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Veterinary Research

Niccoló Vendramin, Dhamotharan Kannimuthu, Anne Berit Olsen, Argelia Cuenca, Lena Hammerlund Teige, Øystein Wessel, Tine Moesgaard Iburg, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Espen Rimstad, Niels Jørgen Olesen
Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) mediated diseases have emerged throughout salmonid aquaculture. Three PRV subtypes are currently reported as causative agents of or in association with diseases in different salmonid species. PRV-1 causes heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and is associated with jaundice syndrome in farmed chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). PRV-2 causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS) in coho salmon in Japan. PRV-3 has recently been associated with a disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) characterized by anaemia, heart and red muscle pathology; to jaundice syndrome in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)...
February 18, 2019: Veterinary Research
Jolien Van Cleemput, Katrien C K Poelaert, Kathlyn Laval, Hans J Nauwynck
Equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV5) is a ubiquitous, yet obscure pathogen in the horse population and is commonly associated with fatal equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF). To date, little is known about the precise pathogenesis of EHV5. Here, we evaluated the dynamics of EHV5 infection in representative ex vivo and in vitro equine models, using immunofluorescence staining and virus titration. EHV5 was unable to infect epithelial cells lining the mucosa of nasal and tracheal explants. Similarly, primary equine respiratory epithelial cells (EREC) were not susceptible to EHV5 following inoculation at the apical or basolateral surfaces...
February 18, 2019: Veterinary Research
Hassanein H Abozeid, Anandan Paldurai, Berin P Varghese, Sunil K Khattar, Manal A Afifi, Sahar Zouelfakkar, Ayman H El-Deeb, Magdy F El-Kady, Siba K Samal
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a major disease problem for the poultry industry worldwide. The currently used live-attenuated vaccines have the tendency to mutate and/or recombine with circulating field strains resulting in the emergence of vaccine-derived variant viruses. In order to circumvent these issues, and to develop a vaccine that is more relevant to Egypt and its neighboring countries, a recombinant avirulent Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strain LaSota was constructed to express the codon-optimized S glycoprotein of the Egyptian IBV variant strain IBV/Ck/EG/CU/4/2014 belonging to GI-23 lineage, that is prevalent in Egypt and in the Middle East...
February 11, 2019: Veterinary Research
Anne Liljander, Flavio Sacchini, Michael H Stoffel, Elise Schieck, Nadine Stokar-Regenscheit, Fabien Labroussaa, Martin Heller, Jeremy Salt, Joachim Frey, Laurent Falquet, Danny Goovaerts, Joerg Jores
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a severe disease widespread in Africa and Asia. Limited knowledge is available on the pathogenesis of this organism, mainly due to the lack of a robust in vivo challenge model and the means to do site-directed mutagenesis. This work describes the establishment of a novel caprine challenge model for CCPP that resulted in 100% morbidity using a combination of repeated intranasal spray infection followed by a single transtracheal infection employing the recent Kenyan outbreak strain ILRI181...
February 8, 2019: Veterinary Research
Bo Yang, Jiexiong Xie, Jolien Van Cleemput, Ruifang Wei, Geert Opsomer, Hans J Nauwynck
Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a gammaherpesvirus that is widespread in cattle. However, only a few studies about the pathogenesis of BoHV-4 primary infection have been reported. In the present study, ex vivo models with bovine nasal and tracheal mucosa explants were used to study the cellular BoHV-4-host interactions. Infection was observed in nasal but not in tracheal epithelial cells. To find a possible correlation between the integrity and restricted infection of the respiratory epithelium, both nasal mucosal and tracheal explants were treated with EGTA, a drug that disrupts the intercellular junctions, before inoculation...
February 8, 2019: Veterinary Research
Xin Jin, Man Zhang, Gui-Fang Cao, Yin-Feng Yang
The rumen epithelium of sheep serves as an immune interface with the environment and secretes antimicrobial peptides with bactericidal function against various pathogens. Sheep beta-defensin-1 (SBD-1), an antimicrobial peptide, is secreted from ovine ruminal epithelial cells (OREC) in response to microbial infections. Mannan, the main component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall can stimulate innate and regulatory immune responses that could improve the gastrointestinal environment. We aimed at investigating the effects of mannan on SBD-1 expression and the downstream signaling pathways stimulated in OREC...
February 4, 2019: Veterinary Research
Xun Li, Wei Zhang, Yunjia Liu, Jiaxun Xie, Chuanhuo Hu, Xiaoye Wang
As a key cellular transcription factor that plays a central role in cellular responses to a broad range of stress factors, p53 has generally been considered as a host cell restriction factor for various viral infections. However, the defined roles of p53 in pseudorabies virus (PRV) replication, pathogenesis, and host responses remain unclear. In the present study, we initially constructed a p53 overexpressing a porcine kidney epithelial cell line (PK-15) to detect the effect of p53 on PRV replication in vitro...
February 4, 2019: Veterinary Research
Runfeng Zhang, Fang Liu, Peter Hunt, Congjun Li, Lichun Zhang, Aaron Ingham, Robert W Li
Haemonchus contortus is one of the most pathogenic gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. To understand molecular mechanisms underlying host resistance to this parasite, we used RNA-sequencing technology to compare the transcriptomic response of the abomasal tissue, the site of the host-parasite interaction, of Merino sheep bred to be either genetically resistant or susceptible to H. contortus infection. Two different selection flocks, the Haemonchus selection flock (HSF) and the Trichostrongylus selection flock (TSF), and each contains a resistant and susceptible line, were studied...
January 24, 2019: Veterinary Research
Brent Race, Katie Williams, Bruce Chesebro
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease which infects deer, elk and moose. CWD was first described as a wasting syndrome in captive deer in Colorado and Wyoming wildlife facilities from 1967 to 1979. Currently, CWD has been reported in 26 states of the USA, three Canadian provinces, South Korea, Norway and Finland. Since human consumption of cervids is common, it is critical to determine if CWD can infect humans. Published research, including epidemiologic studies and transmission studies using animal models, including transgenic mice that express human prion protein, have suggested existence of a strong species barrier between cervid CWD and humans...
January 22, 2019: Veterinary Research
Tomomi Takano, Misuzu Akiyama, Tomoyoshi Doki, Tsutomu Hohdatsu
Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) are the causative agents of severe systemic disease (feline infectious peritonitis: FIP) in domestic and wild cats. FCoVs have been classified into serotypes I and II. Type I FCoV is the dominant serotype (approximately 70-90%) worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to provide antiviral agents for type I FCoV infection. In this study, we demonstrated that itraconazole (ICZ), practically used for fungal infections in cats, inhibits the type I FCoV infection. ICZ also exhibited antiviral effect in cells after viral infection, suggesting that ICZ could potentially be used as a therapeutic...
January 18, 2019: Veterinary Research
Olalla Torrontegi, Vega Alvarez, Pelayo Acevedo, Xeider Gerrikagoitia, Ursula Höfle, Marta Barral
During 2007-2009 and 2012-2014, avian influenza virus (AIV) was studied in a wild avian community of a northern Spanish wetland using non-invasive sampling methods and host identification by COI barcoding. The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate AIV dynamics in a natural wetland ecosystem, taking into account both virological aspects and ecological traits of hosts. Global AIV prevalence decreased significantly during the second sampling period (0.3%) compared to the first (6.6%). Circulating subtype distributions were also different between periods, with a noteworthy H5 and H7 subtype richness during the first sampling period...
January 17, 2019: Veterinary Research
Miaomiao Yuan, Xiaoxia Song, Wei Lv, Qi Xin, Li Wang, Qi Gao, Guochao Zhang, Wenzhen Liao, Sen Lian, Tao Jing
Echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection caused by cestode species of the genus Echinococcus, with limited treatment options. It is urgent to develop new anti-hydatid agent. In this paper, we reported anacardic acid (AA), a natural product isolated from the Brazilian cashew-nut shell liquid, which presented a high activity against metacestodes of Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (E. granulosus s.s.) in vitro and in vivo. AA exerted a better efficacy on E...
January 14, 2019: Veterinary Research
Jun-Gyu Park, Mia Madel Alfajaro, Eun-Hyo Cho, Ji-Yun Kim, Mahmoud Soliman, Yeong-Bin Baek, Chul-Ho Park, Ju-Hwan Lee, Kyu-Yeol Son, Kyoung-Oh Cho, Mun-Il Kang
Porcine rotaviruses cause severe economic losses in the Korean swine industry due to G- and P-genotype mismatches between the predominant field and vaccine strains. Here, we developed a live attenuated trivalent porcine group A rotavirus vaccine using 80 cell culture passages of the representative Korean predominant strains G8P[7] 174-1, G9P[23] PRG942, and G5P[7] K71. Vaccination with the trivalent vaccine or its individual components induced no diarrhea during the first 2 weeks post-vaccination, i.e., the vaccines were attenuated...
January 7, 2019: Veterinary Research
Hassan Ashfaq, Hatem Soliman, Mona Saleh, Mansour El-Matbouli
CD4 is a nonpolymorphic transmembrane glycoprotein molecule that is expressed on the surface of T-helper cells and plays an essential role in the immune response. It functions as a coreceptor with the T-cell receptor by binding to major histocompatibility complex class II on the surface of dendritic cells that present antigens. CD4+ T cells hold a key position in coordinating the immune system through production of several cytokines after activation and differentiation. The CD4+ T helper subtypes (T-helper 1, T-helper 2, T-helper 17, T-helper 9, and regulatory-T cells) perform different immune functions subsequent to their differentiation from the naive T cells...
January 7, 2019: Veterinary Research
Christine Fast, Markus Keller, Martin Kaatz, Ute Ziegler, Martin H Groschup
BSE infectivity in mesentery fat is most likely associated with embedded nervous tissue. To prove this mesentery containing celiac ganglion was taken from oral BSE infected cattle in different stages of the disease and from one control animal. Fat was rendered according to standard tallow production methods and the prion infectivity therein analysed in transgenic mouse bioassay. Rendered fat of the clinical animal revealed low infectivity levels, whereas preclinical and control animals remained negative. This study, although not representative, provides a proof of principle, indicating the potential contamination of melted mesenteric fat by embedded nervous structures during standard tallow production...
December 20, 2018: Veterinary Research
Ana Djukovic, Marc Garcia-Garcera, Eugenio Martínez-Paredes, Sandrine Isaac, Alejandro Artacho, Jorge Martínez, Carles Ubeda
Epizootic rabbit enteropathy (ERE) represents one of the most devastating diseases affecting rabbit farms. Previous studies showing transmissibility of disease symptoms through oral inoculation of intestinal contents from sick animals suggested a bacterial infectious origin for ERE. However, no etiological agent has been identified yet. On the other hand, ERE is associated with major changes in intestinal microbial communities, pinpointing dysbiosis as an alternative cause for the disease. To better understand the role of intestinal bacteria in ERE development, we have performed a prospective longitudinal study in which intestinal samples collected from the same animals before, during and after disease onset were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing...
December 20, 2018: Veterinary Research
Tinghua Huang, Xiali Huang, Bomei Shi, Fangfang Wang, Wenzhao Feng, Min Yao
Peripheral blood transcriptome is an important intermediate data source for investigating the mechanism of Salmonella invasion, proliferation, and transmission. We challenged 4-week old piglets with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and investigated the peripheral blood gene expression profile before treatment (d0) and at 2 and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi) using deep sequencing. Regulator pathways were first predicted in silico and validated by wet-lab experiments. In total, 1255, 765, and 853 genes were differentially expressed between 2 dpi/d0, 7 dpi/d0, and 7 dpi/2 dpi, respectively...
December 12, 2018: Veterinary Research
He-He Du, Hai-Zhen Zhou, Ping Tang, Hui-Qin Huang, Min Liu, Yong-Hua Hu
Recently, bacterial small RNA (sRNA) has been shown to be involved as a key regulator in stress responses. sRNAs of Edwardsiella piscicida, an important aquatic pathogen, are not well characterized to date. In this study, using RNA-seq technology, we globally found and identified sRNA candidates expressed from E. piscicida grown in normal LB medium, acid pressure, iron deficiency stress, and oxidation pressure. A total of 148 sRNAs were found, including 19 previously annotated sRNAs and 129 novel sRNA candidates by searching against the Rfam database...
December 11, 2018: Veterinary Research
Xin Qi, Yue Han, Peng Jiang, Xin Yue, Hua Nan Ren, Ge Ge Sun, Shao Rong Long, Chuan Yu, Xiang Chao Cheng, Jing Cui, Zhong Quan Wang
Trichinellosis is one of the most serious foodborne parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution, and it is necessary to develop a vaccine to interrupt transmission from animals to humans. Trichinella spiralis adult-specific DNase II-1 (TsDNase II) were identified by immunoproteomics in surface or excretory/secretory proteins of adult worms (AW) and intestinal infective larvae (IIL). The aim of this study was to investigate the systemic, mucosal responses and immune protection elicited by oral vaccination with TsDNase II DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain⊿cyaSL1344...
December 5, 2018: Veterinary Research
Charles-Adrien Richard, Caroline Hervet, Déborah Ménard, Irina Gutsche, Valérie Normand, Fanny Renois, François Meurens, Jean-François Eléouët
The presence of pneumoviruses in pigs is poorly documented. In this study, we used the published sequence of the nucleoprotein (N) of the recently identified Swine Orthopneumovirus (SOV) to express and purify SOV N as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. This protein was purified as nanorings and used to set up an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which was used to analyse the presence of anti-pneumovirus N antibodies in swine sera. Sera collected from different pig farms in the West of France and from specific pathogen free piglets before colostrum uptake showed indirectly that a pneumovirus is circulating in pig populations with some variations between animals...
December 5, 2018: Veterinary Research
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