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Journal of Applied Biomechanics

Chad Van Ramshorst, Woochol J Choi
This study investigated the contact forces and muscle activation during two choreographed fall techniques in contemporary dancers and how these were affected by the fall technique. Ten collegiate level dancers were instructed in two choreographed falls: a) an anteriorly-focused fall involving ankle plantar flexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion with dispersion of forces up the anterior surface of the shank (Technique 1); and (b) a laterally-focused fall involving inversion at the ankle with dispersion of forces up the lateral aspect of the shank (Technique 2)...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Maria K Talarico, Robert C Lynall, Timothy C Mauntel, Erin B Wasserman, Darin A Padua, Jason P Mihalik
Single-leg squats are a common dynamic balance clinical assessment. However, little is known about the relationship between parameters that influence squat movement and postural control performance. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between squat parameters (speed and depth) and postural control under single-task and dual-task. Thirty healthy college students performed single-leg squats under single-task and dual-task with Stroop. Random intercepts general linear mixed models determined the effect of squat parameters on center of pressure parameters...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Jocelyn F Hafer, Mark S Miller, Jane A Kent, Katherine A Boyer
Older females experience higher rates of disability than males, potentially due to sex-specific differences in gait and muscle function. We evaluated the effects of age and physical activity (PA) on gait mechanics and knee extensor muscle function in males and females. Three groups of 20 individuals (each 10 females) participated: young (21-35 years), and highly and less active older (55-70 years) adults. Knee extensor strength and joint mechanics during preferred-speed gait were collected before and after 30 minutes of walking...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Patrick Ippersiel, Richard Preuss, Shawn M Robbins
Continuous relative phase (CRP) analysis using the Hilbert-transform is prone to end-effects. The purpose was to investigate the impact of padding techniques (reflection, spline extrapolation, extraneous data, unpadded) on end-effects following Hilbert-transformed CRP calculations, using sinusoidal, non-sinusoidal, and kinematic data from a repeated sit-to-stand-to-sit task in adults with low-back pain (n=16, mean age=30 years). CRP angles were determined using a Hilbert-transform of sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal signals with set phase-shifts, and for the left thigh/sacrum segments...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Paula Ribeiro Mesquita, Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, Ricardo M Lima, Eliane Fátima Manfio, Ana Cristina de David
While previous reports have provided normative plantar pressure data for walking in children, evaluation during running is lacking. Our study aimed to compare foot loading patterns during running and walking in children aged 4-10 years. Furthermore, the relationship between running baropodometric parameters and anthropometric measures was investigated. Foot loading of 120 volunteers was evaluated during running and walking using an Emed AT-4 pressure platform. Analyses were performed for 5 anatomical regions (rearfoot, midfoot, forefoot, hallux and lesser toes)...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
John Strickland, Grant Bevill
The majority of head injuries sustained during softball play are due to defensive fielders being struck by a ball. The main objective of this study was to test the impact attenuation and facial protection capabilities of fielder's masks from softball impacts. Testing with an instrumented Hybrid III headform was conducted at two speeds and four impact locations for several protective conditions: six fielder's masks, one catcher's mask, and unprotected (no mask). The results showed that most fielder's masks reduced head accelerations, but not to the standard of catcher's masks...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Francisco J Vera-Garcia, Diego López-Plaza, Casto Juan-Recio, David Barbado
Although core stability (CS) has been assessed through many different tests, the relationships among them are currently unknown. The main objective was to analyse the relationship between five representative tests used to assess CS in: i) laboratory settings: Sudden Loading Test (SLT) and Stable and Unstable Sitting Test (SUST); ii) field settings: Biering-Sorensen Test (BST), Three-Plane Core Strength Test (TPCT) and Double-leg Lowering Test (DLLT). The reliability of these tests was also examined. Thirty-three recreationally active males performed the tests twice...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Robert D Catena, Nigel Campbell, Alexa L Werner, Kendall M Iverson
We investigated the relationship between anthropometric changes and dynamic balance changes during pregnancy. Fifteen participants were recruited for testing, using a convenience sample, from 12 weeks gestation until childbirth. We measured body anthropometry with a tape measure and calipers. We conducted self-selected speed walking analysis using a motion capture system and measured balance deficits as increased motion of the body center of mass. While a relatively large total explained variance of preferred walking speed was achieved (R2 = 0...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Remco J Baggen, Jaap H van Dieën, Sabine M Verschueren, Evelien Van Roie, Christophe Delecluse
In older populations, obtaining true maximum voluntary excitation appears more difficult than in young populations. The aims of this study were to determine whether differences between maximum voluntary excitation obtained from voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) versus (sub-)maximum voluntary dynamic contractions (s-)MVDC) are age-dependent, and how normalizing EMG signals to corresponding maximum voluntary excitations affects variance between participants and the likelihood of normalized signals exceeding 100%...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Ben Langley, Mary Cramp, Stewart C Morrison
To-date there is a paucity of information about how different types of conventional running shoes influence lower limb kinematics. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of motion control, neutral and cushioned running shoes upon lower limb kinematics. Twenty-eight active males completed one test session running in standardised motion control, neutral and cushioned running shoes, on a treadmill at a self-selected pace (2.9 ± 0.6 m.s-1 ). Kinematic data were collected using a VICON motion analysis system with hip, knee and ankle joint angles calculated...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Shaun O Leary, Carlijn Hoogma, Øystein Molland Solberg, Sara Sundberg, Ashley Pedler, Luke Van Wyk
Isometric strength and endurance performance of cervical flexor and extensor muscles were compared in women with (n = 30) and without (n = 30) idiopathic neck pain at the craniocervical and cervicothoracic axes. Strength and endurance time (time to task failure in seconds (s)) at 50% maximal voluntary contraction were recorded in 4 directions (craniocervical flexion/extension, cervicothoracic flexion/extension) and six strength and endurance ratios were calculated. Participants in both groups were matched for Body Mass Index...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Kristi Edgar, Aimee Appel, Nicholas Clay, Adam Engelsgjerd, Lauren Hill, Eric Leeseberg, Allison Lyle, Erika Nelson-Wong
People who develop low back pain during standing (standing-intolerant) are a subclinical group at risk for clinical low back pain. Standing-intolerant individuals respond favorably to stabilization exercise and may be similar to people with sacroiliac joint dysfunction that respond to stabilization approaches including sacroiliac joint (SIJ) bracing. The purpose was to characterize muscle activation and response to SIJ bracing in standing-tolerant and standing-intolerant individuals during forward flexion and unilateral stance...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Christopher Napier, Christopher L MacLean, Jessica Maurer, Jack E Taunton, Michael A Hunt
High magnitudes and rates of loading have been implicated in the etiology of running-related injuries. Knowledge of kinematic variables that are predictive of kinetic outcomes could inform clinic-based gait retraining programs. Healthy novice female runners ran on a treadmill while 3-dimensional biomechanical data were collected. Kinetic outcomes consisted of vertical impact transient, average vertical loading rate, instantaneous vertical loading rate, and peak braking force. Kinematic outcomes included step length), hip flexion angle at initial contact, horizontal distance from heel to center of mass at initial contact, shank angle at initial contact, and foot strike angle...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S Rosén, Olga Tarassova, Anton Arndt
Trunk, pelvis, and leg movements are important for performance in sprint kayaking. Para-kayaking is a new Paralympic sport in which athletes with trunk and/or leg impairment compete in 3 classification groups. The purpose of this study was to identify how physical impairments impact on performance by examining: differences in 3-dimensional joint range of motion (RM) between 10 (4 females and 6 males) elite able-bodied kayakers and 41 (13 females and 28 males) elite para-kayakers from the 3 classification groups, and which joint angles were correlated with power output during high-intensity kayak ergometer paddling...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Sarah M Coppola, Philippe C Dixon, Boyi Hu, Michael Y C Lin, Jack T Dennerlein
This study examined the effects of four micro-travel keyboards on forearm muscle activity, typing force, typing performance, and self-reported discomfort and difficulty. Twenty participants completed typing tasks on four commercially available devices with different key switch characteristics (dome, scissors, and butterfly) and key travels (0.55, 1.3, and 1.6 mm). The device with short travel (0.55 mm) and a dome type key switch mechanism was associated with higher muscle activities (6-8%,p < 0.01), higher typing force (12%, p < 0...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
William H Clark, Jason R Franz
The triceps surae muscle-tendon units are important in governing walking performance, acting to regulate mechanical behavior of the ankle through interaction between active muscle and passive elastic structures. Ankle joint quasi-stiffness (the slope of the relation between ankle moment and ankle rotation, kA), is a useful aggregate measure of this mechanical behavior. However, the role of muscle activation and length-tension behavior in augmenting kA remains unclear. Here, 10 subjects completed eccentric isokinetic contractions at rest and at two soleus activation levels (25% and 75% isometric voluntary contraction - IVC) prescribed using electromyographic biofeedback...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Yumeng Li, Melissa A Mache, Teri A Todd
The purpose of this study was to compare the complexity of postural control between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typical developing children during altered visual and somatosensory conditions using the multiscale entropy. Eleven children with ASD and 11 typical developing children were tested during quiet standing under four conditions: (1) eyes open and standing on a stable surface; (2) eyes open and standing on a compliant surface; (3) eyes closed and standing on a stable surface and (4) eyes closed and standing on a compliant surface...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Paul J Felton, Maurice R Yeadon, Mark A King
Planar simulation models which assume coincident joint centres at the hip and shoulder are often used to investigate subject-specific maximal performances rather than 3D models due to the viability of determining subject-specific parameters. To investigate the effect of coincident joint centres on model accuracy, three variants of a 16-segment planar subject-specific angle-driven model were evaluated using an elite cricket fast bowling performance: (a) planar representation assuming coincident joint centres; (b) planar representation with non-coincident hip joint centres; (c) planar representation with non-coincident hip and shoulder joint centres...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Reed D Gurchiek, Hasthika S Rupasinghe Arachchige Don, Lasanthi C R Pelawa Watagoda, Ryan S McGinnis, Herman van Werkhoven, Alan R Needle, Jeffrey M McBride, Alan T Arnholt
Field-based sprint performance assessments rely on metrics derived from a simple model of sprinting dynamics parametrized by two constants, υ0 and τ, which indicate a sprinter's maximal theoretical velocity and the time it takes to approach υ0 respectively. This study aims to automate sprint assessment by estimating υ0 and τ using machine learning and accelerometer data. To this end, photocells recorded 10 m split times of 28 subjects for three 40 m sprints while wearing an accelerometer around the waist...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M Bruijn, Ingrid G van de Port, Ilona J M de Rooij, Harriet Wittink, Jaap H van Dieën
A recent review indicated that perturbation based training (PBT) interventions are effective in reducing falls in older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease. It is unknown whether this type of intervention is effective in stroke survivors. We determined whether PBT can enhance gait stability in stroke survivors. Ten chronic stroke survivors who experienced falls in the past six months participated in the PBT. Participants performed 10 training sessions over a six-week period. The gait training protocol was progressive and each training contained, unexpected gait perturbations and expected gait perturbations...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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