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Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos

A A A Silva, M N P Silva, L B F Figueiredo, J D Gonçalves, M J S Silva, M L G Loiola, B D M Bastos, R A Oliveira, L G M Ribeiro, R S Barberino, B B Gouveia, A P O Monte, D M Nogueira, M F Cordeiro, M H T Matos, E S Lopes Júnior
SummaryThe present study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin as an alternative antioxidant to cysteamine on in vitro maturation. Oocytes were collected from goat ovaries, destined for in vitro maturation and distributed into three groups: CIS group, oocytes were immersed in MIV base medium; in Groups Q4 and Q8, oocytes were immersed in the medium of the CIS group, adding 4 μM or 8 μM of quercetin, respectively, and cultured for 24 h at 38.5°C with 5% CO2. The CIS and Q4 groups presented the same percentage of expanded cumulus cells, but the per cent in the Q8 group was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0...
February 15, 2019: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Yuki Maruyama, Atsushi P Kimura
SummaryIn eutherian mammals, the placenta plays a critical role in embryo development by supplying nutrients and hormones and mediating interaction with the mother. To establish the fine connection between mother and embryo, the placenta needs to be formed normally, but the mechanism of placental differentiation is not fully understood. We previously revealed that mouse prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) plays a role in trophoblast stem cell (TSC) differentiation into two placental cell types, spongiotrophoblasts (SpT) and trophoblast giant cells...
February 4, 2019: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Andrea Svoradová, Jaromír Vašíček, Alexander Ostró, Peter Chrenek
SummaryChicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the primary pluripotent stem cell types that will differentiate towards germ cells. High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is considered as a functional marker for the detection of cell 'stemness'. In our study the ALDEFLUOR™ kit was used for determination of ALDH activity in PGCs. PGCs were co-stained with diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) and ALDH and analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results showed a small cell population (8.0 ± 3.3%) upon preincubation of the cells with the specific inhibitor DEAB, however cells without inhibitor staining showed a fluorescence shift as an ALDH-positive population (70...
February 1, 2019: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Xin Ma, Sheng Zhang, Meiling Zhang, Yiran Zhu, Panpan Ma, Shubao Yang, Liyan Su, Ziyi Li, Wenfa Lv, Weimin Luan
SummaryTRIM28/KAP1/TIF1β was identified as a universal transcriptional co-repressor and is critical for regulating post-fertilization methylation reprogramming in preimplantation embryos. In this study, three siRNAs (si647, si742, and si1153) were designed to target the TRIM28 mRNA sequence. After transfection of the mixture of the three siRNA (siMix) into bovine fibroblast cells, the most effective one for TRIM28 knockdown was selected. By injecting RNAi directed against TRIM28 mRNA, we found that TRIM28 knockdown in oocytes had the most effect on the H19 gene, in which differentially methylated region (DMR) methylation was almost completely absent at the 2-cell stage (1...
January 23, 2019: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Gabriela Hernández-Silva, Mayel Chirinos
SummarySpermatogenesis is a dynamic process that culminates in the production of mature spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules of sexually mature animals. Although sperm leaving the testis are fully differentiated, they must further undergo two additional maturation steps before acquiring the capability to fertilize the egg. Such processes take place during the epididymal residency and transport in the seminal fluid during ejaculation and, after delivery into the female reproductive tract, during the journey aiming the encountering the egg in the oviduct...
January 9, 2019: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Angela Ostuni, Maria Pina Faruolo, Carmen Sileo, Agata Petillo, Raffaele Boni
SummaryDuring follicular development, granulosa cells undergo functional and structural changes affecting their steroidogenic activity. Oestrogen synthesis mainly occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and relies on aromatase activity to convert androgens that arise from theca cells. In the present study, indicators of mitochondria-related steroidogenic capacity, as steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), have been evaluated in bovine granulosa cells (GCs) and related to follicle growth and atresia...
December 18, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Li Peng, Zhen Kai Li, Xiao Li Ding, Hui Qiao Tian
SummaryFertilization in higher plants induces many structural and physiological changes in the fertilized egg, and represents the transition from the haploid female gamete to the diploid zygote, the first cell of a sporophyte. Some changes are induced extremely rapidly following fusion with sperm cells and are the preclusions of egg activation. This review focuses on the early changes that occur in the egg after fusion with sperm cells, but before nuclear fusion. Reported changes include cell shrinkage, cell wall formation, polarity change, oscillation in Ca2+ concentration, and DNA synthesis...
December 14, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Jaqueline Sudiman, Alice Lee, Kheng Ling Ong, Wu Zi Yuan, Sarah Jansen, Peter Temple-Smith, Mulyoto Pangestu, Sally Catt
SummaryMouse and lamb oocytes were vitrified with, or exposed to, different cryoprotectants and evaluated for their effects on their survival and developmental competence after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and activation treatments. Control oocytes remained untreated, whilst the remainder were exposed to three different combinations of vitrification solutions [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + ethylene glycol (EG), EG only, or propanediol (PROH) + EG] and either vitrified or left unfrozen (exposed groups). Oocytes in the control and vitrified groups underwent IVF and developmental competence was assessed to the blastocyst stage...
December 7, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Arkadiy Reunov, Yana Alexandrova, Yulia Reunova, Alina Komkova, Liliana Milani
SummaryGerm plasm-related structures (GPRS) are known to accompany meiotic cell differentiation but their dynamics are still poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the ultrastructural mechanisms of GPRS transformation during oogenesis and spermatogenesis of the bivalve mollusc Ruditapes philippinarum (Manila clam), exploring patterns of GPRS activity occurring at meiosis onset, sex-specific difference/similarity of such patterns, and the involvement of mitochondria during GPRS-assigned events. In the two sexes, the zygotene-pachytene stage of meiosis is anticipated by three shared steps...
December 7, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Xiao-Tan Zhang, Guang Wang, Yan Li, Manli Chuai, Kenneth Ka Ho Lee, Xuesong Yang
SummaryFibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling acts as one of modulators that control neural crest cell (NCC) migration, but how this is achieved is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of FGF signalling on NCC migration by blocking this process. Constructs that were capable of inducing Sprouty2 (Spry2) or dominant-negative FGFR1 (Dn-FGFR1) expression were transfected into the cells making up the neural tubes. Our results revealed that blocking FGF signalling at stage HH10 (neurulation stage) could enhance NCC migration at both the cranial and trunk levels in the developing embryos...
December 6, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Iván Valdebenito Isler, Elías Figueroa Villalobos, Leydy Sandoval, Pablo Contreras Mellado, Juan Carlos Sánchez Caamaño, Jorge Farías Avendaño, Jennie Risopatrón
SummaryThere is no information about the characteristics of early cleavage in the Patagonian blennie (Eleginops maclovinus), which can be used as a diagnostic tool for embryo quality. The purpose of this investigation, therefore, was to characterize the first blastomeres of E. maclovinus morphologically. Of a 'pool' of incubated eggs at 10.7 ± 0.5°C, 100 microphotographs of blastodiscs were extracted at different incubation periods from 0.25 to 5 h after fertilization and analyzed. Blastodiscs taken at 3...
December 5, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Andressa Dalmazzo, Daniel de Souza Ramos Angrimani, João Diego A Losano, Carolina C Rocha, Carlos A B Sobrinho, João Rafael Chinait Gurgel, Pedro Ivo Monteiro Pacheco, Claudia Kiyomi Minazaki, Silvia E Crusco, Marcilio Nichi, Valquíria H Barnabe
SummaryThe aim of this study was to compare different concentrations of soy lecithin (LEC0.01%, LEC0.05% and LEC0.1%) with egg yolk (Control) in cooling extenders during the storage of semen at 5ºC for 5 days. Twelve dogs (n = 12) were selected, and semen was cooled and assessed after 2, 24, 48, 72, 96 or 120 h. At each time point, sperm were analyzed for kinetic patterns (using computer-assisted sperm analysis), mitochondrial activity (3'3- diaminobenzidine assay), lipid peroxidation (TBARS assay), DNA fragmentation (SCSA®) and plasma and acrosome membrane integrity (eosin/nigrosin and fast green/rose Bengal stains, respectively)...
December 5, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Sabela García-Oro, Diana Valverde
SummaryThe aim of this study was to determine the capacity of the meiotic spindle (MS) to predict embryo implantation and live birth rates. For this purpose, we performed a broad systematic literature search. Of all publications retrieved, only those in which the implantation rates were related to some characteristics of the MS were evaluated. Despite the different methodology used in all the chosen studies, presence of the MS in oocytes was found to be positively associated with embryo implantation. Moreover, high retardance values, as well as strict criteria of normality in the MS structure, are significantly related to higher embryo implantation numbers and live birth rates...
December 5, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
C Bizarro-Silva, M M Santos, J R Gerez, S M González, L A Lisboa, M M Seneda
SummaryThis study investigated the in vitro culture of bovine follicles included in ovarian tissue for 2 or 6 days (D2 or D6), with the addition of different concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (0, 10, 50, 100 or 200 ng/ml). Data were compared for follicular development, morphological integrity and diameter of follicles and oocytes. Ovaries (n = 10) from Nelore cows (n = 5) were divided into fragments (n = 11 per ovary) and were immediately fixed in Bouin's solution (D0) or were individually cultured for 2 or 6 days in one of the described concentrations of FSH and then processed for histology...
November 21, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
A B Brito, Dcc Brito, W B Silva, Apr Rodrigues, J R Figueiredo, Sfs Domingues, R R Santos
SummaryOvarian biopsies from five health adult monkeys were collected by exploratory laparotomy. Preantral follicles (primordial, primary, and secondary) were classified as normal or degenerated and submitted to morphometric analysis in which granulosa cell counts and the areas of follicles, oocytes, and oocyte nuclei were measured. Ovarian fragments were also immunolabelled for the quantitative analysis of VEGFA and CD31 protein expression in the ovarian tissue and in the preantral follicles. In total, 213 preantral follicles was examined for morphometry and morphological classification...
November 19, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Talita Maria Lázaro, Nathalia Raissa de Alcântara, Rocha, José Augusto Senhorini, Silvio Carlos Alves Dos Santos, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi, George Shigueki Yasui
SummaryIn this study we analyzed whether the in vivo storage of oocytes (time after ovulation until fertilization) affects the survival and the ploidy status of the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae. Fish were induced to spawn and, after ovulation, a small aliquot was stripped and immediately fertilized (positive control group). Subsequently, aliquots (~150 oocytes) were stripped and fertilized at various time points of 60, 120, 180 or 240 min. Developmental stages, abnormalities, survival and the ploidy status of the hatched larvae were examined...
November 13, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Azita Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Sareh Ashourzadeh, Maria Grazia Palmerini
SummaryCurrently, rescue in vitro maturation (IVM) is not a routine method in assisted reproductive treatment (ART) programmes but is a promising procedure for ART to improve IVM. The aim of this study was to compare embryo morphokinetics of germinal vesicles (GV) with metaphase II (MII) oocytes from controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) cycles by time-lapse photography monitoring (TLM). Morphokinetics of the same number of embryos derived from the in vivo (group I) and rescue of in vitro matured oocytes (group II) from 310 patients were analyzed and compared retrospectively...
November 13, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Soleiman Kurd, Sara Hosseini, Fardin Fathi, Vahid Jajarmi, Mohammad Salehi
SummaryOne of the methods to generate transgenic animals is called sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT). Mature sperm cells can take up exogenous DNA molecules intrinsically and transfer them into the oocyte during fertilization. This study assessed the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and electrolyte-free medium (EFM) on DNA uptake (EGFP-N1plasmid) in mouse sperm. Sperms cells cultured in human tubular fluid (HTF) without any treatment were considered as the control group. Sperms cells that were incubated in EFM and HTF with DNA/DMSO at 4°C were classified into EFM and HTF groups...
October 31, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Feo Lima, Ftg Bezerra, G B Souza, Mht Matos, R van den Hurk, Jrv Silva
SummaryThis study aimed to investigate the effects of IL1β and TNFα on growth and maturation of oocytes from small follicles (1-3 mm) during in vitro culture. To this end, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with diameters of ~110 µm were cultured in TCM-199 medium alone or supplemented with IL1β (10 ng/ml), TNFα (10 ng/ml) or both for 48 h. The oocytes were measured at the beginning and at the end of the culture period. COCs were cultured for 20 h in pre-maturation medium and then half of the COCs of each group was destined for in vitro maturation and the remaining COCs were used to evaluate meiotic progression, mitochondrial distribution and the expression of mRNAs for GDF-9, c-Mos, Cyclin-B1 and H1foo...
October 31, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
George Shigueki Yasui, Taiju Saito, Yan Zhao, Takafumi Fujimoto, Etsuro Yamaha, Katsutoshi Arai
SummaryPolyspermy was initiated by microinjecting a multiple number of sperm into the activated and dechorionated eggs of dojo loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cobitidae). A 10-nl sperm suspension from an albino (recessive trait) male (105, 106, 107 or 108 sperm ml -1) was microinjected into eggs from a wild-type female. Although the rates of embryos developing into the blastula stage in the injection group at the highest sperm concentration were similar to that of the control group, the hatching rates of the injection group were much lower...
October 29, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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