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Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

Konstantin Chekanov, Anna Kublanovskaya, Elena Lobakova
The libraries of bacterial 16SrRNA gene fragment from algal-bacterial consortia of the White Sea coastal zone are analyzed. Up to 3% of the reads have revealed to correspond to eukaryotic rRNA. They related to following main eukaryotic clades: Discoba, Stramenopiles, Ciliata, Amoebozoa, and Nucletmycea. Amoebae, especially Vermamoeba, were present in all samples. In one sample, heterolobose amoeba Paravahlkampfia was detected. These microorganisms are parasites of microalgae, which can induce significant damage to industrial cultures...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Laura Escalera, Olga Mangoni, Francesco Bolinesi, Maria Saggiomo
A bloom of loricate choanoflagellates was recorded for the first time in the Ross Sea polynya during the austral summer 2017. Both individual cells and uncommon large-size colonies (200 μm length) represent the 42-55% of the total plankton community. Choanoflagellates serve as a link between low and mid trophic levels since they prey on bacteria and in turn are ingested by zooplankton. This twofold role and the unusual abundance recorded in the Antarctic ecosystem may have relevant but still unknown effects on food web structure and dynamics in that area...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Charlton Lam, Li He, Francine Marciano-Cabral
Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba found in soil and freshwater environments, is the causative agent of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis. Infection occurs when amoebae enter the nasal cavity, attach to the nasal mucosa and travel along olfactory neurons towards the olfactory bulb. Upon reaching the central nervous system, the amoebae replicate very rapidly and can cause death in 3 to 10 days. Little is known about the conditions in which the amoeba can survive in the environment. We have tested conditions beyond the known boundaries on the viability of amoebae by introducing them into moderate and extreme salinity, pH, and temperatures...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Kang-San Kim, Jae-Ho Jung, Gi-Sik Min
Two new soil oxytrichids, Australocirrus rubrus n. sp. and Notohymena gangwonensis n. sp., were discovered from South Korea. Morphologically, A. rubrus shares many features with A. australis, and these two species form a single clade in a molecular tree based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences. Australocirrus rubrus mainly differs from A. australis in the color (citrine color vs. reddish) and distribution of the cortical granules. Additionally, we confirm that the genus Australocirrus is not a monophyletic group, as A...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Erkang Zhu, Sang Ba, Zhao Lyu, Jingbao Li, Chen Shao
Morphogenesis of the soil hypotrich ciliate, Holostichides chardezi Foissner, 1987, collected from southeastern China, was investigated using the protargol staining method. The main morphogenetic events follow a similar process with that of its congeners. Phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rDNA sequence data indicate that Holostichides is non-monophyletic; H. chardezi, the type species of Holostichides, clusters with H. heterotypicus, while H. terrae is distinctly separate from these species. H. terrae can be distinguished from H...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Carolina P Bañuelos, Gabriela V Levy, Analía G Níttolo, Leandro G Roser, Valeria Tekiel, Daniel O Sánchez
It has been long thought that RNA Polymerase (Pol) II transcriptional regulation does not operate in trypanosomes. However, recent reports have suggested that these organisms could regulate RNA Pol II transcription by epigenetic mechanisms. In this paper, we investigated the role of TbRRM1 in transcriptional regulation of RNA Pol II-dependent genes by focusing both in genes located in a particular polycistronic transcription unit (PTU) and in the monocistronic units of the SL-RNA genes. We showed that TbRRM1 is recruited throughout the PTU, with a higher presence on genes than intergenic regions...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Dongfang Li, Shuangjian Zheng, Chunxiang Zhou, Md Robiul Karim, Luyang Wang, Haiyan Wang, Fuchang Yu, Junqiang Li, Weiyi Wang, Yange Wang, Sumei Zhang, Fuchun Jian, Rongjun Wang, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most frequently diagnosed Microsporidia of humans and most animals. However, there is no information on E. bieneusi infection of pigs in Tibet and Henan, China. In the present study, 1190 fecal samples were collected from pigs in Tibet and Henan and screened for the presence of E. bieneusi. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi infection was 54.2% (645/1190), with differences in prevalence observed among geographical areas, ages, and pig breeds. Moreover, 10 E. bieneusi genotypes were identified based on internal transcribed spacer region genotyping, including eight known genotypes (EbpC, EbpA, CHG19, CHC5, Henan-III, I, D, and H) and two novel genotypes (XZP-I and XZP-II)...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Fengchao Li, Zhishuai Qu, Dan Luo, Sabine Filker, Xiaozhong Hu, Thorsten Stoeck
A new hypotrichous ciliate, Schmidtiella ultrahalophila gen. nov. spec. nov., was isolated from a solar saltern on the island of Sal, Cape Verde. The possession of only one short dorsal kinety clearly distinguishes Schmidtiella ultrahalophila from other known hypotrichous genera and species. Further diagnostic characters include: a flexible and slender body, an average size of 85 × 15 μm in vivo; a bipartite adoral zone with two hypertrophied frontal adoral membranelles and nine to twelve ventral adoral membranelles; three frontal, one parabuccal, two frontoventral, two or three postoral ventral, and two or three frontoterminal cirri; and marginal cirral rows variable in number, usually one on each side...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Xueyan Wang, Daode Ji
A new peritrichous ciliate, Zoothamnium palmphlatum nov. spec., was collected from an estuary in Yantai, China. It was investigated, using both live observation and silver staining. The new species can be identified by a palm-shaped colony consisting of highly developed and alternately arranged secondary branches, a double-layered peristomial lip, and an infundibular polykinety 3 composed of two parallel kinetosomal rows. Phylogenetic analyses of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence show that Z. palmphlatum clusters with other members of the family Zoothamniidae...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Alexis Pasulka, Sarah K Hu, Peter D Countway, Kathryn J Coyne, Stephen C Cary, Karla B Heidelberg, David A Caron
Microbial eukaryotes have important roles in marine food webs, but their diversity and activities in hydrothermal vent ecosystems are poorly characterized. In this study, we analyzed microbial eukaryotic communities associated with bacterial (Beggiatoa) mats in the 2,000 m deep-sea Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent system using 18S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region. We detected 6,954 distinct Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) across various mat systems. Of the sequences that aligned with known protistan phylotypes, most were affiliated with alveolates, especially dinoflagellates and ciliates, and cercozoans...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Mar S Hernández-García, Jesús F T Miranda-Ozuna, Lizbeth Salazar-Villatoro, Carlos Vázquez-Calzada, Leticia Ávila-González, Arturo González-Robles, Jaime Ortega-López, Rossana Arroyo
Autophagy is an adaptive response for cell survival in which cytoplasmic components and organelles are degraded in bulk under normal and stress conditions. Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite highly adaptable to stress conditions such as iron (IR) and glucose restriction (GR). Autophagy can be traced by detecting a key autophagy protein (Atg8) anchored to the autophagosome membrane by a lipid moiety. Our goal was to perform a morphological and cellular study of autophagy in T. vaginalis under GR, IR, and Rapamycin (Rapa) treatment using TvAtg8 as a putative autophagy marker...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Miran Kim, Misun Kang, Myung Gil Park
While the ecophysiology of planktonic Mesodinium rubrum species complex has been relatively well studied, very little is known about that of benthic Mesodinium species. In this study, we examined the growth response of the benthic ciliate M. coatsi to different cryptophyte prey using an established culture of this species. M. coatsi was able to ingest all of the offered cryptophyte prey types, but not all cryptophytes supported its positive, sustained growth. While M. coatsi achieved sustained growth on all of the phycocyanin-containing Chroomonas spp...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Joseph A Moss, Richard A Snyder
Pathogens and the potential risk they present to public health in recreational waters are of continual public concern. The focus of this study was a year-long sampling campaign to document the presence of Microsporidia and protozoan pathogens in the Bayou Texar waterway in Pensacola, Florida. We used biofilms as sentinel indicators for trapping pathogens in 5 different locations in Pensacola, Florida. Of the 34 biofilm samples, 16 were positive for pathogens. Of these samples, 13 were positive for Enchephalitozoon spp...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Marcelo F Silva, Diehgo T Silva, Elane G Giese, Igor G Hamoy, Edilson R Matos
The coccidians of the family Calyptosporidae are parasites of the tissue and organs of fish and aquatic invertebrates, in particular in the tropical region. In contrast with other apicomplexans of the suborder Eimeriorina, the diversity and ecology of the species of the genus Calyptospora have been poorly investigated, resulting in a lacuna that restricts the understanding of the distribution and prevalence of this group of eukaryote microparasites in the Amazon region. In the present study, the integrated comparative analysis of morphological characteristics, histological and structural traits, and the sequences of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene, provides support for the identification of a new species of Calyptospora, found parasitising the hepatic tissue of the piscivorous blue peacock bass, Cichla piquiti, captured in the reservoir of the Estreito hydroelectric dam on the middle Tocantins River in northern Brazil...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Nathan Peroutka-Bigus, Bryan H Bellaire
We report that the gold containing anti-rheumatoid drug auranofin is amoebicidal against human pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Treatment of N. fowleri cultures at biologically relevant concentrations of 0.75 μg/ml to 3.0 μg/ml auranofin reduced amoeba counts, metabolic activity and increased cell permeability. These results suggest that the addition of auranofin may benefit the treatment of N. fowleri infected patients afflicted by the rapidly fatal disease primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This article is protected by copyright...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Jan Votýpka, Petr Kment, Eva Kriegová, Mark J A Vermeij, Patrick J Keeling, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Julius Lukeš
We describe the monoxenous trypanosomatids parasitizing true bugs and flies on the island of Curaçao. Out of 248 examined true bugs belonging to 17 species, 93 individuals were found to be infected (overall 38% prevalence) by at least one trypanosomatid species (referred to as typing units; TUs). Out of 80 flies, six were infected. All detected trypanosomatids were compared based on their 18S rRNA sequences with TUs parasitizing bugs and flies described from mainland South America, allowing us to assess their diversity and distribution...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Guillaume Lentendu, Paulo Roberto Bressan Buosi, Adalgisa Fernada Cabral, Bianca Trevizan Segóvia, Bianca Ramos Meira, Fernando Miranda Lansac-Tôha, Luiz Felipe Machado Velho, Camila D Ritter, Micah Dunthorn
The biodiversity and biogeography of protists inhabiting many ecosystems have been intensely studied using different sequencing approaches, but tropical ecosystems are relatively under-studied. Here we sampled planktonic waters from 32 lakes associated with four different river-floodplains systems in Brazil, and sequenced the DNA using a metabarcoding approach with general eukaryotic primers. The lakes were dominated by the largely free-living Discoba (mostly the Euglenida), Ciliophora, and Ochrophyta. There was low community similarity between lakes even within the same river-floodplain...
November 25, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sergey A Karpov, David Moreira, Maria A Mamkaeva, Olga V Popova, Vladimir V Aleoshin, Purificación López-García
Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences of nearly any species of Chytridiomycota has typically challenged traditional classification and triggered taxonomic revision. This has often led to the establishment of new taxa which, normally, appear well supported by zoospore ultrastructure, which provides diagnostic characters. To construct a meaningful and comprehensive classification of Chytridiomycota, the combination of molecular phylogenies and morphological studies of traditionally defined chytrid species is needed...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Jürgen F H Strassert, Elisabeth Hehenberger, Javier Del Campo, Noriko Okamoto, Martin Kolisko, Thomas A Richards, Alexandra Z Worden, Alyson E Santoro, Patrick J Keeling
Spores of the dinoflagellate Chytriodinium are known to infest copepod eggs causing their lethality. Despite the potential to control the population of such an ecologically important host, knowledge about Chytriodinium parasites is limited: we know little about phylogeny, parasitism, abundance, or geographical distribution. We carried out genome sequence surveys on four manually isolated sporocytes from the same sporangium, which seemed to be attached to a copepod nauplius, to analyse the phylogenetic position of Chytriodinium based on SSU and concatenated SSU/LSU rRNA gene sequences, and also characterize two genes related to the plastidial heme pathway, hemL and hemY...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sandra Gran-Stadniczeñko, Elianne Dunthorn Egge, Vladyslava Hostyeva, Ramiro Logares, Wenche Eikrem, Bente Edvardsen
Protist community composition and seasonal dynamics are of major importance for the production of higher trophic levels, such as zooplankton and fish. Our aim was to reveal how the protist community in the Skagerrak changes through the seasons by combining high-throughput sequencing and microscopy of plankton collected monthly over two years. The V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified by eukaryote universal primers from the total RNA/cDNA. We found a strong seasonal variation in protist composition and proportional abundances, and a difference between two depths within the euphotic zone...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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