Koshiro Nishimoto, Tadashi Ogishima, Yuki Sugiura, Makoto Suematsu, Kuniaki Mukai
The human adrenal cortex secretes aldosterone and cortisol as major corticosteroids. For their production, CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 catalyze the last steps in the syntheses of aldosterone and cortisol, respectively. In our previous study, CYP11B2 was the first successfully purified from rat adrenals and human clinical samples and then was proved to be aldosterone synthase. We demonstrated the immunohistochemistry for CYP11B2 of both rats and humans and applied it clinically to visualize the functional histology of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) causing primary aldosteronism (PA)...
September 26, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Eijiro Yamada, Yasuyo Nakajima, Kazuhiko Horiguchi, Shuichi Okada, Masanobu Yamada
The advantages of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) over intermittently scanned CGM (isCGM) reportedly include lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels as well as reduced glycemic variability. However, there have been few studies of the effect of switching from isCGM to rtCGM on glycemic control, as well as the specific factors underlying any observed improvements. To that end, all patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who used the DEXCOM rtCGM device (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) at our institution were reviewed, and 16 individuals with type 1 diabetes who switched from isCGM to rtCGM were investigated...
September 26, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Natsuko Watanabe, Jaeduk Yoshimura Noh, Ai Kozaki, Ran Yoshimura, Ai Yoshihara, Nami Suzuki, Masako Matsumoto, Miho Fukushita, Aya Kinoshita, Azusa Aida, Hideyuki Imai, Shigenori Hiruma, Toshu Inoue, Kosuke Inoue, Kiminori Sugino, Koichi Ito
Appropriate administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive treatment (AIIST) is important for patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO). This study aimed to clarify the incidence and risk factors for GO treated with AIIST and propose a predictive score, among newly diagnosed Graves' disease (GD) patients in Japan. A total of 1,553 GD patients who were newly diagnosed during the year 2011 were investigated. AIIST included local and/or systemic glucocorticoid administration and retrobulbar irradiation...
September 22, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Hiroshi Arimitsu, Yui Nishijima, Naoyuki Higaki, Hitoshi Noguchi, Shinya Uchino, Tsukasa Murakami
An 82-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a suspicious thyroid nodule. She was diagnosed with papillary microcarcinoma with a maximum diameter of 9 mm based on ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. She preferred observation without surgery. Her papillary carcinoma grew gradually and reached a maximum diameter of 19 mm after 23 months. At that time, ultrasonography showed an apparent change in the shape of the nodule as well as in its diameter. At the initial ultrasound examination, papillary microcarcinoma was demonstrated as a hypoechoic solid nodule with an irregular shape...
September 16, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Tsuguka Matsuda, Natsumi Himeno, Akira Nakashima, Naoya Nakagawa, Toshihiko Kohashi, Dan Kawamori, Nozomu Kamei
Residual pancreatic endocrine function is important for maintaining metabolic status after pancreatectomy and is closely related to patient nutritional status and prognosis. In contrast to insulin secretion, the significance of glucagon secretion following pancreatectomy remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the changes in pancreatic glucagon secretion during pancreatectomy to determine their pathophysiological significance. We evaluated glucagon and insulin secretion using a liquid meal tolerance test before and after pancreatectomy in patients scheduled to undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) or distal pancreatectomy (DP)...
September 13, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Taku Yamada, Taichi Minami, Masayo Yamada, Yasuo Terauchi
CA19-9 is a tumor marker for pancreatic cancer (PC), and the nondiabetic cut-off level is 37 U/mL. CA19-9 levels are said to rise in patients with tumors like PC and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). CA19-9 levels have also been shown to be related to HbA1c levels. We hypothesized that the CA19-9 cut-off levels would differ between patients with poorly controlled diabetes. This real-world trial was designed to test our hypotheses. This was a retrospective cohort study. All inpatients with poorly controlled diabetes had mean HbA1c levels of 10...
September 9, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Maurilio Deandrea, Tommaso Piticchio, Alberto Mormile, Francesca Retta, Giovanni Canale, Alessandra Caracciolo, Lorenzo Daniele, Pierpaolo Trimboli
The diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is challenging since the accuracy of ultrasound (US) and fine-needle aspiration cytology are suboptimal. As a result, MTC has a generally poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze whether perioperative data can modify the risk of relapse in these patients. The institutional database of Turin Mauriziano Hospital was searched to extract records of MTCs diagnosed between 2000 and 2021. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox and logistic regression analyses were performed, and the hazard ratio (HR) was calculated...
September 9, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Tsuyoshi Isojima, Akira Shimatsu
Measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels are useful surrogate markers for the diagnosis and management of patients with growth hormone-related disorders. We have previously published normative data of serum IGF-1 levels for the Japanese population aged 0-77 years by combining and analyzing previously reported references, which were separately and independently constructed, to properly reflect data in the transition period. Although the reference is widely used in both clinical and research settings, the reference did not include data for those aged >77 years, raising the question of how we would evaluate patients over those ages...
September 9, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Go Anan, Daisuke Kikuchi, Kenji Omae, Takuo Hirose, Kouji Okada, Takefumi Mori
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic drugs. Guidelines for the proper use of SGLT2 inhibitors recommend caution regarding urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, little evidence has been reported on the relationship between SGLT2 inhibitors and UTIs in large epidemiological studies. We investigated (1) the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and UTIs and (2) the relationship between SGLT2 inhibitor prescriptions and the likelihood of developing UTIs in patients with DM, using a nationwide Japanese health insurance claims database by MDV analyzer® ...
September 6, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Yoshitaka Kawai, Yo Kishimoto, Hisanobu Tamaki, Takashi Fujiwara, Ryo Asato, Koji Ushiro, Shogo Shinohara, Shinpei Kada, Shinji Takebayashi, Tsuyoshi Kojima, Shuya Otsuki, Masakazu Miyazaki, Yohei Kumabe, Koichi Omori
The operative procedure in the surgical treatment of parathyroid carcinoma differs from that of benign hyperparathyroidism. However, preoperative differentiation is often difficult. This study elucidated how clinicians diagnose parathyroid carcinoma and the relationship between preoperative diagnosis and the operative course. Using a retrospective chart review, twenty cases of parathyroid carcinoma from nine participating centers were examined. In 11 cases with preoperative suspicion of malignancy, at least one of these three features was found: elevated serum calcium level (>14 mg/dL), palpable mass, and irregular margin on ultrasonography...
August 26, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Tetsuhiro Watanabe, Saori Okabe, Shohei Sakamoto
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) frequently exhibits hyperinsulinemia due to insulin resistance, but there are many unknown aspects of this disease. This report presents the case of a 31-year-old woman with PCOS and type B insulin resistance syndrome (TBIRS). The patient had repeated hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, and prominent hyperinsulinemia. The insulin receptor antibody was positive, leading to a diagnosis of TBIRS. She also had amenorrhea during the previous 3 months, high blood testosterone levels, and enlarged polycystic ovaries, leading to a diagnosis of PCOS at the same time...
August 25, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Jie Chen, Jiang Yue, Jingjing Fu, Shengyun He, Qianjing Liu, Minglan Yang, Wang Zhang, Hua Xu, Qing Lu, Jing Ma
The global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has attained a level of 25.24%. The prevalence of NAFLD in China has exhibited an upward trajectory in parallel with the increasing incidence of obesity over the preceding decade. In order to comprehensively assess hepatic lipid deposition in individuals with overweight or obesity, we have devised a pioneering prognostic formula that capitalizes on clinical parameters. To this end, we have conducted a cross-sectional cohort study involving 149 overweight or obese subjects...
August 18, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Ichiro Yamauchi, Takuro Hakata, Taku Sugawa, Daisuke Kosugi, Haruka Fujita, Kentaro Okamoto, Yohei Ueda, Toshihito Fujii, Daisuke Taura, Norio Harada, Nobuya Inagaki
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are used for various malignancies, although they frequently cause immune-related adverse events involving the thyroid gland (thyroid irAEs). We conducted a retrospective cohort study to elucidate thyroid function outcomes. Fifty of 639 patients who received PD-1 blockade therapy met criteria and were divided into the following groups: thyrotoxicosis with subsequent hypothyroidism (Toxic-Hypo, n = 21); thyrotoxicosis without subsequent hypothyroidism (Toxic, n = 9); and hypothyroidism without prior thyrotoxicosis (Hypo, n = 20)...
August 11, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Masaaki Yamamoto, Hironori Bando
GH activates GH receptors, which activates IGF-1 in the liver through a cascade of processes. The GH/IGF-1 axis plays an important role in the regulation of metabolism. Insufficient GH secretion results in short stature in childhood, while adult GH deficiency (AGHD) is observed in adulthood. The early diagnosis of AGHD is important for early initiation of GH replacement therapy. This review described the regulatory mechanisms of GH signaling based on nutritional status and a novel disease concept pathogenesis that causes AGHD...
August 5, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Michiko Matsuse, Norisato Mitsutake
TERT promoter mutations (TERT-p mutations) have been found in many types of cancer and have emerged to play critical roles in tumor progression. The mutations upregulate TERT transcription, and TERT not only elongates telomeres and confers unlimited proliferative capacity on tumor cells, but is also involved in tumor progression and aggressiveness. In differentiated thyroid carcinoma, TERT-p mutations are associated with a number of high-risk clinicopathological aggressiveness and worse prognosis, making it the best molecular marker to predict tumor aggressiveness so far...
August 1, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Hajime Kato, Soichiro Kimura, Maho Taguchi, Takashi Sunouchi, Yoshitomo Hoshino, Naoko Hidaka, Nadia Edvige Foligno, Minae Koga, Katsunori Manaka, Hiroyuki Tamiya, Masanori Kawakami, Hidenori Kage, Yoichi Yasunaga, Masaomi Nangaku, Noriko Makita, Nobuaki Ito
Although there are a few case reports of patients with small cell lung cancer developing hypophosphatemia, detailed information on this condition is scarce. A 52-year-old patient with advanced stage small cell lung cancer developed hypophosphatemia (1.1 mg/dL) during chemotherapy. A reduced level of the tubular reabsorption of phosphate concomitant with an inappropriately elevated level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 (48.4 pg/mL) was noted, leading to the diagnosis of FGF23-related hypophosphatemia. Laboratory data also showed hypercortisolemia with an elevated ACTH level and hyponatremia with an inappropriately unsuppressed level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)...
July 20, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Tingting Kong, Yunpeng Gu, Lei Sun, Run Zhou, Jie Li, Junping Shi
An association exists between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and growth hormone (GH). Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) may be more susceptible to NAFLD. The prevalence of NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in GHD patients is currently unknown. Multiple databases were searched for experiments related to NAFLD (or NASH) and GHD. Screening, quality evaluation and data extraction were carried out independently by two authors. Analyses used random or fixed effects models, including NAFLD prevalence, NASH prevalence, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)...
July 20, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Keiichiro Matoba
Diabetic nephropathy is a public health problem worldwide. Our understanding of the molecular machinery, as well as the clinical therapies for diabetic nephropathy, has evolved dramatically in recent years. However, even with this progress, there are residual risks of kidney failure and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes. Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) is activated in response to various pathologic stimuli in the context of diabetes. The contribution of ROCK has been investigated in vivo using gene deletion rodent models and specific inhibitors, which are providing key insights into the pathologic function of ROCK in diabetic nephropathy...
July 20, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Róża Aleksandrowicz, Magdalena Stefanowicz, Marek Strączkowski
The remodeling of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) components is related to the degree of insulin resistance (IR). Membrane receptors such as integrins provide two-way signaling ("inside-out" and "outside-in" signaling) between ECM components of skeletal muscle (e.g., collagen, laminin, fibronectin) and intracellular signaling pathways. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between the expression of integrins in skeletal muscle and insulin sensitivity (IS) in young, healthy, non-obese volunteers...
July 12, 2023: Endocrine Journal
Norio Wada, Shuhei Baba, Hajime Sugawara, Arina Miyoshi, Shinji Obara
Hyperkalemia is developed in a part of patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) after adrenalectomy, suspected to be due to the insufficiency of aldosterone secretion. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency and characteristics of prolonged postoperative hypoaldosteronism (PPHA) using chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). We studied 58 patients with APA with long time after adrenalectomy and whose PAC was measured using a CLEIA kit. The PAC value measured using CLEIA was significantly lower than that of using RIA between two consecutive visits before and after the shift of measuring method of PAC (median [interquantile range], 123...
July 8, 2023: Endocrine Journal
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