatments. The future of shoulder instability will continue to evolve as research and clinical experience will determine the direction of the future.
December 2018: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30395060/preservation-of-knee-articular-cartilage
#18
REVIEW
Michael L Redondo, Neal B Naveen, Joseph N Liu, Tracy M Tauro, Taylor M Southworth, Brian J Cole
Hyaline articular cartilage is critical for the normal functioning of the knee joint. Untreated focal cartilage defects have the potential to rapidly progress to diffuse osteoarthritis. Over the last several decades, a variety of interventions aiming at preserving articular cartilage and preventing osteoarthritis have been investigated. Reparative cartilage procedures, such as microfracture, penetrate the subchondral bone plate in effort to fill focal cartilage defects with marrow elements and stimulate fibrocartilaginous repair...
December 2018: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30395059/anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#19
REVIEW
John C Richmond
The past 3+ decades have been a period of intense interest in the anterior cruciate ligament. Graft choices, techniques, and fixation devices have all evolved. Our understanding of the anatomy has improved. Our follow-up and criteria for success have also expanded. Over the next several years advanced repair techniques, extra-articular augmentation, and addressing elevated tibial slope will all have to have their indications defined.
December 2018: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30395058/meniscus-repair-and-replacement
#20
REVIEW
Peter R Kurzweil, W Dilworth Cannon, Kenneth E DeHaven
The importance of preserving the function of the meniscus is seen with renewed interest. There has been an evolution of arthroscopic meniscus repair from inside-out, outside-in, meniscal fixators, to all-inside suturing techniques. Tear patterns once ignored or thought to be irreparable, such as root tears and horizontal cleavage tears, have recently been undergoing repair with promising results. Newer techniques have also recently allowed surgeons to address postmeniscectomy knee pain. Replacing lost tissue with scaffolds or replacing the meniscus with an allograft helps restore function and reduce degenerative changes...
December 2018: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
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