Journals Current Opinion in Nephrology ...

Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Lashodya V Dissanayake, Oleg Palygin, Alexander Staruschenko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Salt-sensitive (SS) hypertension and its associated kidney damage have been extensively studied, yet proper therapeutic strategies are lacking. The interest in altering the metabolome to affect renal and cardiovascular disease has been emerging. Here, we discuss the effect and potential mechanism behind the protective effect of lysine, an essential amino acid, on the progression of SS hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: We have recently demonstrated that administering lysine in an SS rodent model can control the progression of hypertension...
April 22, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Barbara Cellini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary hyperoxalurias (PHs) are rare disorders caused by the deficit of liver enzymes involved in glyoxylate metabolism. Their main hallmark is the increased excretion of oxalate leading to the deposition of calcium oxalate stones in the urinary tract. This review describes the molecular aspects of PHs and their relevance for the clinical management of patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, the study of PHs pathogenesis has received great attention...
April 12, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Matteo Bargagli, Sven Trelle, Olivier Bonny, Daniel G Fuster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Kidney stones are the most common condition affecting the kidney, and characterized by a high rate of recurrence. Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics (thiazides) are commonly prescribed to prevent the recurrence of kidney stones. This review offers a comprehensive up-to-date assessment of the evidence supporting the use of thiazides for kidney stone recurrence prevention, highlights potential harms associated with treatment, and identifies areas of knowledge that require further investigation...
April 11, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Anna Faivre, Sophie de Seigneux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review critically examines the role of hypoxia in chronic kidney disease (CKD). While traditionally viewed as detrimental, recent insights suggest a more nuanced understanding of hypoxia's role during renal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging evidence challenges the traditional view that hypoxia is universally harmful in CKD context. We review here the recent evidence about hypoxia and HIF activation in CKD. We also discuss the effect of hypoxia on the renal tissue, and the relative inhibition of different HIF isoforms...
April 11, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Xian Liao, Emilia Scheidereit, Christoph Kuppe
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Kidney fibrosis is a key pathological aspect and outcome of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The advent of multiomic analyses using human kidney tissue, enabled by technological advances, marks a new chapter of discovery in fibrosis research of the kidney. This review highlights the rapid advancements of single-cell and spatial multiomic techniques that offer new avenues for exploring research questions related to human kidney fibrosis development. RECENT FINDINGS: We recently focused on understanding the origin and transition of myofibroblasts in kidney fibrosis using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) [1]...
April 8, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Sharon Huish, Smeeta Sinha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vascular and valvular calcification are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Uncertainty exists regarding therapeutic strategies to attenuate calcification. This review outlines the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to vascular and valvular calcification, considers the mechanisms of action of therapeutic interventions, and reports the latest outcomes from interventional studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Conventional therapies targeted at CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) modulation have yielded conflicting or inconclusive results...
April 5, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Yong-Yao W Cheng, Chih-Jen Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal tubules have robust active transport and mitochondrial metabolism, which are functionally coupled to maintain energy homeostasis. Here, I review the current literature and our recent efforts to examine mitochondrial adaptation to different transport activities in renal tubules. RECENT FINDINGS: The advance of extracellular flux analysis (EFA) allows real-time assessments of mitochondrial respiration, glycolysis, and oxidation of energy substrates...
April 5, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Christoph Zechner, Eugene P Rhee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disruptions of phosphate homeostasis are associated with a multitude of diseases with insufficient treatments. Our knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying metazoan phosphate homeostasis and sensing is limited. Here, we highlight four major advancements in this field during the last 12-18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: First, kidney glycolysis senses filtered phosphate, which results in the release of glycerol 3-phosphate (G-3-P). Circulating G-3-P then stimulates synthesis of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 in bone...
April 3, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Pongpratch Puapatanakul, Jeffrey H Miner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the latest classification, variants in three collagen IV genes, COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5, represent the most prevalent genetic kidney disease in humans, exhibiting diverse, complex, and inconsistent clinical manifestations. This review breaks down the disease spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations of kidney diseases linked to genetic variants in these genes and distinguishes "classic" Alport syndrome (AS) from the less severe nonsyndromic genetically related nephropathies that we suggest be called "Alport kidney diseases"...
March 14, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Orly Tabachnikov, Karl Skorecki, Etty Kruzel-Davila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More than a decade ago, apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk alleles designated G1 and G2, were discovered to be causally associated with markedly increased risk for progressive kidney disease in individuals of recent African ancestry. Gratifying progress has been made during the intervening years, extending to the development and clinical testing of genomically precise small molecule therapy accompanied by emergence of RNA medicine platforms and clinical testing within just over a decade...
February 29, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Jennifer S Lees, June Fabian, Michael G Shlipak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this report, we summarize why the availability of cystatin C is important across a variety of clinical scenarios, the recent literature on when, why and in whom cystatin C testing should be considered, and how nephrologists can take practical steps to incorporate cystatin C testing into their practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Large intra-individual discrepancies between estimated glomerular filtration rate by creatinine (eGFRcr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate by creatinine eGFRcys (known as eGFRdiff) are observed in at least 1 in 4 people...
February 26, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Michael W Holliday, Livia Frost, Sankar D Navaneethan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic kidney disease continues to increase, and several novel therapeutic agents have been shown to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease in those with diabetes. This review summarizes more recent data on the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and kidney outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Posthoc analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials, as well as several retrospective studies, demonstrate benefits of GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy for chronic kidney disease progression in diabetics...
February 26, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Gregory L Hundemer, Ayub Akbari, Manish M Sood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The conventional definition of chronic kidney disease (CKD) primarily relies on the identification of albuminuria or a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). For many years, a straightforward eGFR threshold of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 has been widely adopted as the standard for defining CKD. Nonetheless, this criterion fails to consider the natural aging process of the kidney, and this oversight may affect the accurate diagnosis of kidney disease particularly at the extremes of age...
February 26, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Pourya Pilva, Roman B├╝low, Peter Boor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nephropathology is increasingly incorporating computational methods to enhance research and diagnostic accuracy. The widespread adoption of digital pathology, coupled with advancements in deep learning, will likely transform our pathology practices. Here, we discuss basic concepts of deep learning, recent applications in nephropathology, current challenges in implementation and future perspectives. RECENT FINDINGS: Deep learning models have been developed and tested in various areas of nephropathology, for example, predicting kidney disease progression or diagnosing diseases based on imaging and clinical data...
February 20, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Erik L Lum, Suphamai Bunnapradist, Alexander C Wiseman, Ahmet Gurakar, Antoney Ferrey, Uttam Reddy, Fawaz Al Ammary
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Kidney dysfunction is challenging in liver transplant candidates to determine whether it is reversible or not. This review focuses on the pertinent data on how to best approach liver transplant candidates with kidney dysfunction in the current era after implementing the simultaneous liver kidney (SLK) allocation policy and safety net. RECENT FINDINGS: The implementation of the SLK policy inverted the steady rise in SLK transplants and improved the utilization of high-quality kidneys...
February 13, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Kevin Bodker, Natalie Freidin, Nayan Arora
PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW: Metabolic acidosis is frequently encountered in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), with increasing prevalence as kidney function worsens. Treating electrolyte disturbances is the sine qua non of Nephrologists, and alkali therapy to normalize serum bicarbonate levels and slow progression of kidney disease has been embedded in clinical practice guidelines for decades on the basis of animal models and controversial clinical trials. This review will critically appraise the literature base for this recommendation and determine whether the available evidence supports this common practice, which is a timely endeavor considering the impending demotion of metabolic acidosis treatment from recommendation to practice point in forthcoming KDIGO guidelines...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Mackenzie Alexiuk, Navdeep Tangri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Identifying patients with risk of developing progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) early is an important step in improving kidney care. This review discusses four recently developed models, two which predict risk of new onset disease, and two which predict progression earlier in the course of disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several models predicting CKD incidence and progression have been recently developed and externally validated. A connecting theme across these models is the use of data beyond estimated glomerular filtration rate, allowing for greater accuracy and personalization...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Bryce Barr, Sean Barbour
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the most common primary glomerulonephritis, immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) is an important cause of kidney failure and mortality. Until recently, therapeutic options were limited. Fortunately, there have been numerous recent clinical trials demonstrating efficacy of new therapies in slowing chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression at varying stages of disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The TESTING trial has provided high-quality evidence for slowing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline with a reduced-dose glucocorticoid regimen, while demonstrating an improved safety profile...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Mark Haas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present findings indicating the value of kidney biopsy in assessing prognosis and guiding clinical approach to patients with IgA vasculitis nephritis (IgAVN), including a recent international study examining the value of the Oxford (MEST-C) classification. RECENT FINDINGS: Historically, kidney biopsies with IgAVN are scored using the International Society for Kidney Diseases in Children (ISKDC) classification. However, this classification has limited prognostic value, and most biopsies fall into just two of the six ISKDC grades...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Tristan de Nattes, Jack Beadle, Candice Roufosse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The last year has seen considerable progress in translational research exploring the clinical utility of biopsy-based transcriptomics of kidney transplant biopsies to enhance the diagnosis of rejection. This review will summarize recent findings with a focus on different platforms, potential clinical applications, and barriers to clinical adoption. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature has focussed on using biopsy-based transcriptomics to improve diagnosis of rejection, in particular antibody-mediated rejection...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
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