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Plant, Cell & Environment

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30786032/the-plastidial-metabolite-2-c-methyl-d-erythritol-2-4-cyclodiphosphate-modulates-defense-responses-against-aphids
#1
Nawaporn Onkokesung, Michael Reichelt, Louwrance P Wright, Michael A Phillips, Jonathan Gershenzon, Marcel Dicke
Feeding by insect herbivores such as caterpillars and aphids induces plant resistance mechanisms that are mediated by the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). These phytohormonal pathways often crosstalk. Besides phytohormones, methyl-D-erythriol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP), the penultimate metabolite in the methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, has been speculated to regulate transcription of nuclear genes in response to biotic stressors such as aphids. Here, we show that MEcPP uniquely enhances the SA pathway without attenuating the JA pathway...
February 20, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767244/low-temperature-induced-aberrations-in-male-and-female-reproductive-organ-development-cause-flower-abortion-in-chickpea
#2
Asha Kiran, Sanjeev Kumar, Harsh Nayyar, Kamal Dev Sharma
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is susceptible to low temperature (LT) at reproductive stage. LT causes flower abortion and delays pod set in chickpea until terminal drought becomes an issue, thereby decreasing yield potential. In chickpea, flower and anther/pollen development as well as LT induced abnormalities on anther and pollen development are described inadequately. In the present manuscript, we report flower development stages, anther development stages and aberrations in male gamete formation in chickpea under LT...
February 15, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767240/regulation-of-a-plant-aquaporin-by-a-casparian-strip-membrane-domain-protein-like
#3
Chloé Champeyroux, Jorge Bellati, Marie Barberon, Valérie Rofidal, Christophe Maurel, Véronique Santoni
The absorption of soil water by roots allows plants to maintain their water status. At the endodermis, water transport can be affected by initial formation of a Casparian strip, and further deposition of suberin lamellas and regulated by the function of aquaporins. Four Casparian strip membrane domain protein-like (CASPL) (CASPL1B1, CASPL1B2, CASPL1D1 and CASPL1D2) were previously shown to interact with PIP2;1, (Bellati et al. 2016). The present work shows that CASPL1B1, CASPL1B2 and CASPL1D2 are exclusively expressed in suberized endodermal cells, suggesting a cell-specific role in suberization and/or water transport regulation...
February 15, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767225/isoprene-is-more-affected-by-climate-drivers-than-monoterpenes-a-meta-analytic-review-on-plant-isoprenoid-emissions
#4
Zhaozhong Feng, Xiangyang Yuan, Silvano Fares, Francesco Loreto, Pin Li, Yasutomo Hoshika, Elena Paoletti
Isoprene and monoterpenes (MTs) are among the most abundant and reactive volatile organic compounds produced by plants (BVOCs). We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the mean effect of environmental factors associated to climate change (warming, drought, elevated CO2 and O3 ) on the emission of isoprene and MTs. Results indicated that all single factors except warming inhibited isoprene emission. When subsets of data collected in experiments run under similar change of a given environmental factor were compared, isoprene and photosynthesis responded negatively to elevated O3 (-8% and -10%, respectively) and drought (-15% and -42%), and in opposite ways to elevated CO2 (-23% and +55%) and warming (+53% and -23%, respectively)...
February 14, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756400/priming-xylem-for-stress-recovery-depends-on-coordinated-activity-of-sugar-metabolic-pathways-and-changes-in-xylem-sap-ph
#5
Chiara Pagliarani, Valentino Casolo, Maryam Ashofteh Beiragi, Silvia Cavalletto, Ilenia Siciliano, Andrea Schubert, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Maciej A Zwieniecki, Francesca Secchi
Some plant species are capable of significant reduction of xylem embolism during recovery from drought despite that stem water potential remains negative. However, the functional biology underlying this process remains elusive. We subjected poplar trees to drought stress followed by a period of recovery. Water potential, hydraulic conductivity, gas exchange, xylem sap pH and carbohydrate content in sap and woody stems were monitored in combination with an analyses of carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme activity and expression of genes involved in sugar metabolic and transport pathways...
February 12, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30754075/root-volatiles-in-plant-plant-interactions-ii-root-volatiles-alter-root-chemistry-and-plant-herbivore-interactions-of-neighboring-plants
#6
Wei Huang, Valentin Gfeller, Matthias Erb
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plant roots can influence the germination and growth of neighboring plants. However, little is known about the effects of root VOCs on plant-herbivore interactions of neighboring plants. The spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) constitutively releases high amounts of sesquiterpenes into the rhizosphere. Here, we examine the impact of C. stoebe root VOCs on primary and secondary metabolites of sympatric Taraxacum officinale plants and the resulting plant-mediated effects on a generalist root herbivore, the white grub Melolontha melolontha...
February 12, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737807/root-volatiles-in-plant-plant-interactions-i-high-root-sesquiterpene-release-is-associated-with-increased-germination-and-growth-of-plant-neighbors
#7
Valentin Gfeller, Meret Huber, Christiane Förster, Wei Huang, Tobias G Köllner, Matthias Erb
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plant leaves can influence the physiology of neighboring plants. In contrast to leaf VOCs, little is known about the role of root VOCs in plant-plant interactions. Here, we characterize constitutive root VOC emissions of the spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and explore the impact of these VOCs on the germination and growth of different sympatric plant species. We show that C. stoebe roots emit high amounts of sesquiterpenes, with estimated release rates of (E)-β-caryophyllene above 3 μg g-1 dw h-1 ...
February 8, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734927/globular-structures-in-roots-accumulate-phosphorus-to-extremely-high-concentrations-following-phosphorus-addition
#8
Megan H Ryan, Parwinder Kaur, Nazanin K Nazeri, Peta L Clode, Gabriel Keeble-Gagnère, Ashlea L Doolette, Ronald J Smernik, Olivier Van Aken, Dion Nicol, Hayato Maruyama, Tatsuhiro Ezawa, Hans Lambers, A Harvey Millar, Rudi Appels
Crops with improved uptake of fertiliser phosphorus (P) would reduce P losses and confer environmental benefits. We examined how P-sufficient six-week-old soil-grown Trifolium subterraneum plants, and two-week-old seedlings in solution culture, accumulated P in roots after inorganic P (Pi) addition. In contrast to our expectation that vacuoles would accumulate excess P, after 7 d X-ray microanalysis showed that vacuolar [P] remained low (<12 mmol kg-1 ). However, in the plants after P addition some cortex cells contained globular structures extraordinarily rich in P (often >3000 mmol kg-1 ), potassium, magnesium and sodium...
February 8, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30730567/a-purple-acid-phosphatase-gmpap33-participates-in-arbuscule-degeneration-during-am-symbiosis-in-soybean
#9
Chengchen Li, Jia Zhou, Xiurong Wang, Hong Liao
Arbuscules are the central structures of the symbiotic association between terrestrial plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. However, arbuscules are also ephemeral structures, and following development, these structures are soon digested and ultimately disappear. Currently, little is known regarding the mechanism underlying the digestion of senescent arbuscules. Here, biochemical and functional analyses were integrated to test the hypothesis that a purple acid phosphatase, GmPAP33, controls the hydrolysis of phospholipids during arbuscule degeneration...
February 7, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719731/the-role-of-plant-species-and-soil-condition-in-the-physical-development-of-the-rhizosphere
#10
J R Helliwell, C J Sturrock, A J Miller, W R Whalley, S J Mooney
Roots naturally exert axial and radial pressures during growth which alter the structural arrangement of soil at the root-soil interface. However empirical models suggest soil densificatsion, which can have negative impacts on water and nutrient uptake, occurs at the immediate root surface with decreasing distance from the root. Here we spatially map structural gradients in the soil surrounding roots using non-invasive imaging, to ascertain the role of root growth in early stage formation of soil structure...
February 4, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707443/accelerated-flowering-time-reduces-lifetime-water-use-without-penalizing-reproductive-performance-in-arabidopsis
#11
J N Ferguson, R C Meyer, K D Edwards, M Humphry, O Brendel, U Bechtold
Natural selection driven by water availability has resulted in considerable variation for traits associated with drought tolerance and leaf level water-use efficiency (WUE). In Arabidopsis, little is known about the variation of whole-plant water use (PWU) and whole-plant WUE (TE). To investigate the genetic basis of PWU, we developed a novel proxy trait by combining flowering time and rosette water use to estimate lifetime PWU. We validated its usefulness for large scale screening of mapping populations in a subset of ecotypes...
February 1, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707440/wood-structure-and-function-change-with-maturity-age-of-the-vascular-cambium-is-associated-with-xylem-changes-in-current-year-growth
#12
F Daniela Rodriguez-Zaccaro, Jessica Valdovinos-Ayala, Marta I Percolla, Martin D Venturas, R Brandon Pratt, Anna L Jacobsen
Xylem vessel structure changes as trees grow and mature. Age and development related changes in xylem structure are likely related to changes in hydraulic function. We examined whether hydraulic function, including hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to water-stress induced xylem embolism, changed over the course of cambial development in the stems of 17 tree species. We compared current year growth of young (1-4 yr), intermediate (2-7 yr), and older (3-10 yr) stems occurring in series along branches. Diffuse and ring porous species were examined, but nearly all species produced only diffuse porous xylem in the distal branches that were examined irrespective of their mature xylem porosity type...
February 1, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706948/can-leaf-net-photosynthesis-acclimate-to-rising-and-more-variable-temperatures
#13
Giulia Vico, Danielle A Way, Vaughan Hurry, Stefano Manzoni
Under future climates, leaf temperature (Tl ) will be higher and more variable. This will affect plant carbon (C) balance because photosynthesis and respiration both respond to short-term (sub-daily) fluctuations in Tl and acclimate in the longer term (days to months). This study asks the question: to what extent can the potential and speed of photosynthetic acclimation buffer leaf C gain from rising and increasingly variable Tl ? We quantified how increases in the mean and variability of growth temperature affect leaf performance (mean net CO2 assimilation rates, Anet ; its variability; and time under near-optimal photosynthetic conditions), as mediated by thermal acclimation...
February 1, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702750/ecological-significance-of-light-quality-in-optimising-plant-defence
#14
J C Douma, J de Vries, E H Poelman, M Dicke, N P R Anten, J B Evers
Plants balance the allocation of resources between growth and defence to optimise fitness in a competitive environment. Perception of neighbour detection cues, such as a low ratio of red to far-red radiation (R:FR), activates a suite of shade-avoidance responses that include stem elongation and upward leaf movement, while simultaneously downregulating defence. This downregulation is hypothesized to benefit the plant either by mediating the growth-defence balance in favour of growth in high plant densities, or, alternatively, by mediating defence of individual leaves such that those most photosynthetically productive are best protected...
January 31, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30684950/anatomical-changes-with-needle-length-are-correlated-with-leaf-structural-and-physiological-traits-across-five-pinus-species
#15
Na Wang, Sari Palmroth, Christopher A Maier, Jean-Christophe Domec, Ram Oren
The genus Pinus has wide geographical range and includes species that are the most economically valued among forest trees worldwide. Pine needle length varies greatly among species, but the effects of needle length on anatomy, function, and coordination and trade-offs among traits are poorly understood. We examined variation in leaf morphological, anatomical, mechanical, chemical, and physiological characteristics among five southern pine species: Pinus echinata, P. elliottii, P. palustris, P. taeda, and P...
January 26, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30680748/genome-wide-analysis-of-mads-box-family-genes-during-flower-development-in-lettuce
#16
Kang Ning, Yingyan Han, Zijing Chen, Chen Luo, Shenglin Wang, Wenjing Zhang, Ling Li, Xiaolan Zhang, Shuangxi Fan, Qian Wang
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important leafy vegetable consumed worldwide. Heat-induced bolting and flowering greatly limit lettuce production during the summer. Additionally, MADS-box transcription factors are important for various aspects of plant development and architecture (e.g., flowering and floral patterning). However, there has been no comprehensive study of lettuce MADS-box family genes. In this study, we identified 82 MADS-box family genes in lettuce, including 23 type I genes and 59 type II genes...
January 24, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673142/grape-berry-position-affects-the-diurnal-dynamics-of-its-metabolic-profile
#17
Noam Reshef, Aaron Fait, Nurit Agam
Solar irradiance and air temperature are characterized by dramatic circadian fluctuations and are known to significantly modulate fruit composition. To date, it remains unclear whether the abrupt, yet predictive, diurnal changes in radiation and temperature prompt direct metabolic turn-over in the fruit. We assessed the role of fruit insolation, air temperature, and source-tissue CO2 assimilation in the diurnal compositional changes in ripening grape berries. This was performed by comparing the diurnal changes in metabolite profiles of berries positioned such that they experienced i) contrasting diurnal solar irradiance patterns, and ii) similar irradiance but contrasting diurnal CO2 assimilation patterns of adjacent leaves...
January 23, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663094/emission-of-constitutive-isoprene-induced-monoterpenes-and-other-volatiles-under-high-temperatures-in-eucalyptus-camaldulensis-a-13-c-labelling-study
#18
Gabriele Guidolotti, Emanuele Pallozzi, Olga Gavrichkova, Andrea Scartazza, Michele Mattioni, Francesco Loreto, Carlo Calfapietra
Eucalypts are major emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), especially volatile isoprenoids. Emissions and incorporation of 13 C in BVOCs were measured in Eucalyptus camaldulensis branches exposed to rapid heat stress or progressive temperature increases, in order to detect both metabolic processes and their dynamics. Isoprene emission increased and photosynthesis decreased with temperatures rising from 30 up to 45 °C, and an increasing percentage of unlabeled carbon was incorporated into isoprene in heat-stressed leaves...
January 20, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30659631/floral-plasticity-herbivore-species-specific-induced-changes-in-flower-traits-with-contrasting-effects-on-pollinator-visitation
#19
Quint Rusman, Erik H Poelman, Farzana Nowrin, Gerrit Polder, Dani Lucas-Barbosa
Plant phenotypic plasticity in response to antagonists can affect other community members such as mutualists, conferring potential ecological costs associated with inducible plant defence. For flowering plants, induction of defences to deal with herbivores can lead to disruption of plant-pollinator interactions. Current knowledge on the full extent of herbivore-induced changes in flower traits is limited and we know little about specificity of induction of flower traits and specificity of effect on flower visitors...
January 18, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30652316/tcp-transcription-factors-interact-with-zed1-related-kinases-as-components-of-the-temperature-regulated-immunity
#20
Zhicai Wang, Dayong Cui, Cheng Liu, Jingbo Zhao, Jing Liu, Na Liu, Dingzhong Tang, Yuxin Hu
The elevation of ambient temperature generally inhibits plant immunity, but the molecular regulations of immunity by ambient temperature in plants are largely elusive. We previously reported that the Arabidopsis HOPZ-ETI-DEFICIENT 1 (ZED1)-related kinases (ZRKs) mediate the temperature-sensitive immunity by inhibiting the transcription of SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1-1, CONSTITUTIVE 1 (SNC1). Here, we further demonstrate that the nucleus-localized ZED1 and ZRKs facilitate such inhibitory role in associating with the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA AND PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR (TCP) transcription factors...
January 16, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
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