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Consciousness and Cognition

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769273/social-contents-in-dreams-an-empirical-test-of-the-social-simulation-theory
#1
Jarno Tuominen, Tuula Stenberg, Antti Revonsuo, Katja Valli
Social Simulation Theory (SST) considers the function of dreaming to be the simulation of social events. The Sociality Bias and the Strengthening hypotheses of SST were tested. Social Content Scale (SCS) was developed to quantify social events. Additionally, we attempted to replicate a previous finding (McNamara et al., 2005, Psychological Science) of REM dreams as predisposed to aggressive, and NREM dreams to prosocial interactions. Further, we investigated the frequency and quality of interactions in late vs early REM and NREM dreams...
February 12, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763808/learning-of-novel-semantic-relationships-via-sudden-comprehension-is-associated-with-a-hippocampus-independent-network
#2
Jasmin M Kizilirmak, Björn H Schott, Hannes Thuerich, Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Anni Richter, Kristian Folta-Schoofs, Alan Richardson-Klavehn
Sudden comprehension-or insight-during problem-solving can enhance learning, but the underlying neural processes are largely unknown. We investigated neural correlates of learning from sudden comprehension using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a verbal problem-solving task. Solutions and "solutions" to solvable and unsolvable verbal problems, respectively, were presented to induce sudden comprehension or continued incomprehension. We found activations of the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala, and striatum during sudden comprehension...
February 11, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739068/manipulating-memory-associations-changes-decision-making-preferences-in-a-preconditioning-task
#3
Jianqin Wang, Henry Otgaar, Tom Smeets, Mark L Howe, Chu Zhou
Memories of past experiences can guide our decisions. Thus, if memories are undermined or distorted, decision making should be affected. Nevertheless, little empirical research has been done to examine the role of memory in reinforcement decision-making. We hypothesized that if memories guide choices in a conditioning decision-making task, then manipulating these memories would result in a change of decision preferences to gain reward. We manipulated participants' memories by providing false feedback that their memory associations were wrong before they made decisions that could lead them to win money...
February 7, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738252/the-developmental-difference-of-inattentional-blindness-in-3-to-5-year-old-preschoolers-and-its-relationship-with-fluid-intelligence
#4
Hui Zhang, Chunli He, Congcong Yan, Dingwei Zhao, Dongjie Xie
Preschoolers can focus on the events that they are interested in and shield other information that may still be obvious and important, and this phenomenon is termed as inattentional blindness (IB). The present study investigated the developmental differences in IB and explored its relationship with fluid intelligence in 3-to-5-year-old preschoolers. With the involvement of one hundred and thirty-five preschoolers, it was found that the IB rates decreased with age during 3-to-5-year-olds. Fluid intelligence could significantly predict the incidence of IB in 4-year-olds, which means that those with higher fluid intelligence scores experience less IB...
February 6, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30731396/eight-year-olds-but-not-six-year-olds-perform-just-as-well-as-adults-when-playing-concentration-resolving-the-enigma
#5
Peter Krøjgaard, Trine Sonne, Maëlle Lerebourg, Rikke Lambek, Osman S Kingo
Anecdotal reports suggest that children often outperform adults when playing Concentration. This is surprising as cognitive processes tend to develop progressively throughout childhood. To date, very few studies have examined this apparent paradox, and with mixed results. In the present study, the ability of 6-year-olds (n = 34), 8-year-olds (n = 48), and adults (n = 38) to play Concentration was examined in a controlled computer-based setup involving eye tracking. The main dependent variables were the number of moves and time in seconds to finish the first nine (out of 12) matching pairs...
February 4, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711789/bayes-time-perception-and-relativity-the-central-role-of-hopelessness
#6
Lachlan Kent, George van Doorn, Jakob Hohwy, Britt Klein
Time judgement and time experience are distinct elements of time perception. It is known that time experience tends to be slow, or dilated, when depressed, but there is less certainty or clarity concerning how depression affects time judgement. Here, we use a Bayesian Prediction Error Minimisation (PEM) framework called 'distrusting the present' as an explanatory and predictive model of both aspects of time perception. An interval production task was designed to probe and modulate the relationship between time perception and depression...
January 31, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711788/neurochemical-models-of-near-death-experiences-a-large-scale-study-based-on-the-semantic-similarity-of-written-reports
#7
Charlotte Martial, Héléna Cassol, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Carla Pallavicini, Camila Sanz, Federico Zamberlan, Rocío Martínez Vivot, Fire Erowid, Earth Erowid, Steven Laureys, Bruce Greyson, Enzo Tagliazucchi
The real or perceived proximity to death often results in a non-ordinary state of consciousness characterized by phenomenological features such as the perception of leaving the body boundaries, feelings of peace, bliss and timelessness, life review, the sensation of traveling through a tunnel and an irreversible threshold. Near-death experiences (NDEs) are comparable among individuals of different cultures, suggesting an underlying neurobiological mechanism. Anecdotal accounts of the similarity between NDEs and certain drug-induced altered states of consciousness prompted us to perform a large-scale comparative analysis of these experiences...
January 31, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711787/do-semantic-priming-and-retrieval-of-stimulus-response-associations-depend-on-conscious-perception
#8
Maayan Avneon, Dominique Lamy
What function does conscious perception serve in human behavior? Many studies relied on unconscious priming to demonstrate that unseen stimuli can be extensively processed. However, showing a small unconscious priming effect falls short of showing that the process underlying such priming is independent of conscious perception. Here, we investigated to what extent the retrieval of learned stimulus-response associations and semantic priming depend on conscious perception by using a liminal-prime paradigm that allows comparing conscious and unconscious processing under the same stimulus conditions...
January 31, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685514/hand-function-not-proximity-biases-visuotactile-integration-later-in-object-processing-an-erp-study
#9
Daivik B Vyas, John P Garza, Catherine L Reed
Behavioral studies document a functional hand proximity effect: objects near the palm, but not the back of the hand, affect visual processing. Although visuotactile bimodal neurons integrate visual and haptic inputs, their receptive fields in monkey cortex encompass the whole hand, not just the palm. Using ERPs, we investigated whether hand function influenced the topology of integrated space around the hand. In a visual detection paradigm, target and non-target stimuli appeared equidistantly in front or in back of the hand...
January 24, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685513/translating-experimental-paradigms-into-individual-differences-research-contributions-challenges-and-practical-recommendations
#10
REVIEW
Stephanie C Goodhew, Mark Edwards
Psychological science has long been cleaved by a fundamental divide between researchers who experimentally manipulate variables and those who measure existing individual-differences. Increasingly, however, researchers are appreciating the value of integrating these approaches. Here, we used visual attention research as a case-in-point for how this gap can be bridged. Traditionally, researchers have predominately adopted experimental approaches to investigating visual attention. Increasingly, however, researchers are integrating individual-differences approaches with experimental approaches to answer novel and innovative research questions...
January 24, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685512/ignorance-is-strength-may-human-mind-s-unique-capabilities-stem-from-its-limitations
#11
REVIEW
Gregory Gurevich
Radical views on heuristics and biases, and more generally, non-optimal patterns of human judgement, construe them either as an unwelcome mental handicap or a great evolution-based advantage. A more moderate position recognizes both sides, depending on the context and the situation at hand. This paper suggests that at least in some cases, apparently unsound human judgment may be viewed as a hallmark of true intelligence, enabling its major insights while also making it so hard to analyze and fully comprehend...
January 24, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30665187/unconscious-arithmetic-assessing-the-robustness-of-the-results-reported-by-karpinski-briggs-and-yale-2018
#12
Pieter Moors, Guido Hesselmann
In 2012, a study by Sklar et al. reported that participants could solve invisible subtractions. This notion of unconscious arithmetic has been influential because it challenges current theories of consciousness. In 2016, Karpinski et al. published a direct replication reporting evidence for unconscious addition rather than subtraction. About a year later, the study was retracted due to a computation error in the analysis pipeline. After this error was corrected, no evidence for unconscious addition nor subtraction was obtained...
January 18, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30665186/biased-belief-in-the-bayesian-brain-a-deeper-look-at-the-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Ben M Tappin, Stephen Gadsby
A recent critique of hierarchical Bayesian models of delusion argues that, contrary to a key assumption of these models, belief formation in the healthy (i.e., neurotypical) mind is manifestly non-Bayesian. Here we provide a deeper examination of the empirical evidence underlying this critique. We argue that this evidence does not convincingly refute the assumption that belief formation in the neurotypical mind approximates Bayesian inference. Our argument rests on two key points. First, evidence that purports to reveal the most damning violation of Bayesian updating in human belief formation is counterweighted by substantial evidence that indicates such violations are the rare exception-not a common occurrence...
January 18, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660927/eye-gaze-as-a-means-of-giving-and-seeking-information-during-musical-interaction
#14
Laura Bishop, Carlos Cancino-Chacón, Werner Goebl
During skilled music ensemble performance, a multi-layered network of interaction processes allows musicians to negotiate common interpretations of ambiguously-notated music in real-time. This study investigated the conditions that encourage visual interaction during duo performance. Duos recorded performances of a new piece before and after a period of rehearsal. Mobile eye tracking and motion capture were used in combination to map uni- and bidirectional eye gaze patterns. Musicians watched each other more during temporally-unstable passages than during regularly-timed passages...
January 17, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30658238/training-novice-practitioners-to-reliably-report-their-meditation-experience-using-shared-phenomenological-dimensions
#15
Oussama Abdoun, Jelle Zorn, Stefano Poletti, Enrico Fucci, Antoine Lutz
Empirical descriptions of the phenomenology of meditation states rely on practitioners' ability to provide accurate information on their experience. We present a meditation training protocol that was designed to equip naive participants with a theoretical background and experiential knowledge that would enable them to share their experience. Subsequently, novices carried on with daily practice during several weeks before participating in experiments. Using a neurophenomenological experiment designed to explore two different meditation states (focused attention and open monitoring), we found that self-reported phenomenological ratings (i) were sensitive to meditation states, (ii) reflected meditation dose and fatigue effects, and (iii) correlated with behavioral measures (variability of response time)...
January 15, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638700/reaction-time-indices-of-automatic-imitation-measure-imitative-response-tendencies
#16
LETTER
Emiel Cracco, Marcel Brass
In his review, Ramsey (2018) argues that it is currently unclear what reaction time indices of automatic imitation measure due to lacking research on their validity and domain-specificity. In our commentary, we argue that this conclusion is based on two misconceptions, namely that automatic imitation was designed as a laboratory measure of motor mimicry and that psychometric approaches to validity can readily be applied to experimental settings. We then show that reaction time indices of automatic imitation measure covert imitative response tendencies...
January 9, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30634127/unity-and-diversity-of-executive-functions-in-creativity
#17
Darya L Zabelina, Naomi P Friedman, Jessica Andrews-Hanna
Increasing evidence suggests that executive functions (EFs) - a set of general-purpose control processes that regulate thoughts and behaviors - are relevant for creativity. However, EF is not a unitary process, and it remains unclear which specific EFs are involved. The present study examined the association between the three EFs, both uniquely (EF-Specific) and together (Common EF), and three measures of creativity. Participants (N = 47) completed a divergent thinking test, and self-reported their real-life creative accomplishments...
January 8, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30605861/the-importance-of-identifying-underlying-process-abnormalities-in-alexithymia-implications-of-the-three-process-model-and-a-single-case-study-illustration
#18
Ryan Smith, Alfred W Kaszniak, Joanna Katsanis, Richard D Lane, Lisbeth Nielsen
We present an in-depth case study of a rare individual (whom we will refer to as "Jane") who reported an inability to experience emotion. Jane completed a range of assessments measuring alexithymia, emotional awareness, and emotion recognition ability. She, along with 22 control participants, also underwent skin conductance (SC) measurement and facial electromyography (EMG) during exposure to affective images, and self reported the valence/arousal of their responses to those images. Jane scored high on alexithymia and low on emotional awareness; yet she performed well on emotion recognition measures and showed a typical pattern of valence ratings...
December 31, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30594808/the-role-of-response-readiness-in-subliminal-visuomotor-processes
#19
Yongchun Wang, Ya Li, Dawei Liu, Meng Zou, Baoqiang Zhang, Yonghui Wang
The present study aims to examine the impact of response readiness on visuomotor processes triggered by subliminal stimuli using a mixed paradigm involving the masked prime paradigm and a foreperiod paradigm. Experiment 1 ensured that response readiness was successfully manipulated in the mixed paradigm. Importantly, Experiment 2 found that the negative compatibility effect (NCE; a behavioral indicator of subliminal visuomotor processes) disappeared and that response time lost its power to modulate the compatibility effect (CE) with reduced response readiness (due to temporal uncertainty)...
December 27, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30593998/visual-imagery-the-past-and-future-as-seen-by-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Mohamad El Haj, Ahmed A Moustafa, Karim Gallouj, Frédérique Robin
We investigated visual imagery for past and future thinking in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We invited AD patients and controls to retrieve past events and to imagine future events. Participants also provided a "Field" response if they see the event through their own eyes, or an "Observer" response if they see themselves in the scene as a spectator would. Less "Field" and more "Observer" responses were observed in AD participants than in controls during past and future thinking, suggesting a diminished ability to mentally visualize past and future events in AD...
December 26, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
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