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Laura Mieth, Jan Philipp Röer, Axel Buchner, Raoul Bell
The animacy effect refers to enhanced memory for animate over inanimate items. In two studies, we examined whether this memory advantage generalises to source memory. A multinomial processing tree model was used to disentangle item recognition, source memory, and guessing processes. In Study 1, animate and inanimate words were presented at different spatial locations on the screen. Animacy was associated with enhanced source memory for the spatial locations of the items. In Study 2, pseudowords were associated with animate and inanimate properties...
May 16, 2019: Memory
Tom J Barry, Meghan Vinograd, Yannick Boddez, Filip Raes, Richard Zinbarg, Susan Mineka, Michelle G Craske
Sharing specific autobiographical events is likely to influence the support people give us; a person who shares little detail of their lives may be unlikely to attract social support and this may in turn contribute towards anxious and depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 142) reported memories evoked by negative and positive cue words and these memories were coded for whether or not they referred to a specific event lasting less than 24 h. At this time (T1) and one year later (T2), participants also completed the UCLA Life Stress Interview (LSI), which includes a measure of social support, and measures of depression and anxiety comprising a general distress latent construct...
May 16, 2019: Memory
Dorothy R Buchli
Prior research has demonstrated that if you give people a list of nonfamous names and ask them to indicate if the names are famous, 24 hours later, more of these names will be incorrectly remembered as famous than without the delay. This is because while participants are no longer able to recall the specific circumstances in which they previously encountered the names, the names remain familiar and this sense of familiarity is falsely attributed to fame. The present study sought to determine whether a false fame effect would emerge if a daydreaming task, designed to shift participants' internal context, was interpolated between a list of nonfamous names and a list of famous names...
May 15, 2019: Memory
Jennifer M Talarico, Annette Bohn, Ineke Wessel
Flashbulb memories are vivid, confidently held, long-lasting memories for the personal circumstances of learning about an important event. Importance is determined, in part, by social group membership. Events that are relevant to one's social group, and furthermore, are congruent with the prior beliefs of that group, should be more likely to be retained as flashbulb memories. The Fukushima nuclear disaster was relevant to ongoing political conversations in both Germany and the Netherlands, but, while the disaster was congruent with German beliefs about the dangers of nuclear energy, it was incongruent with Dutch support for nuclear power...
May 13, 2019: Memory
Xin Zhao, Junjun Fu, Joseph H R Maes
Training and transfer effects of prospective memory training have not been assessed in healthy young adults yet. The present study examined the effects of an 8-day prospective memory training programme using the Virtual Week computer game in 18-24-year-old students. Using the performance of an active control group as comparison, the study revealed a significant short-lived beneficial training-induced effect on a nearest-transfer task consisting of a different version of the trained task. No evidence was obtained for transfer effects to other tasks measuring prospective memory (near transfer), or to tasks measuring various executive functions or general intelligence (far transfer)...
May 7, 2019: Memory
Rebecca M Nichols, Elizabeth F Loftus
Decades of research show that people are susceptible to developing false memories. But if they do so in one task, are they likely to do so in a different one? The answer: "No". In the current research, a large number of participants took part in three well-established false memory paradigms (a misinformation task, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott [DRM] list learning paradigm, and an imagination inflation exercise) as well as completed several individual difference measures. Results indicate that many correlations between false memory variables in all three inter-paradigm comparisons are null, though some small, positive, significant correlations emerged...
May 2, 2019: Memory
Christof Kuhbandner, Kathrin J Emmerdinger
Experimental studies have shown that testing promotes better long-term retention than repeated rereading. Regarding implications for educational practice, based on a survey study seemingly showing that students prefer repeated rereading over testing when studying [Karpicke, J. D., Butler, A. C., & Roediger, H. L. (2009). Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own? Memory, 17, 471-479. doi:10.1080/09658210802647009], it has been concluded that increasing the number of tests may boost students' achievement...
May 2, 2019: Memory
Aïmen Khacharem, Bachir Zoudji, Slava Kalyuga
The aim of this study was to investigate how expert and novice learners integrate dynamic information from two types of representations, namely auditory description and arrow symbols. Participants were required to perform both recognition and recall tests and rate their invested mental effort after studying two representations in four different orders of presentation (audio → audio, arrow → arrow, arrow → audio, or audio → arrow). When the same representation is presented twice, the results demonstrated the superiority of the spatial representation over the verbal representation for novice learners...
April 25, 2019: Memory
Michael J Cortese, Maya M Khanna, David Von Nordheim
Congruency effects for colour word associates (e.g., ocean) have been reported in Stroop colour naming tasks. However, incidental memory for such words after word reading and colour naming tasks has not been examined. In the current study, participants incidentally recalled colour word associates (e.g., ocean) and neutral words (e.g., lawyer) immediately after naming their font colour (Experiment 1a) or reading them aloud (Experiment 1b). In both tasks, recall was better for congruent colour word associates (e...
April 25, 2019: Memory
Emily Hards, Judi Ellis, Jennifer Fisk, Shirley Reynolds
Adolescence is a critical developmental period. It involves the construction and consolidation of "the self" and the laying down of autobiographical memories that endure throughout life. There is limited data that examines how young people spontaneously describe their "self". The aim of the current study is to provide normative data of adolescent generated self-images and present this in a freely accessible database. A secondary aim is to compare adult and adolescent self-images. Young people (n = 822) aged 13-18 years completed the Twenty Statements Test a task that requires participants to generate their own self-images...
April 25, 2019: Memory
Angela K Troyer, Larry Leach, Susan Vandermorris, Jill B Rich
The Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire (MMQ) is a participant-reported measure of memory satisfaction, ability, and strategy use. Initially validated with healthy older adults, it has since been used in many different populations and settings for a variety of purposes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the measurement properties of the MMQ across multiple, diverse studies. METHODS: The study was designed using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses...
April 25, 2019: Memory
Robert B Michael, Maryanne Garry
BACKGROUND: Suggestive techniques can distort eyewitness memory (Wells & Loftus, 2003 , Eyewitness memory for people and events. In A. M. Goldstein (Ed.), Handbook of psychology: Forensic Psychology, Vol. 11 (pp. 149-160). Hoboken, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc). Recently, we found that suggestion is unnecessary: Simply reversing the arrangement of questions put to eyewitnesses changed what they believed (Michael & Garry, 2016 , Ordered questions bias eyewitnesses and jurors...
April 17, 2019: Memory
Stine Breum Ramsgaard, Annette Bohn, Mikael Thastum
The ability to tell one's past life story and to imagine one's personal future serves important social and life defining functions like maintaining identity. In the present study, 34 adolescents diagnosed with anxiety disorders (age 9-17) and 34 community based controls wrote stories about their weekend, their past and future life stories and generated cultural life scripts. Cultural life scripts are culturally shared assumptions as to the order and timing of important life events. Adolescents in the anxiety group had less coherent past and future life stories compared to controls...
March 20, 2019: Memory
Fahad N Ahmad, Pelin Tan, William E Hockley
Item-based directed forgetting (DF) was tested using 2-alternative forced-choice recognition to examine the effects of forgetting instructions on memory for perceptual detail and gist of categorised pictures of scenes and objects in three experiments. When the distractor is from the same category as the target (exemplar test condition), discrimination must be based on memory for perceptual details, whereas recognition can be based on gist or general category information when the distractor is from a novel category (novel test condition)...
March 8, 2019: Memory
Signy Sheldon, Lauri Gurguryan, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Recalling and imagining autobiographical experiences involves constructing event representations within spatiotemporal contexts. We tested whether generating autobiographical events within a primarily spatial (where the event occurred) or temporal (the sequence of actions that occurred) context affected how the associated mental representation was constructed. We leveraged the well-validated episodic specificity induction (ESI) technique, known to influence the use of episodic processes on subsequent tasks, to develop variants that selectively enhance spatial or temporal processing...
March 8, 2019: Memory
Christopher N Wahlheim, Wyatt G Smith, Peter F Delaney
The Memory-for-Change framework proposes that retrieving episodic memories can facilitate new learning when changes between existing memories and new information are integrated during encoding and later recollected. Four experiments examined whether reminders could improve memory updating and enhance new learning. Participants studied two study lists of word pairs and were given a cued recall test on responses from both lists. Reminders of List 1 words pairs (A-B) appeared immediately before List 2 words pairs that included repeated cues and changed responses (A-D)...
February 27, 2019: Memory
Ana M Capelo, Pedro B Albuquerque, Sara Cadavid
Recent research has provided evidence for memory modifications when a post-reactivation treatment (e.g., drugs, new learning) interferes with the memory re-stabilisation (reconsolidation) process. This finding contradicts the long-standing consolidation theory and has high practical and theoretical implications. With an object-learning paradigm, it was shown that episodic memory is highly susceptible to interfering material presented after its reactivation [Hupbach, A., Gomez, R., Hardt, O., & Nadel, L...
March 2019: Memory
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February 13, 2019: Memory
J M E Kuiling, F Klaassen, M A Hagenaars
Tonic immobility (TI; state of motor inhibition during threat) has been implicated in the onset of intrusive trauma memories, while controllability was associated with reduced anxiety. The present study investigated the interaction between TI and control in the development of intrusive memories of an analogue trauma. Sixty-four participants watched negative pictures while being allowed to close their eyes (InControl) or not (NoControl). They completed measures for spontaneous TI afterwards and recorded intrusive memories of the pictures in a diary in the subsequent week...
February 12, 2019: Memory
Eli Vakil, Noa Vardi-Shapiro
Several studies have established the impact of conceptually similar context on the emergence of "Context-Effect" (CE). None of these studies included the Re-pair/rearrange condition at the test, which prevented them from being conclusive about the exact process (binding/ensemble or familiarity) that was affected by the conceptually similar context. To this end, in the present study faces (target to be remembered) were presented in the context of either words (W) or picture (P) scenes, and at test Re-pair was added as one of the context conditions...
February 12, 2019: Memory
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