Enhui Li, Jia Xu, Ning Liu, Qi Xiong, Weiwei Zhang, Yizi Gong, Linlin Zhang, Yikai He, Huipeng Ge, Xiangcheng Xiao
The high prevalence and complex etiology of renal diseases already impose a heavy disease burden on patients and society. In certain kidney diseases such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), current treatments are limited to slowing rather than stabilizing or reversing disease progression. Therefore, it is crucial to study the pathological mechanisms of kidney disease and discover new therapeutic targets and effective therapeutic drugs. As cell-free therapeutic strategies are continually being developed, extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-EVs) have emerged as a hot topic for research in the field of renal diseases...
November 30, 2023: Stem Cells
Xiaohuan Sun, Simeon Kofman, Victor C Ogbolu, Celeste M Karch, Larisa Ibric, Liang Qiang
Advanced technologies have enabled the engineering of self-organized 3-dimensional (3D) cellular structures from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), namely organoids, which recapitulate some key features of tissue development and functions of the human central nervous system (CNS). While hiPSC-derived 3D CNS organoids hold promise in providing a human-specific platform for studying CNS development and diseases, most of them do not incorporate the full range of implicated cell types, including vascular cell components and microglia, limiting their ability to accurately recreate the CNS environment and their utility in the study of certain aspects of the disease...
November 23, 2023: Stem Cells
Bianlei Yang, Yaoying Long, Anyuan Zhang, Hongxiang Wang, Zhichao Chen, Qiubai Li
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into various cell types and secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) that transport bioactive molecules and mediate intercellular communication. MSCs and MSC-derived EVs (MSC-EVs) have shown promising therapeutic effects in several diseases. However, their procoagulant activity and thrombogenic risk may limit their clinical safety. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on procoagulant molecules expressed on the surface of MSCs and MSC-EVs, such as tissue factor and phosphatidylserine...
November 15, 2023: Stem Cells
Fabienne Becker, Meryem Ouzin, Stefanie Liedtke, Katharina Raba, Gesine Kogler
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from cord blood can be applied as an alternative to bone marrow in transplantation to treat hematological diseases. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) consists of cycling and non-cycling CD34+/CD45low cells needed for long-term and short-term engraftment. After sorting and subsequent in vitro culture, quiescent HSCs enter the cell cycle. This enables the analysis of HSCs in two different cell cycle stages and the comparison of their responses to different genotoxic noxae. To analyze different mechanisms of DNA damage induction in cells, two different genotoxins were compared: etoposide, a topoisomerase II inhibitor that targets mitosis in the S/G2-phase of the cell cycle and the alkylating nitrosamine N-Nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU), which leads to the formation of methyl DNA adducts resulting in DNA double breaks during DNA replication and persistent mutations...
November 14, 2023: Stem Cells
Fang Xin, Yuan Cheng, Xinxin Wen, Jin Zhang, Xin Shi, Ping Liu, Jie Ren, Wenjing Lu, Fan Liu, Zihan Li, Xin Yan, Wei Wang, Meili Wang, Haixia Huang
The expression of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) in adipose tissue has been identified for years. BK channel deletion can improve metabolism in vivo, but the relative mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the effects of BK channels on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and the related mechanisms. BKα and β1 subunits were expressed on adipocytes. We found that both deletion of the KCNMA1 gene, encoding the pore forming α subunit of BK channels, and the BK channel inhibitor paxilline increased the expression of key genes in the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) pathway and promoted adipogenetic differentiation of ADSCs...
November 11, 2023: Stem Cells
Marco Tatullo
Ageing is characterized by an alteration of several physiological processes and biological pathways that leads to an incremented susceptibility to age-related diseases and death. Normally, multipotential stem/progenitor cells may contribute to tissues homeostasis, and to minimize the age-depending DNA damages. Scientific research has demonstrated that ageing induces several complex changes affecting even the Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells (MSCs) ability to self-renew, differentiate, and immunomodulate the human tissues, causing further alterations also in the local microenvironment...
November 11, 2023: Stem Cells
Peimeng Zhan, Xinfang Zhang, Zhuo Xie, Lingling Chen, Shuheng Huang, Qiting Huang, Zhengmei Lin, Runfu Wang
Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) play a vital role in the regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex after pulp disease. While the regeneration efficiency relies on the odontoblastic differentiation capacity of hDPSCs, this is difficult to regulate within the pulp cavity. Although Nicotinamide Riboside (NR) has been found to promote tissue regeneration, its specific role in pulp-dentin complex regeneration is not fully understood. Here, we aimed to explore the role of NR in the odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs and its underlying molecular mechanism...
November 11, 2023: Stem Cells
Hui-Qi Qu, Charlly Kao, Hakon Hakonarson
Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has revolutionized our understanding of cellular heterogeneity and the dynamics of gene expression, bearing profound significance in stem cell research. Depending on the starting materials used for analysis, scRNA-seq encompasses scRNA-seq and single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq). scRNA-seq excels in capturing cellular heterogeneity and characterizing rare cell populations within complex tissues, while snRNA-seq is advantageous in situations where intact cell dissociation is challenging or undesirable (eg, epigenomic studies)...
November 2, 2023: Stem Cells
Ke Feng, Yukang Wu, Jianguo Li, Qiaoyi Sun, Zihui Ye, Xuan Li, Xudong Guo, Jiuhong Kang
Poor proliferative capacity of adult cardiomyocytes is the primary cause of heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI), thus exploring the molecules and mechanisms that promote the proliferation of adult cardiomyocytes is crucially useful for cardiac repair after MI. Here, we found that miR-130b-5p was highly expressed in mouse embryonic and neonatal hearts and able to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that miR-130b-5p mainly promoted the cardiomyocyte proliferation through the MAPK-ERK signaling pathway, and the dual-specific phosphatase 6 (Dusp6), a negative regulator of the MAPK-ERK signaling, was the direct target of miR-130b-5p...
November 2, 2023: Stem Cells
Jin Koo Kim, Luis G Villa-Diaz, Thomas L Saunders, Ruiz P Saul, Suraj Timilsina, Fei Liu, Yuji Mishina, Paul H Krebsbach
Insight into the molecular mechanisms governing the development and maintenance of pluripotency is important for understanding early development and the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine. We demonstrate the selective inhibition of mTORC1 signaling is important for developing the inner cell mass (ICM) and the self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells. S6K suppressed the expression and function of pluripotency-related transcription factors (PTFs) OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4 through phosphorylation and ubiquitin proteasome-mediated protein degradation, indicating that S6K inhibition is required for pluripotency...
November 1, 2023: Stem Cells
Arseniy Lobov, Polina Kuchur, Aigul Khizhina, Anastasia Kotova, Andrei Ivashkin, Daria Kostina, Polina Klausen, Evgeniia Khokhlova, Egor Repkin, Kseniia Postnikova, Daria Perepletchikova, Evgeny Denisov, Tatiana Gerashchenko, Rashid Tikhilov, Svetlana Bozhkova, Andrey Sereda, Vitaliy Karelkin, Natella Enukashvily, Anna Malashicheva
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in therapy, but the differences between MSCs of various origins and their ability to undergo osteogenic differentiation and produce extracellular matrix are not fully understood. To address this, we conducted a comparative analysis of mesenchymal cell primary cultures from six human sources, including osteoblast-like cells from the adult femur, adipose-derived stem cells, Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal cells, gingival fibroblasts, dental pulp stem cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells...
November 1, 2023: Stem Cells
Yueqin Chen, Genhong Yao, Jun Tong, Hairong Xie, Xinyu Zheng, Huayong Zhang, Zhenggao Xie
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) on diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its underlying mechanism. METHODS: In vivo, MSC-sEVs were injected intravitreally into diabetic rats to determine the therapeutic efficacy. In vitro, MSC-sEVs with/without miR-22-3p inhibition were cocultured with advanced glycation end-products (AGEs)-induced microglia with/without NLRP3 overexpression to explore the molecular mechanism...
October 17, 2023: Stem Cells
Jing Pu, Satoshi Kofuji, Yoshimi Okamoto-Uchida, Keiko Danzaki, Ruoxing Yu, Akira Suzuki, Satoshi Kitajima, Hiroshi Nishina
In early embryogenesis, the primitive streak (PrS) generates the mesendoderm and is essential for organogenesis. However, because the PrS is a minute and transient tissue, elucidating the mechanism of its formation has been challenging. We performed comprehensive screening of 2 knockout mouse databases based on the fact that failure of PrS formation is lethal. We identified 812 genes involved in various cellular functions and responses that might be linked to PrS formation, with the category of greatest abundance being "Metabolism...
October 11, 2023: Stem Cells
Shunsuke Soma, Koichi Murakami, Yumi Fukuchi, Hiroyoshi Kunimoto, Hideaki Nakajima
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) critically regulates wide variety of biological processes such as gene expression, metabolism, stress response, signaling and proteostasis. In adult hematopoiesis, OGT is crucial for differentiation of B and T cells and the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, a role for OGT in fetal liver (FL) hematopoiesis remains unknown. To investigate a role for OGT in FL hematopoiesis, we conditionally disrupted OGT in hematopoietic cells in developing FLs...
October 10, 2023: Stem Cells
Valentina Pensato, Maria Antonella Laginestra, Paolo Falvo, Stefania Orecchioni, Giovanna Talarico, Elena De Marchi, Samantha Bruno, Sara Mongiorgi, Giulia Mitola, Francesco Bertolini, Elena Adinolfi, Michele Cavo, Antonio Curti, Valentina Salvestrini
Bone marrow microenvironmental stimuli profoundly impact hematopoietic stem cell fate and biology. As G protein-coupled receptors, the bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are key in transmitting extracellular stimuli into an intracellular response, within the oral cavity but also in extraoral tissues. Their expression in the bone marrow (BM)-derived cells suggests their involvement in sensing the BM microenvironmental fluctuation. In the present study, we demonstrated that umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived CD34+ cells express fully functional TAS2Rs along with the signal transduction cascade components and their activation by the prototypical agonist, denatonium benzoate, significantly modulated genes involved in stemness maintenance and regulation of cell trafficking...
October 5, 2023: Stem Cells
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September 22, 2023: Stem Cells
Yinghua Wu, Wenrui Ye, Yong Gao, Zhenjie Yi, Zhuohui Chen, Chunrun Qu, Jing Huang, Fangkun Liu, Zhixiong Liu
Regenerative medicine mainly relies on heterologous transplantation, often hindered by sample availability and ethical issues. Furthermore, patients are required to take immunosuppressive medications to prevent adverse side effects. Stem cell-derived 3D-organoid culture has provided new alternatives for transplantation and regenerative medicine. Scholars have combined organoids with tissue engineering technology to improve reproducibility, the accuracy of constitution and throughput, and genetic correction to achieve a more personalised therapy...
September 19, 2023: Stem Cells
Xiaofeng Qi, Yali Luo, Xiao Mengyong, Qiuju Zhang, Jing Luo, Linna Ma, Linfeng Ruan, Nini Lian, Liu Yongqi
Diffuse alveolar epithelial cell death occurs extensively during acute lung injury(ALI). Due to the limited proliferative capacity of alveolar type 1 epithelial (AT1)cells, the differentiation and regenerative capacity of alveolar type 2 epithelial (AT2)cells are required to restore the barrier function of alveolar epithelial cells(AECs). However, during lung injury, AT1 cells are particularly susceptible to injury, and ATII cells die in the presence of severe or certain types of injury. This disruption ultimately results in a hindrance to the ability of AT2 cells to proliferate and differentiate into AT1 cells in time to repair the extensively damaged AECs...
September 16, 2023: Stem Cells
Miriam Duci, Ludovica De Cesare, Agner Henrique Dorigo Hochuli, Maurizio Muraca, Mara Cananzi, Piergiorgio Gamba, Francesco Fascetti-Leon, Michela Pozzobon
This review focuses on the crucial role of the Intestinal epithelium in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and its significance in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). NEC is a devastating neonatal disease, while IBD represents a global healthcare problem with increasing incidence. The breakdown of the intestinal barrier in neonates is considered pivotal in the development and progression of both disorders. This review provides an overview of the current state of in-vitro, ex-vivo and animal models to study epithelial injury in NEC and IBD, addressing pertinent questions that engage clinicians and researchers alike...
September 9, 2023: Stem Cells
Salma Alasmar, Jez Huang, Karishma Chopra, Ewa Baumann, Amy Aylsworth, Melissa Hewitt, Jagdeep K Sandhu, Joseph S Tauskela, Robert N Ben, Anna Jezierski
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and iPSC-derived neurons (iPSC-Ns) represent a differentiated modality toward developing novel cell-based therapies for regenerative medicine. However, the successful application of iPSC-Ns in cell-replacement therapies relies on effective cryopreservation. In this study, we investigated the role of ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) as novel cryoprotectants for iPSCs and terminally differentiated iPSC-Ns. We found that one class of IRIs, N-aryl-D-aldonamides (specifically 2FA), increased iPSC post-thaw viability and recovery with no adverse effect on iPSC pluripotency...
November 5, 2023: Stem Cells
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