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Sarah E Jackson, Olga Perski, David Crane, Susan Michie, Robert West, Jamie Brown
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Smartphone applications (apps) hold promise for delivering tobacco smoking cessation support to large numbers of people at low unit cost. Smoke Free is an evidence-informed, widely-used app that is highly rated by users. This study aims to assess its effectiveness compared with no support. DESIGN: Two-arm individually randomised controlled effectiveness trial. SETTING: Online trial with no restrictions on location. PARTICIPANTS: English-speaking smokers aged ≥18 years willing to make a quit attempt within 4 weeks from initial contact (n=4,990)...
May 13, 2019: Addiction
Robert West, Wei Hao, Tai Hing Lam, Joseph Lau, Jianhua Li, Jing Li, Lin Lu, John Marsden, Jean O'Reilly, Daniel Tan-Lei Shek, Anise Man Sze Wu, Zunyou Wu, Dan Xiao, Ruiling Zhang, Liyan Zhao, Min Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2019: Addiction
Henry R Kranzler, Richard Feinn, Paige Morris, Emily E Hartwell
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies of the efficacy of gabapentin for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) have yielded mixed findings. The aims of our study were to estimate gabapentin's effects on six alcohol-related outcomes, test potential moderators, examine publication bias, and evaluate the quality of the studies. METHODS: Meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Using PubMed and, we selected RCTs of gabapentin's effects on alcohol consumption or a biochemical correlate of it, excluding studies limited to other primary outcomes or that combined gabapentin with other medications...
May 11, 2019: Addiction
Adrian J Bravo, Matthew R Pearson, Angelina Pilatti, Laura Mezquita
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The 21-item Brief-Marijuana Consequences Questionnaire (B-MACQ) has been shown to be a valid measure to assess negative marijuana-related consequences among U.S. college students. The present study aimed to: (a) examine measurement invariance of the B-MACQ across college student marijuana users in five countries, (b) evaluate latent mean differences on the B-MACQ as a function of sex and country if invariance is met, and (c) compare criterion-related validity across different countries and sex...
May 8, 2019: Addiction
Sarah Aleyan, Katherine East, Ann McNeill, K Michael Cummings, Geoffrey T Fong, Hua-Hie Yong, James F Thrasher, Ron Borland, Sara C Hitchman
AIMS: To examine whether norms towards nicotine vaping product (NVP) use varied between Australia, Canada, England and the United States and by sociodemographics, smoking and NVP status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. SETTING: Four countries with distinct regulatory policies relating to the sale and advertising of NVPs: Australia (most restrictive), Canada (restrictive), England and United States (least restrictive)...
May 6, 2019: Addiction
Nicole L Tosun, Ann M Fieberg, Lynn E Eberly, Katherine A Harrison, Angela R Tipp, Alicia M Allen, Sharon S Allen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In some clinical studies men and women have been found to differ in their ability to quit smoking, perhaps as a result of progesterone. The primary aim of this study was to provide a preliminary test of whether progesterone (PRO), as compared with placebo (PBO), was more effective for smoking cessation in men and women. DESIGN: Pilot double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Minneapolis/St...
May 6, 2019: Addiction
Joseph Studer, Gerhard Gmel, Nicolas Bertholet, Simon Marmet, Jean-Bernard Daeppen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol-induced blackout (AIB) is a common alcohol-related adverse event occurring during teenage years. Although research provides evidence that AIB predicts acute negative consequences, less is known about the associations of AIB with chronic consequences, such as alcohol dependence (AD). This study estimated the associations between an experience of AIB at age 20 and the incidence, maintenance, and severity of AD at age 25 among Swiss men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 5...
May 6, 2019: Addiction
Emma Beard, John Marsden, Jamie Brown, Ildiko Tombor, John Stapleton, Susan Michie, Robert West
Time series analyses are statistical methods used to assess trends in repeated measurements taken at regular intervals and their associations with other trends or events taking account of the temporal structure of such data. Addiction research often involves assessing associations between trends in target variables (e.g. population cigarette smoking prevalence) and predictor variables (e.g. average price of a cigarette) known as a multiple time series design, or interventions or events (e.g. introduction of an indoor smoking ban) known as an interrupted time series design...
May 6, 2019: Addiction
Katharine A Bradley, Ryan M Caldeiro, Kevin A Hallgren, Daniel R Kivlahan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 29, 2019: Addiction
Carrie M Mintz, Sarah M Hartz, Jacob T Borodovsky, Laura J Bierut, Richard A Grucza
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the United States, availability of prescription opioids has decreased in recent years. Whether there have been corresponding changes in the likelihood of persons with prescription opioid use disorder (POUD) to engage in illegal behaviors related to drug use remains unknown. We examined changes in prevalence of illegal behaviors between persons with and without POUD over time, and how transactions for obtaining opioids have changed among persons with POUD over time...
April 29, 2019: Addiction
Basak Tas, Keith Humphreys, Rebecca McDonald, John Strang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2019: Addiction
Ryan Marino, Aaron Landau, Michael Lynch, Clifton Callaway, Brian Suffoletto
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Distribution of take-home-naloxone (THN) to emergency department (ED) patients who have survived an opioid overdose could reduce future opioid mortality but is not commonly performed. We examined whether electronic health record (EHR) prompts provided to ED physicians when discharging a patient after an opioid overdose could improve THN distribution. DESIGN: Interrupted time series analysis to compare the percentage of OD patients who received THN during the 11 months before and after implementation of an EHR prompt on June 18, 2017...
April 23, 2019: Addiction
Michael Frost, Genie L Bailey, Nicholas Lintzeris, John Strang, Adrian Dunlop, Edward V Nunes, Jakob Billeskov Jansen, Lars Chemnitz Frey, Bernd Weber, Paul Haber, Sonia Oosman, Sonnie Kim, Fredrik Tiberg
AIMS: To assess long-term safety of subcutaneous buprenorphine (CAM2038) weekly and monthly depots. DESIGN: Phase 3, open-label, observational, multicentre 48-week trial ( NCT02672111). SETTING: Twenty-six outpatient sites (US, UK, Hungary, Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Australia) between December 14, 2015, and April 12, 2017. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and twenty-eight adults with opioid use disorder, 227 received CAM2038 (37 initiated onto CAM2038 and 190 converted from sublingual buprenorphine)...
April 23, 2019: Addiction
Kerry M Green, Amelia M Arria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2019: Addiction
Richard G Frank, Carrie E Fry
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Federal, state, and local US governments have sought interventions to reduce deaths due to opioid overdoses, by increasing the availability of naloxone. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) expanded Medicaid coverage to low-income, childless adults, potentially giving this group financial access to naloxone. The aims of this paper are: 1) to describe the changes in the amount of Medicaid-covered naloxone used between 2009 and 2016 and 2) to quantify the differential change in the amount of dispensed naloxone between states that expanded their Medicaid programs and states that did not...
April 14, 2019: Addiction
Peter Reuter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2019: Addiction
Abhijit Nadkarni, Helen A Weiss, Richard Velleman, Jim McCambridge, David McDaid, A-La Park, Pratima Murthy, Benedict Weobong, Bhargav Bhat, Vikram Patel
AIMS: To examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary cost-effectiveness of a lay counsellor delivered psychological treatment for men with alcohol dependence in primary care. DESIGN: Single-blind individually randomized trial comparing Counselling for Alcohol Problems [CAP] plus Enhanced Usual Care [EUC]) versus EUC only. SETTING: Ten primary health centres in Goa, India. PARTICIPANTS: Men (n=135) scoring >20 on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT)...
April 7, 2019: Addiction
Emmanuel Fortier, Andreea Adelina Artenie, Geng Zang, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Élise Roy, Jason Grebely, Julie Bruneau
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: For most people who inject drugs (PWID), drug injecting follows a dynamic process characterized by transitions in and out of injecting. The objective of this investigation was to examine injecting cessation episodes of one- to three-month duration as predictors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) acquisition. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Montréal, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 372 HCV-uninfected (HCV RNA negative, HCV antibody positive or negative) PWID (mean age 39, 82% male, 45% HCV antibody positive) enrolled between March 2011 and June 2016...
April 7, 2019: Addiction
Daniel L King, Paul H Delfabbro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2019: Addiction
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