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Applied Radiation and Isotopes

R Botha, R Lindsay, R T Newman, P P Maleka, G Chimba
The prospect of unconventional shale gas development in the semi-arid Karoo Basin (South Africa) has created the prerequisite to temporally characterise the natural radioactivity in associated groundwater which is solely depended on for drinking and agriculture purposes. Radon (222 Rn) was the primary natural radionuclide of interest in this study; however, supplementary radium (226 Ra and 228 Ra) in-water measurements were also conducted. A total of 53 aquifers spanning three provinces were studied during three separate measurement campaigns from 2014 to 2016...
February 7, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
K S Krane
Based on activation measurements with W targets of natural isotopic abundance, the cross sections for thermal neutron capture by 180 W and 184 W have been determined by comparing the activities of 181 W and 185 W after activation with that of 187 W. Relative to the known cross sections for capture by 186 W, after correction of the latter for changes in the recommended γ-ray branching intensities, the values of the thermal cross sections have been determined to be 22.7(16) b for capture by 180 W and 1.60(11) b for 184 W...
February 5, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Kyle M Paaren, Hyoung Koo Lee
Angular dependence of 9 Be(α, n)12 C was simulated in Monte-Carlo N-Particle transport 6.1.1 (MCNP) with TALYS Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (TENDL) 2012, 2014, and 2017 data to determine secondary neutron direction and energy for neutron imaging. The simulations consisted of a 90 μCi 241 Am source and a 25 μm thick 9 Be target. Neutrons emitted from the 9 Be(α, n)12 C were collected at different angles of emission within the MCNP simulation, which will be compared to experimental data in the future...
February 5, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Shin-Rong Wu, Shang-Chien Wu, Der-Sheng Chao, Jenq-Horng Liang
This study aims to propose a model for dynamically simulating the online-refueling process in pebble-bed reactor (PBR) using MCNPX. PBR has a special feature of online-refueling which can greatly reduce the outage time and enable a higher burnup in spent fuel. However, this feature also results in the dynamical fuel movements which may significantly increase the difficulty and the computational time in computer simulation. Therefore, an appropriate model is necessary to be proposed to simulate the burnup characteristics of online-refueling and to reduce the computational time simultaneously...
February 4, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
J A Serrano-Mireles, H M Garnica-Garza
Contrast enhanced radiotherapy is a relatively new treatment modality in which a radiological contrast agent is uploaded into a tumor that is subsequently irradiated with kilovoltage x-ray beams thus maximizing absorption of radiation through the photoelectric effect. As with other treatment modalities, experimental verification of absorbed dose distributions is a necessary step as part of the quality assurance process. In this paper, we address the question of how the response to kilovoltage x-rays exhibited by an ion chamber is modified when a radiological contrast agent is incorporated into the irradiated medium...
February 2, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
K Bergaoui, N Reguigui, C Brown, B Yousfi, M A Nasri, K Gary
A deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator facility has been developed with a wide range of applications in mind. D-D neutron generators provide a safe, convenient, and low-cost solution for the production of thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons for laboratory and industrial applications. The regulatory burden for operating one of these generators is small as it contains no radioactive material and produces no radiation when turned off. One such D-D neutron generator has been installed at the National Center of Nuclear Sciences and Technologies (CNSTN)...
February 2, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
István Jószai, Márk Svidró, Norbert Pótári
In this work, two relevant recommendations were established for selection of stabilizers for suppression of radiolysis of [18 F]FDG. First, the stabilizing effect could be enhanced using selective scavengers of hydroxyl radicals (OH· ). Additionally, the initial radiochemical purity could be retained due to compounds with rate constants of their reactions with OH· (kOH ) higher than 109  M-1  s-1 . According to these recommendations number of additives among carbohydrates, amino acids, B vitamins and organic salts were successfully applied for stabilization of [18 F]FDG...
February 2, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Michel N Nader, David E B Fleming
When analyzing characteristic peaks in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra, the peak area is the value most often used to quantify peak size. However, some studies have reported the amplitude of the peak instead of the area. When the width of the peak is allowed to vary from trial to trial in order to provide the best possible fit to the data, these two alternative methods can yield slightly different results. In the current study, these two approaches to peak analysis are compared for data obtained from bone reference materials having certified lead concentrations of 1...
February 1, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
F Moradi, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, T Alrefae, H Ramazanian, D A Bradley
Studies of radiation interactions with tissue equivalent material find importance in efforts that seek to avoid unjustifiable dose to patients, also in ensuring quality control of for instance nuclear medicine imaging equipment. Use of the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool in such characterization processes allows for the avoidance of costly experiments involving transmitted X- and γ-ray spectrometry. Present work investigates MC simulations of γ-ray transmission through tissue equivalent solid phantoms. Use has been made of a range of radionuclide gamma ray sources, 99m Tc, 131 I, 137 Cs, 60 Co (offering photons in the energy range from a few keV up to low MeV), popularly applied in medicine and in some cases for gauging in industry, obtaining the transmission spectra following their interaction with various phantom materials and thicknesses...
February 1, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Kendall E Barrett, Eduardo Aluicio-Sarduy, Aeli P Olson, Christopher J Kutyreff, Paul A Ellison, Todd E Barnhart, Robert J Nickles, Jonathan W Engle
We report a novel, precipitation-based method for the isolation of Mn from Cr targets for cyclotron production of 52g Mn. The separation produces no-carrier-added 52g Mn with a decay corrected radiochemical yield of 85 ± 3% and apparent molar activity for DOTA of 1.3 GBq/μmol. This method reduces stable metallic impurities in the purified 52g Mn compared to previously reported chromatographic methods.
February 1, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Tomoyuki Ohya, Katsuyuki Minegishi, Hisashi Suzuki, Kotaro Nagatsu, Masami Fukada, Masayuki Hanyu, Ming-Rong Zhang
We developed a new apparatus for the routine production of 64 Cu in clinical use. The apparatus has many disposable parts that stabilize the product quality (such that there is a low deviation of the concentrations of impurity metals in the product) and reduce the work load of preparation for routine production. We also developed a new evaporator using near-infrared heaters for disposable use. We conducted a production test using the new apparatus and evaluated product quality. The product yield was 6.3 ± 0...
January 31, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
D Alloni, M Prata, B Smilgys
In this work we present a characterization of the radionuclidic impurities originated by proton irradiation of enriched water [18 O]H2 O in a medical cyclotron through Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements. A set of standard samples of enriched water loaded in the cyclotron target cell have been irradiated at 30 μA proton current for 1 h each and, after an appropriate cooling time, measured by HPGe gamma spectrometry. In this way it was possible to study the direct release of radionuclidic impurities from target components as well as the release as a function of target ageing...
January 31, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
H S Hassan, Elsayed K Elmaghraby
Poly (acrylamido-sulfonic acid) polymers have been synthesized using the technique of radical chain polymerization utilizing acrylamide and ammonium persulphate. The polymerization was triggered and controlled using radiation from 1.1 μCi radium source. The polymer sheet was characterized using FTIR, DTA, TG, XRD and SEM. The sorption behavior of the prepared polymer was investigated for 137 Cs radionuclide from acid medium (nitric acid). Different parameters such as shaking time and concentrations of HNO3 have been investigated...
January 30, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
R Policroniades, E Moreno, G Murillo, A Varela
In this work, a brief review on nuclear reaction methods aimed at nitrogen assessment in organic matter is given, followed by a detailed application using a deuteron beam and (d,p) and (d,α) induced reactions on 14 N to determine nitrogen content in single seeds This study covers the analysis of five wheat and four maize stable varieties, which showed up good (linear) correlation coefficients in comparison with corresponding Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis for each species. This method of analysis turns out to be a fast and non-destructive technique for protein determination in cereals, besides its extendibility to other plant products for human nutrition...
January 30, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Anguo Peng, Guangshan Liu, Zhengming Jiang, Guoqing Liu, Min Liu
The atmospheric depositional fluxes of 7 Be and 210 Pb in Yueyang and Hengyang were measured by the γ spectrum analysis method and their influencing factors were discussed. Results are summarized as follows: the variation ranges and average values of 7 Be depositional fluxes are very close to each other in the two characteristic sampling regions, but not for 210 Pb. In the same sampling region, there is a strong positive linear correlation between the depositional fluxes of two nuclides and their monthly variations are synchronous...
January 29, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Erika Azorín-Vega, Eva Rojas-Calderón, Guillermina Ferro-Flores, Liliana Aranda-Lara, Nallely Jiménez-Mancilla, Miguel A Nava-Cabrera
This research aimed to assess the radiation absorbed dose produced by 177 Lu-iPSMA (177 Lu-prostate specific membrane antigen inhibitor), 225 Ac-iPSMA and 223 RaCl2 to prostate cancer cell nuclei in a simplified model of bone by using an experimental in-vitro prostate cancer LNCaP cell biokinetic study and Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNPX code. Results showed that 225 Ac-iPSMA releases a nine hundred-fold radiation dose greater than 177 Lu-iPSMA and 14 times more than 223 RaCl2 per unit of activity retained in bone...
January 29, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Yu-Lu Wei, Jia-Ying Xu, Ru Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Lin Zhao, Li-Qiang Qin
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal injury is common after radiotherapy. We aim to investigate the effects of lactoferrin (Lf) on X-ray-induced intestinal injury in Balb/C mice. METHODS: In assessing animal survival, a total of 40 animals were assigned randomly to 8Gy group, 2 mg Lf+8Gy group, 4 mg Lf+8Gy group, and 6 mg Lf+8Gy group. Mice were administered with Lf intraperitoneally and exposed to single whole-body X-ray irradiation. Lf administration lasted for 3 days. Survival rate was compared among groups...
January 28, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Límbano Iván López-Coello, Eugenio Torres-García, Luis Enrique Díaz-Sánchez, Rigoberto Oros-Pantoja, Liliana Aranda-Lara
The aim of this work was to calculate S values for 99 mTc, 67 Ga, 68 Ga, 18 F, 223 Ra, 166 Ho, 90 Y, 161 Tb 131 I and 177 Lu, using a mouse phantom (MOBY) standard and considering the anatomic sizes from males and females, the simulation of radiation transport was performed with GATE/Geant4 platform. This indicates that in the internal dosimetry the use of a customized geometry is relevant for each gender and a standard model is not a good choice.
January 28, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Guillermo Eduardo Campillo-Rivera, Joel Vázquez-Bañuelos, Ángel García-Duran, Martha Isabel Escalona-Llaguno, Marcial Vásquez Arteaga, Hector Rene Vega-Carrillo
In the aim to support treatments and diagnostics in Dentistry the most common radiographies are the periapical radiography and the dental panoramic. In the dental panoramic the X-ray beam is addressed into a large zone of the face obtaining the image of the upper and lower jaw. In this procedure part of the X-rays are scattered reaching some other parts of the patient body. In this work the absorbed dose in the eye lens, thyroid, salivary glands, mammary glands, and gonads, was measured in patients undergoing a dental orthopantomography...
January 28, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
L Popov
Method for determination of plutonium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The separation and purification of plutonium is attained by extraction chromatography with triisooctylamine - polyethylene resin in nitric and hydrochloric acid media. Plutonium is measured by alpha-particle spectrometry after electrodeposition on a stainless steel disk. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials with different matrices from IAEA (Soil-6, IAEA-375, IAEA-384, IAEA-414) and NPL (AL-2009, AL-2010, AL-2011, AL-2013, AB-2014)...
January 28, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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