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Trends in Microbiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777608/responding-to-antimicrobial-resistance-with-novel-therapeutics
#1
EDITORIAL
Gail Teitzel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770171/efflux-pump-upregulation-from-tolerance-to-high-level-antibiotic-resistance
#2
Jakob Frimodt-Møller, Anders Løbner-Olesen
A recent study shows that high expression of the efflux-pump AcrAB-TolC, which increases antibiotic tolerance, reduces DNA mismatch repair in Escherichia coli to promote spontaneous mutations. Because mutations in target genes can lead to high-level resistance, this highlights how transiently tolerant cells can develop resistance in response to antibiotic treatment.
February 12, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755344/the-role-of-the-host-in-driving-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-salmonella
#3
REVIEW
Caressa N Tsai, Brian K Coombes
The complex infection environment within hosts exerts unique stresses across tissues and cell types, selecting for phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations. Pathogens maintain variability during infection as a strategy to cope with fluctuating host immune conditions, leading to diversification of virulence phenotypes. Recent improvements in single-cell analyses have revealed that distinct bacterial subpopulations contribute unique colonization and growth strategies across infection sites. We discuss several examples of host-driven phenotypic heterogeneity in Salmonella populations throughout the course of infection, highlighting how variation in gene expression, growth rate, immune evasion, and metabolic activity contribute to overall bacterial success at the population level...
February 9, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709708/the-scourge-of-antibiotic-resistant-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#4
Erin P Price, Derek S Sarovich
Bacterial infections are the primary cause of respiratory decline and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In a recent study, Diaz Caballero and colleagues [1] (PLoS Pathog. 2018;14:e1007453) catalogued the molecular adaptation of a decade-long Burkholderia multivorans infection in a Canadian CF patient, which evolved to become resistant towards multiple classes of antibiotics.
January 29, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709707/hepatitis-c-virus
#5
Thomas Pietschmann, Richard J P Brown
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an enveloped, RNA virus transmitted through blood-to-blood contact. It infects humans only and primarily targets liver cells. HCV evades innate and adaptive immunity and establishes chronic infections in 70% of cases. If untreated, 20% of patients develop liver cirrhosis, and a fraction of these progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. Annually, 400000 patients die globally due to HCV infection. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are licensed and target three viral proteins: the NS3-4A protease needed for processing the viral polyprotein, the NS5A phosphoprotein that regulates RNA replication and virus assembly, and the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) that catalyzes genome replication...
January 29, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685243/ethnicity-influenced-microbiota-a-future-healthcare-perspective
#6
Madhusmita Dehingia, Atanu Adak, Mojibur R Khan
Global research is focused on understanding the factors affecting human gut microbiota vis-à-vis health. Brooks et al. [PLoS Biol. (2018) 16, e2006842] has reported a group of microbial taxa that vary across ethnicity in the USA (AGP and HMP data sets). Ethnicity-specific microbial signatures will aid in developing therapeutics for targeted microbiota modulation.
January 23, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683453/alternatives-to-conventional-antibiotics-in-the-era-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#7
REVIEW
Chandradhish Ghosh, Paramita Sarkar, Rahaf Issa, Jayanta Haldar
As more antibiotics are rendered ineffective by drug-resistant bacteria, focus must be shifted towards alternative therapies for treating infections. Although several alternatives already exist in nature, the challenge is to implement them in clinical use. Advancements within biotechnology, genetic engineering, and synthetic chemistry have opened up new avenues towards the search for therapies that can substitute for antibiotics. This review provides an introduction to the various promising approaches that have been adopted in this regard...
January 22, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679075/the-road-not-taken-the-rumen-microbiome-functional-groups-and-community-states
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Moraïs, Itzhak Mizrahi
The rumen ecosystem represents a classic example of host-microbiome symbiosis. In this obligatory relationship, the host feeds on plant fibers that can only be degraded through a set of complex metabolic cascades, exclusively encoded in rumen-associated microbes. These various metabolic pathways are distributed across a multitude of microbial populations. Application of basic ecological principles to this ecosystem can contribute to profound understanding of the rules that shape it. Here, we discuss recent studies by examining the mapping between host attributes, rumen ecosystem composition, and functionality to propose simple, yet powerful concepts to guide the interpretation of microbiome data and enable a better understanding of how the system responds to perturbations...
January 21, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30665698/fighting-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms-with-monoclonal-antibodies
#9
REVIEW
Dina Raafat, Michael Otto, Kevin Reppschläger, Jawad Iqbal, Silva Holtfreter
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a notorious pathogen and one of the most frequent causes of biofilm-related infections. The treatment of S. aureus biofilms is hampered by the ability of the biofilm structure to shield bacteria from antibiotics as well as the host's immune system. Therefore, new preventive and/or therapeutic interventions, including the use of antibody-based approaches, are urgently required. In this review, we describe the mechanisms by which anti-S. aureus antibodies can help in combating biofilms, including an up-to-date overview of monoclonal antibodies currently in clinical trials...
January 18, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661918/crossing-the-intestinal-barrier-via-listeria-adhesion-protein-and-internalin-a
#10
REVIEW
Rishi Drolia, Arun K Bhunia
The intestinal epithelial cell lining provides the first line of defense, yet foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes can overcome this barrier; however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Though the host M cells in Peyer's patch and the bacterial invasion protein internalin A (InlA) are involved, L. monocytogenes can cross the gut barrier in their absence. The interaction of Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) with the host cell receptor (heat shock protein 60) disrupts the epithelial barrier, promoting bacterial translocation...
January 17, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30658900/rtx-adhesins-are-key-bacterial-surface-megaproteins-in-the-formation-of-biofilms
#11
REVIEW
Shuaiqi Guo, Tyler D R Vance, Corey A Stevens, Ilja Voets, Peter L Davies
Gram-negative bacteria produce repeats-in-toxin adhesion proteins (RTX adhesins) to facilitate microbial adhesion. These large, multidomain proteins share a common architecture comprised of four regions. First to emerge from the bacterium, C terminal end leading, is the RTX export sequence that directs the protein through the type 1 secretion system (T1SS). This is followed by the ligand-binding region responsible for host adhesion and cohesion, which contains diverse ligand-binding domains. These serve a zip code function to direct bacteria to a particular environmental niche...
January 15, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30655037/not-by-good-microbes-alone-towards-immunocommensal-therapies
#12
REVIEW
Chung-Yin Leung, Joshua S Weitz
Commensal bacteria have been identified as critical drivers of host resilience to pathogen invasion. The resulting 'competitive exclusion' of pathogens by commensals can arise via multiple mechanisms, including direct competition for sites of colonization, production of metabolic products that inhibit pathogen growth, and modulation of host immune responses (including differential targeting of pathogens). Nonetheless, suppression of pathogens through the combined action of commensals and host immunity is far from inevitable...
January 14, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30655036/nutrition-and-bipartite-metabolism-of-intracellular-pathogens
#13
REVIEW
Ashley Best, Yousef Abu Kwaik
The host is a nutrient-rich niche for microbial pathogens, but one that comes with obstacles and challenges. Many intracellular pathogens like Legionella pneumophila, Coxiella burnetii, Listeria monocytogenes, and Chlamydia trachomatis have developed bipartite metabolism within their hosts. This style of metabolic regulation enables pathogen sensing of specific nutrients to engage them into catabolic and anabolic processes, and contributes to temporal and spatial pathogen phenotypic modulation. Not only have intracellular pathogens adapted their metabolism to the host, they have also acquired idiosyncratic strategies to exploit host nutritional supplies and intercept metabolites...
January 14, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30642766/interplay-between-influenza-virus-and-the-host-rna-polymerase-ii-transcriptional-machinery
#14
REVIEW
Alexander P Walker, Ervin Fodor
The influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) cleaves the 5' end of nascent capped host RNAs and uses the capped RNA fragment to prime viral transcription in a mechanism called 'cap snatching'. Cap snatching requires an intimate association between influenza RdRP and cellular RNA polymerase II (Pol II), which is the source of nascent capped host RNAs targeted by influenza virus. Recent structural studies have revealed how influenza RdRP binds to Pol II and how this binding promotes the initiation of viral transcription by influenza RdRP...
January 11, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30639076/an-evolutionary-perspective-on-ethylene-sensing-in-microorganisms
#15
Nicolas Papon, Brad M Binder
Ethylene is a gas and a plant hormone with wide ranging effects and a well defined signaling pathway. The recent identification of ethylene receptors in various microorganisms provides new insights into the early propagation of the ethylene signaling pathway in the course of evolution.
January 10, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638776/research-innovation-and-policy-an-alliance-combating-antimicrobial-resistance
#16
Arjon J van Hengel, Laura Marin
The surge in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has created a crisis that has become top priority for public health and global policy. Researchers, developers, innovators, funders, and policymakers need to curb AMR's rising trend by acting synergistically, boosting investment in developing solutions. This science-policy interface is now taking shape.
January 8, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638775/m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois-virus-host-and-microbiota-in-experimental-infection-models
#17
REVIEW
Beryl Mazel-Sanchez, Soner Yildiz, Mirco Schmolke
Infections of mammals with pathogenic viruses occur mostly in the polymicrobial environment of mucosal surfaces or the skin. In recent years our understanding of immune modulation by the commensal microbiota has increased dramatically. The microbiota is today accepted as the prime educator and maintainer of innate and adaptive immune functions. It became further apparent that some viral pathogens profit from the presence of commensal bacteria and their metabolites, especially in the intestinal tract. We further learned that the composition and abundance of the microbiota can change as a consequence of acute and chronic viral infections...
January 8, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30621999/streptomyces-coelicolor
#18
Paul A Hoskisson, Gilles P van Wezel
Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is amongst the best studied representatives of the genus Streptomyces, which is the largest genus within the Actinobacteria. Streptomycetes have a remarkably complex developmental life cycle and the capacity to produce a plethora of natural products. Whilst referred to as S. coelicolor A3(2), this strain is more closely related to Streptomyces violaceoruber ISP5049 than to the type strain for the species, S. coelicolor Müller. However, the name was maintained as it had become the workhorse for genetics and a model for development and antibiotic production...
January 6, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30600140/the-pathogen-host-interface-in-three-dimensions-correlative-fib-sem-applications
#19
REVIEW
Allon Weiner, Jost Enninga
Pathogens survive and propagate within host cells through a wide array of complex interactions. Tracking the molecular and cellular events by multidimensional fluorescence microscopy has been a widespread tool for research on intracellular pathogens. Through major advancements in 3D electron microscopy, intracellular pathogens can also be visualized in their cellular environment to an unprecedented level of detail within large volumes. Recently, multidimensional fluorescence microscopy has been correlated with volume electron microscopy, combining molecular and functional information with the overall ultrastructure of infection events...
December 29, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30600139/planting-the-microbiome
#20
Jennifer K Spinler, Vivekanudeep Karri, Kendal D Hirschi
Plant-derived microRNAs stabilized by species-specific lipid nanoparticles mediate interkingdom communication through bacterial intermediates and impact consumer health. Ingested by distinct gut bacteria, these microRNA-containing particles alter bacterial gene expression to affect host immunity. This three-kingdom interplay provides compelling approaches for health-directed dietary interventions for consumers.
December 29, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
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