journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38825738/updated-classification-of-the-phylum-parabasalia
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Vittorio Boscaro, Erick R James, Rebecca Fiorito, Javier Del Campo, Rudolf H Scheffrahn, Patrick J Keeling
The phylum Parabasalia includes very diverse single-cell organisms that nevertheless share a distinctive set of morphological traits. Most are harmless or beneficial gut symbionts of animals, but some have turned into parasites in other body compartments, the most notorious example being Trichomonas vaginalis in humans. Parabasalians have garnered attention for their nutritional symbioses with termites, their modified anaerobic mitochondria (hydrogenosomes), their character evolution, and the wholly unique features of some species...
June 2, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38822648/bit-by-bit-toward-the-diversity-of-metopids-description-of-the-genus-pidimetopus-n-gen-ciliophora-armophorea
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ondřej Pomahač, Daniel Méndez-Sánchez, Ivan Čepička
While metopids (Armophorea: Metopida) represent the most species-rich group of free-living anaerobic ciliates thriving in hypoxic environments, our understanding of their true diversity remains incomplete. Most metopid species are still characterized only morphologically. Particularly, the so-called IAC clade (named in the past after some of the taxa included, Idiometopus, Atopospira, and Clevelandellida), comprising free-living members as well as the endosymbiotic ones (order Clevelandellida), is in serious need of revision...
June 1, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38785208/genome-evolution-in-intracellular-parasites-microsporidia-and-apicomplexa
#3
REVIEW
Amjad Khalaf, Ore Francis, Mark L Blaxter
Microsporidia and Apicomplexa are eukaryotic, single-celled, intracellular parasites with huge public health and economic importance. Typically, these parasites are studied separately, emphasizing their uniqueness and diversity. In this review, we explore the huge amount of genomic data that has recently become available for the two groups. We compare and contrast their genome evolution and discuss how their transitions to intracellular life may have shaped it. In particular, we explore genome reduction and compaction, genome expansion and ploidy, gene shuffling and rearrangements, and the evolution of centromeres and telomeres...
May 24, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38757880/anoctamin-like-protein-1-regulates-repolarization-in-paramecium-behavioral-responses
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kana Sakoshita, Shotaro Aratani, Nana Kameda, Ryo Takebe, Takashi Tominaga, Masaki Ishida, Manabu Hori
Paramecium exhibits responsive behavior to environmental changes, moving either closer to or further away from stimuli. Electrophysiological experiments have revealed that these behavioral responses are controlled by membrane potentials. Anoctamin, a Ca2+ -activated Cl- channel, is involved in the regulation of membrane potential in mammals. However, it remains uncertain whether Cl- channels like anoctamin regulate Paramecium behavior. Herein, replacement of external Cl- ions with acetate ion and application of Cl- channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA, 0...
May 17, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38725295/isolation-of-naegleria-lustrarea-n-sp-excavata-discoba-heterolobosea-from-the-feces-of-ambystoma-annulatum-ringed-salamander-in-northwest-arkansas
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Brian M Becker, Idan Banson, James M Walker, Anant Deshwal, Matthew W Brown, Jeffery D Silberman
The salamander, Ambystoma annulatum, is considered a "species of special concern" in the state of Arkansas, USA, due to its limited geographic range, specialized habitat requirements and low population size. Although metazoan parasites have been documented in this salamander species, neither its native protists nor microbiome have yet been evaluated. This is likely due to the elusive nature and under-sampling of the animal. Here, we initiate the cataloguing of microbial associates with the identification of a new heterlobosean species, Naegleria lustrarea n...
May 9, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38702921/microsporidia-pervasive-natural-pathogens-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-related-nematodes
#6
REVIEW
Spencer S Gang, Vladimir Lažetić
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an invaluable host model for studying infections caused by various pathogens, including microsporidia. Microsporidia represent the first natural pathogens identified in C. elegans, revealing the previously unknown Nematocida genus of microsporidia. Following this discovery, the utilization of nematodes as a model host has rapidly expanded our understanding of microsporidia biology and has provided key insights into the cell and molecular mechanisms of antimicrosporidia defenses...
May 3, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38613145/redescription-and-molecular-characterization-of-loxocephalus-luridus-eberhard-1862-based-on-czech-populations-implications-for-order-loxocephalida-jankowski-1980
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
William Bourland, Ondřej Pomahač, Kateřina Poláková, Ivan Čepička
The phylogenetic and taxonomic affinities of lineages currently assigned to the non-monophyletic ciliate order Loxocephalida Jankowski (1980) within subclass Scuticociliatia Small (1967) remain unresolved. In the current study, we redescribe the morphology of the type species, Loxocephalus luridus Eberhard (1862) based on two Czech populations and include the first scanning and transmission electron microscopy images of the species. We provide the first 18S rRNA gene sequences for L. luridus and consider its phylogenetic position...
April 12, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38572630/pathogen-and-host-directed-pharmacologic-strategies-for-control-of-vairimorpha-nosema-spp-infection-in-honey-bees
#8
REVIEW
Parker Parrella, Annabelle B Elikan, Jonathan W Snow
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites of the Fungal Kingdom that cause widespread infections in nature, with important effects on invertebrates involved in food production systems. The two microsporidian species Vairimorpha (Nosema) ceranae (and the less common Vairimorpha (Nosema) apis) can cause individual disease in honey bees and contribute to colony collapse. The efficacy, safety, and availability of fumagillin, the only drug currently approved to treat microsporidia infection in bees, is uncertain...
April 4, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38561869/interactions-between-microsporidia-and-other-members-of-the-microbiome
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan Tersigni, Hala Tamim El Jarkass, Edward B James, Aaron W Reinke
The microbiome is the collection of microbes that are associated with a host. Microsporidia are intracellular eukaryotic parasites that can infect most types of animals. In the last decade, there has been much progress to define the relationship between microsporidia and the microbiome. In this review, we cover an increasing number of reports suggesting that microsporidia are common components of the microbiome in both invertebrates and vertebrates. These microsporidia infections can range from mutualistic to pathogenic, causing several physiological phenotypes, including death...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38480471/identification-of-a-new-gregarine-parasite-associated-with-mass-mortality-events-of-freshwater-pearl-mussels-margaritifera-margaritifera-in-sweden
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Anders Alfjorden, Ioana Onut-Brännström, Niklas Wengström, Arni Kristmundsson, Mahwash Jamy, B David Persson, Fabien Burki
Freshwater bivalves play key ecological roles in lakes and rivers, largely contributing to healthy ecosystems. The freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera margaritifera, is found in Europe and on the East coast of North America. Once common in oxygenated streams, M. margaritifera is rapidly declining and consequently assessed as a threatened species worldwide. Deterioration of water quality has been considered the main factor for the mass mortality events affecting this species. Yet, the role of parasitic infections has not been investigated...
March 13, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38402546/novel-cytoskeletal-traits-in-the-intestinal-parasites-squirmida-platyproteum-vivax-of-pacific-peanut-worms-sipuncula-phascolosoma-agassizii
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Danja Currie-Olsen, Brian S Leander
The cytoskeletal organization of a squirmid, namely Platyproteum vivax, was investigated with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to refine inferences about convergent evolution among intestinal parasites of marine invertebrates. Platyproteum inhabits Pacific peanut worms (Phascolosoma agassizii) and has traits that are similar to other lineages of myzozoan parasites, namely gregarine apicomplexans within Selenidium, such as conspicuous feeding stages, called "trophozoites," capable of dynamic undulations...
February 25, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38402533/continuous-reproduction-of-planktonic-foraminifera-in-laboratory-culture
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Julie Meilland, Michael Siccha, Raphaël Morard, Michal Kucera
Planktonic foraminifera were long considered obligate sexual outbreeders but recent observations have shown that nonspinose species can reproduce by multiple fission. The frequency of multiple fission appears low but the survival rate of the offspring is high and specimens approaching fission can be distinguished. We made use of this observation and established a culturing protocol aimed at enhancing the detection and frequency of fission. Using this protocol, we selectively cultured specimens of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and raised the frequency of reproduction by fission in culture from 3% in randomly selected specimens to almost 60%...
February 25, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38240465/living-in-the-cracks-two-novel-genera-of-variosea-amoebozoa-discovered-on-an-urban-sidewalk
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nicholas Fry, Gabriel A Schuler, Robert E Jones, Peter G Kooienga, Violet Jira, Maggie Shepherd, Alexander K Tice, Matthew W Brown
Biological soil crusts represent a rich habitat for diverse and complex eukaryotic microbial communities. A unique but extremely common habitat is the urban sidewalk and its cracks that collect detritus. While these habitats are ubiquitous across the globe, little to no work has been conducted to characterize protists found there. Amoeboid protists are major predators of bacteria and other microbial eukaryotes in these microhabitats and therefore play a substantial ecological role. From sidewalk crack soil crusts, we have isolated three naked amoebae with finely tapered subpseudopodia, and a simple life cycle consisting of a trophic amoeba and a cyst stage...
January 19, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38225853/first-molecular-characterization-of-blastocystis-subtypes-from-domestic-animals-sheep-and-cattle-and-their-animal-keepers-in-ilam-western-iran-a-zoonotic-concern
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Morteza Shams, Ali Mohammad Bahrami, Asma Mousivand, Laya Shamsi, Ali Asghari, Saeed Shahabi, Alireza Sadrebazzaz
A total of 360 fecal samples were randomly collected from 150 cattle, 150 sheep, and 60 humans (30 people with close animal contact and 30 individuals without close animal contact) at 10 farms in Ilam, western Iran from June 2022 to August 2023. All samples were directly examined for Blastocystis by zinc sulfate flotation, followed by microscopic observation. Positive samples were further subtyped using conventional PCR and sequencing methods. A mean prevalence of 5.3% (16/300) was estimated for Blastocystis infection among examined animals, with 6% and 4...
January 15, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38197812/grazing-preferences-of-three-species-of-amoebae-on-cyanobacteria-and-green-algae
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Harold G Weger, April K Polasek, Derek M Wright, Arun Damodaran, John Stavrinides
Twenty species/isolates of cyanobacteria and green algae were isolated from cyanobacterial bloom samples in lakes associated with the upper Qu'Appelle River drainage system in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Three amoebae species (Cochliopodium sp., Vannella sp. and Vermamoeba vermiformis) were also isolated from one of these samples, and were subjected to grazing assays to determine which species of cyanobacteria or algae could potentially serve as a food source. Amoeba grazing rates were quantified based on the diameter of the plaque after 12 days on agar plate assays, and by estimation of the amoeba population growth rate from the rate of increase of plaque area...
January 10, 2024: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38108228/the-function-of-the-feeding-groove-of-typical-excavate-flagellates
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sei Suzuki-Tellier, Thomas Kiørboe, Alastair G B Simpson
Phagotrophic flagellates are the main consumers of bacteria and picophytoplankton. Despite their ecological significance in the 'microbial loop', many of their predation mechanisms remain unclear. 'Typical excavates' bear a ventral groove, where prey is captured for ingestion. The consequences of feeding through a 'semi-rigid' furrow on the prey size range have not been explored. An unidentified moving element called 'the wave' that sweeps along the bottom of the groove toward the site of phagocytosis has been observed in a few species; its function is unclear...
December 18, 2023: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38078515/the-second-most-abundant-dinophyte-in-the-ponds-of-a-botanical-garden-is-a-species-new-to-science
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Anna Müller, Marina Stark, Sophia Schottenhammel, Uwe John, Juliana Chacón, Andreas Klingl, Victoria Julia Christine Holzer, Marika Schöffer, Marc Gottschling
In the microscopy realm, a large body of dark biodiversity still awaits to be uncovered. Unarmoured dinophytes are particularly neglected here, as they only present inconspicuous traits. In a remote German locality, we collected cells, from which a monoclonal strain was established, to study morphology using light and electron microscopy and to gain DNA sequences from the rRNA operon. In parallel, we detected unicellular eukaryotes in ponds of the Botanical Garden Munich-Nymphenburg by DNA-metabarcoding (V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene), weekly sampled over the course of a year...
December 11, 2023: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38073253/eimeria-falciformis-extracellular-vesicles-differentially-express-host-cell-lncrnas
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Joshua S Olajide, Zigang Qu, Shunli Yang, Bin Yang, Xiao Xu, Jing Wang, Jianping Cai
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are regulatory transcripts during protozoan infections in the host intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Apicomplexan Eimeria falciformis sporozoite extracellular vesicles (EVs) contain virulence factors that modulate host IECs pro-inflammatory genes and immune responses. In this study, E. falciformis sporozoites were made to interact with inactivated host cells, and the parasite EVs were separated from total secretome by ultracentrifugation and purified on density gradient medium...
December 10, 2023: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38063425/corrigendum
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2023: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38059499/in-memoriam-thomas-cavalier-smith-1942-2021
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gaytha A Langlois, Sonja Rueckert
Thomas Cavalier-Smith, born in London, U.K., on October 21, 1942, was a Professor of Evolutionary Biology in the Department of Zoology at the University of Oxford at the time of his death on March 19, 2021. Credited with at least 235 research works and over 20,000 citations, Cavalier-Smith was a well-known and widely respected scientist who took a bold and detailed approach to understanding major transitions in evolution, including the role of endosymbiosis. He was noted for his willingness to question theories and constantly accumulate and evaluate data, motivated by science for the sake of science...
December 7, 2023: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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