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FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology

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December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Neeta Jain-Gupta, Araceli Contreras-Rodriguez, Ramesh Vemulapalli, Sharon G Witonsky, Stephen M Boyle, Nammalwar Sriranganathan
Brucellosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide, and there is no vaccine for human use. Brucella melitensis Rev1, a live attenuated strain, is the commercial vaccine for small ruminants to prevent B. melitensis infections but has been associated with abortions in animals. Moreover, strain Rev1 is known to cause disease in humans and cannot be used for human vaccination. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) obtained from B. melitensis have been shown to provide protection similar to strain Rev1 in mice against B...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Masanori Hashino, Masato Tachibana, Takashi Shimizu, Masahisa Watarai
During pregnancy, maternal immune function is strictly controlled and immune tolerance is induced. Trophoblast giant (TG) cells exhibit phagocytic activity and show macrophage-like activity against microorganisms in the placenta. However, details of molecular receptors and mechanisms for uptake by TG cells have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the mannose receptor, C type 1 (MRC1), in the uptake of the abortion-inducible bacterium Listeria monocytogenes and abortion-uninducible bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli by TG cells differentiated from a mouse trophoblast stem cell line in vitro...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Yan Liang, Xueqiong Wu, Junxian Zhang, Li Xiao, Yourong Yang, Xuejuan Bai, Qi Yu, Zhongming Li, Lan Bi, Ning Li, Xiaoli Wu
The situation of tuberculosis (TB) is very severe in China. New therapeutic agents or regimens to treat TB are urgently needed. In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice were given immunotherapy intramuscularly with Ag85A/B chimeric DNA or saline, plasmid vector pVAX1, or Mycobacterium vaccae vaccine. The mice treated with Ag85A/B chimeric DNA showed significantly higher numbers of T cells secreting interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), more IFN-γ in splenocyte culture supernatant, more Th1 and Tc1 cells, and higher ratios of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cells in whole blood, indicating a predominant Th1 immune response to treatment...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Carly V Redelman, Chike Maduakolam, Gregory G Anderson
Staphylococcus aureus forms pathogenic biofilms. Previous studies have indicated that ethanol supplementation during S. aureus biofilm formation results in increased biofilm formation and changes in gene expression. However, the impact of alcohols on preformed S. aureus biofilms has not been studied. In this study, we formed S. aureus biofilms on PVC plastic plates and then treated these preformed biofilms with five different alcohols. We observed that alcohol treatment of preformed S. aureus biofilms led to significant increases in biofilm levels after 24 h of treatment...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Tarun Bansal, Dae N Kim, Tim Slininger, Thomas K Wood, Arul Jayaraman
To better understand the role of host cell-derived molecules on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection, we studied EHEC virulence gene expression when exposed to cell-free spent (conditioned) medium (CM) from HCT-8 intestinal epithelial cells. Exposure to HCT-8 CM for 1 h and 3 h increased the expression of 32 of 41 EHEC locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) virulence genes compared with fresh medium (FM). Expression of the Shiga toxin 1 (stx1B) gene was up-regulated at 1 h of exposure. Seventeen genes encoded by prophage 933W, including those for Stx2, were also up-regulated at both time-points...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Yan Gao, Qinfang Ou, Fuli Huang, Sen Wang, Lei Shen, Yaojie Shen, Jing Wu, Jian Zheng, Xinhua Weng, Wenhong Zhang, Lingyun Shao
The conventional acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) culture of pleural effusion and tuberculin skin test (TST) in tuberculous pleurisy are unable to meet clinical needs because of their low sensitivities and specificities. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracies of QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) and nested-PCR in tuberculous pleurisy, we conducted a cross-sectional study in regions of China with a high tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. Seventy-eight participants were enrolled: 58 TB patients with diagnosis of confirmed or probable tuberculous pleurisy and 20 non-TB patients with a diagnosis of other non-TB diseases...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Olga G Ovchinnikova, Bin Liu, Dan Guo, Nina A Kocharova, Magdalena Bialczak-Kokot, Alexander S Shashkov, Lu Feng, Antoni Rozalski, Lei Wang, Yuriy A Knirel
The O-polysaccharide chain of the lipopolysaccharide (O-antigen) on the bacterial cell surface is one of the most structurally variable cell components and serves as a basis for serotyping of Gram-negative bacteria, including human opportunistic pathogens of the genus Providencia. In this work, the O-antigen of Providencia alcalifaciens O40 was obtained by mild acid degradation of the isolated lipopolysaccharide and studied by chemical methods and high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the O-polysaccharide was established: →4)-β-D-Quip3NFo-(1→3)-α-D-Galp-(1→3)-β-D-GlcpA-(1→3)-β-D-GalpNAc-(1→, where GlcA stands for glucuronic acid and Qui3NFo for 3,6-dideoxy-3-formamidoglucose...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Mark E Shirtliff, J Christopher Post, Garth D Ehrlich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Dieke van der Windt, Hester J Bootsma, Peter Burghout, Christa E van der Gaast-de Jongh, Peter W M Hermans, Michiel van der Flier
Although the Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide capsule is an important virulence factor, ~ 15% of carriage isolates are nonencapsulated. Nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae are a cause of mucosal infections. Recent studies have shown that neutrophils kill S. pneumoniae predominately through neutrophil proteases, such as elastase and cathepsin G. Another recent finding is that nonencapsulated pneumococci have greater resistance to resist cationic antimicrobial peptides that are important in mucosal immunity...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Akihito Nishiyama, Hirokazu Isobe, Yasuhisa Iwao, Tomomi Takano, Wei-Chun Hung, Ikue Taneike, Saori Nakagawa, Soshi Dohmae, Nobuhiro Iwakura, Tatsuo Yamamoto
The mechanisms for the cytotoxicity of staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a pore-forming toxin consisting of LukS-PV and LukF-PV, in human immune cells are still unclear. Because LukS-PV binds to ganglioside GM1, a constituent of detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs) of the plasma membrane, the role of DRMs in PVL cytotoxicity was examined in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes, HL-60 cells, and THP-1 cells. PVL binding capacities in HL-60 and THP-1 cells were higher than those in PMNs and monocytes; however, the PVL concentration to obtain more than 80% cell lysis in HL-60 cells was 10 times higher than that in PMNs and PVL even at such concentration induced < 10% cell lysis in THP-1 cells...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Iwona Markowska-Daniel, Krzysztof Kwit
Acute phase proteins (APPs) and immune responses in pigs after experimental infection with H1N2 swine influenza virus (SwH1N2) were studied. Eight piglets were infected intranasally with SwH1N2. Four served as controls. Antibodies against swine influenza virus (SIV)s were measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay. The proliferation assay was used to measure influenza-specific cell-mediated response. Hematological parameters were measured on a hematology analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major APP (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
J Nancy Hilda, Anbalagan Selvaraj, Sulochana D Das
Neutrophils are the primary cells contributing to initial defense against mycobacteria. Yet, little is known about the potential of various mycobacterial strains to stimulate neutrophils. This study was focused to compare the differential capacity of vaccine strains, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and Mycobacterium indicus pranii (Mw), and laboratory strain H37Rv to activate and enhance neutrophil functions. The expression of phenotypic markers like Fcγ receptor, toll-like receptor (TLR), and chemokine receptor; secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines; and the rate of apoptosis were studied in infected neutrophils...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Noemí Yokobori, Carmen A Sabio y García, Laura Geffner, Pablo Schierloh, Beatriz López, Viviana Ritacco, Lucía Barrera, Silvia de la Barrera, María del Carmen Saisiain
Some multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genotypes are the cause of large outbreaks, including strain M identified in Argentina. In contrast, its kin strain 410 has only caused a single case to date. Cell wall antigens from Mtb were associated with the modulation of macrophage (MΦ) cell death, and the ability to inhibit of MΦ apoptosis is considered a virulence mechanism. In this study, the ability these two clinical isolates with divergent epidemiology to induce MΦ cell death was evaluated using whole inactivated bacteria...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Jialu You, Parveen Yaqoob
Bifidobacterium longum bv. infantis CCUG 52486 was originally isolated from healthy elderly subjects and demonstrated to have particular ecological fitness and anti-pathogenic effects. Bifidobacteria are commonly associated with immuno-modulatory properties, especially in older people, but this strain has not been investigated for effects on immune function. This study aimed to explore the immunomodulatory effects of this novel probiotic, compared with three commercial strains, B. longum SP 07/3, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Yamin Sun, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Min Wang, Alexander S Shashkov, Bin Liu, Lei Wang, Yuriy A Knirel
Lipopolysaccharides on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria are an important factor in pathogenicity, and the O-specific polysaccharide chain (O-polysaccharide, O-antigen) defines the immunospecificity of different bacterial strains. Cronobacter turicensis is an emerging foodborne pathogen which causes severe invasive infections in neonates. In this study, a new O serotype, C. turicensis O2, was established, the structure and genetics of the O-antigen were investigated, and a serotype-specific gene was identified...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly, Martina Baumgartner, Erika Gamper, Carmen Innerebner, Martina Zimmermann, Franz Schilcher, Alexander Tichy, Petra Winter, Wolfgang Jechlinger, Renate Rosengarten, Joachim Spergser
Compared with other bacterial pathogens, the molecular mechanisms of mycoplasma pathogenicity are largely unknown. Several studies in the past have shown that pathogenic mycoplasmas are equipped with sophisticated genetic systems that allow them to undergo high-frequency surface antigenic variations. Although never clearly proven, these variable mycoplasma surface components are often implicated in host immune evasion and adaptation. Vpma surface lipoproteins of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae are encoded on a genomic pathogenicity island-like locus and are considered as one of the well-characterized model systems of mycoplasma surface antigenic variation...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Teresa Estrada-Garcia, Fernando Navarro-Garcia
Until now, a common feature that defines the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strains is the ability to produce a 'stacked-brick' appearance on epithelial cells, but it does not distinguish between pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Numerous adhesins, toxins, and proteins associated with virulence have been described, as well as multiple factors contributing to EAEC-induced inflammation. None of these factors are found in all EAEC isolates, and no single factor has ever been implicated in EAEC virulence...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Anyou Zhu, Hongfang Han, Hao Zhao, Jianguo Hu, Congjun Jiang, Fang Xie, Fengchao Wang
T-helper (Th) 17 and the more recently identified Th22 cells are of great importance in host defense against pathogens, but can also be responsible for chronic inflammatory disorders. However, the roles of the two cell subsets in syphilis remain elusive. In this study, we show that the frequencies of Th17 and Th22 cells are significantly increased in the peripheral blood of patients with secondary syphilis (SS). A significant positive correlation is observed between Th17 and Th22 cells, whereas a negative correlation exists between Th17 and Th1 cells...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Hongliang Yang, Nicole A Kruh-Garcia, Karen M Dobos
The tuberculin skin test, which involves monitoring the immune reaction to an injection of purified protein derivative (PPD), has been the most widely used method for detecting infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis since its development in 1930s. Until recently, the molecular composition of PPD was unknown. This thwarted the discovery of improved skin testing reagents and drastically hindered efforts to define the mechanism of action. Proteomic evaluation of PPD combined with a detailed analysis in the guinea pig model of tuberculosis led to further definition of the molecular composition of PPD...
December 2012: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
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