Yunmeng Bai, Zhuhe Liu, Tinglin Qian, Yu Peng, Huan Ma, Hong Hu, Guangqing Cheng, Haixia Wen, Lulin Xie, Dong Zheng, Qingshan Geng, Jigang Wang, Honghao Wang
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a neuropsychiatric disease with variable clinical manifestations caused by NMDAR autoantibody. The underlying molecular underpinnings of this disease are rarely characterized on a genomic scale. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis mainly affects the hippocampus, however, its effect on gene expression in hippocampal neurons is unclear at present. Here, we construct the active and passive immunization mouse models of anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and use single-nucleus RNA sequencing to investigate the diverse expression profile of neuronal populations isolated from different hippocampal regions...
March 21, 2023: Brain Pathology
Wenlong Xu, Lianghong Teng, Xiaohai Liu, Mingchu Li, Ge Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2023: Brain Pathology
Jantima Tanboon, Michio Inoue, Shinya Hirakawa, Hisateru Tachimori, Shinichiro Hayashi, Satoru Noguchi, Naoko Okiyama, Manabu Fujimoto, Shigeaki Suzuki, Ichizo Nishino
Identification of antisynthetase syndrome (ASS) could be challenging due to inaccessibility and technical difficulty of the serology test for the less common non-Jo-1 antibodies. This study aimed to describe ASS antibody-specific myopathology and evaluate the diagnostic utility of myofiber HLA-DR expression. We reviewed 212 ASS muscle biopsies and compared myopathologic features among subtypes. Additionally, we compared their HLA-DR staining pattern with 602 non-ASS myositis and 140 genetically confirmed myopathies known to have an inflammatory component...
March 7, 2023: Brain Pathology
Aline P Becker, Diana S Osorio, Erica H Bell, Pierre Giglio, Jessica L Fleming, Catherine E Cottrell, Elaine R Mardis, Katherine E Miller, Kathleen M Schieffer, Benjamin J Kelly, Mina S Makary, Wayne Slone, Don Benson, Jeffrey Leonard, Samir B Kahwash, Daniel R Boué, Arnab Chakravarti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2023: Brain Pathology
Zhang Ziqing, Liu Yunpeng, Liu Yiqi, Wang Yang
Ischemic stroke (IS) is a major cause of disability and death in adults, and the immune response plays an indispensable role in its pathological process. After the onset of IS, an inflammatory storm, with the infiltration and mobilization of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), is triggered in the brain. Microglia are rapidly activated in situ, followed by waves of circulating monocytes into the ischemic area. Activated microglia and monocytes/macrophages are mainly distributed in the peri-infarct area. These cells have similar morphology and functions, such as secreting cytokines and phagocytosis...
February 8, 2023: Brain Pathology
Rui-Chao Chai, Hao Yan, Song-Yuan An, Bo Pang, Hui-Yuan Chen, Quan-Hua Mu, Ke-Nan Zhang, Yao-Wu Zhang, Yu-Qing Liu, Xing Liu, Zheng Zhao, Tao Jiang, Yong-Zhi Wang, Wen-Qing Jia
H3 K27-altered diffuse midline glioma is a highly lethal pediatric-type tumor without efficacious treatments. Recent findings have highlighted the heterogeneity among diffuse midline gliomas with different locations and ages. Compared to tumors located in the brain stem and thalamus, the molecular and clinicopathological features of H3 K27-altered spinal cord glioma are still largely elusive, thus hindering the accurate management of patients. Here we aimed to characterize the clinicopathological and molecular features of H3 K27M-mutant spinal cord glioma in 77 consecutive cases...
February 7, 2023: Brain Pathology
Rofyda Essam Elhalaby, Christina A Kavran, Rachael Ann Vaubel, Maria Adelita Vizcaino Villalobos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2023: Brain Pathology
Liuchao Zhang, Bin Gu, Yufei Tian, Minhong Pan, Jing Ji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2023: Brain Pathology
Vanessa Wiggermann, Verena Endmayr, Enedino Hernández-Torres, Romana Höftberger, Gregor Kasprian, Simon Hametner, Alexander Rauscher
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of focal or diffuse myelin damage or remyelination may provide important insights into disease progression and potential treatment efficacy in multiple sclerosis (MS). We performed post-mortem MRI and histopathological myelin measurements in seven progressive MS cases to evaluate the ability of three myelin-sensitive MRI scans to distinguish different stages of MS pathology, particularly chronic demyelinated and remyelinated lesions. At 3 Tesla, we acquired two different myelin water imaging (MWI) scans and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) data...
January 31, 2023: Brain Pathology
Tao Zheng, Wenxiong Tang, Yi Shan, Runcai Guo, Yang Gao, Chaohui Tian, Lei Liu, Lili Sun, Wei Liu, Zhi Zhou, Yi Jin, Shaojie Duan, Bingyu Han, Yangyi Fang, Xianjin Zhu, Zunjing Liu
The mechanisms underlying ischemic infarction in patients with vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) remain unclear. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the imaging characteristics of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) in patients with VBD to explore the possible mechanisms of ischemic stroke (IS) in patients with VBD. Patients with VBD were recruited from the HR-MRI database between July 2017 and June 2021. HR-MRI was used to evaluate the diameter, bifurcation height, laterality, arterial dissection, and atherosclerotic plaques of the basilar artery (BA)...
January 31, 2023: Brain Pathology
Leiming Wang, Yukui Wei, Lianghong Teng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2023: Brain Pathology
Margarita Zaytseva, Ludmila Papusha, Agnesa Panferova, Andge Valiakhmetova, Anastasia Shekhtman, Sergey Obydennyi, Igor Kireev, Galina Novichkova, Alexander Druy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2023: Brain Pathology
Mark Slevin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2023: Brain Pathology
Hyun Jin Jung, Seungeun Yeo, Jaemyung Jang, Samuel Pleasure, Youngshik Choe
The developmental functions of primary cilia and the downstream signaling pathways have been widely studied; however, the roles of primary cilia in the developing neurovascular system are not clearly understood. In this study, we found that ablation of genes encoding ciliary transport proteins such as intraflagellar transport homolog 88 (Ift88) and kinesin family member 3a (Kif3a) in cortical radial progenitors led to periventricular heterotopia during late mouse embryogenesis. Conditional mutation of primary cilia unexpectedly caused breakdown of both the neuroepithelial lining and the blood-choroid plexus barrier...
January 9, 2023: Brain Pathology
Yvonne Reiss, Sebastian Bauer, Bastian David, Kavi Devraj, Elif Fidan, Elke Hattingen, Stefan Liebner, Nico Melzer, Sven G Meuth, Felix Rosenow, Theodor Rüber, Laurent M Willems, Karl H Plate
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physiological barrier maintaining a specialized brain micromilieu that is necessary for proper neuronal function. Endothelial tight junctions and specific transcellular/efflux transport systems provide a protective barrier against toxins, pathogens, and immune cells. The barrier function is critically supported by other cell types of the neurovascular unit, including pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, and interneurons. The dysfunctionality of the BBB is a hallmark of neurological diseases, such as ischemia, brain tumors, neurodegenerative diseases, infections, and autoimmune neuroinflammatory disorders...
January 4, 2023: Brain Pathology
Sina Neyazi, Lea Altendorf, Dora Schwetje, Carolin Göbel, Melanie Schoof, Dörthe Holdhof, Ulrich Schüller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2022: Brain Pathology
Regina T Vontell, Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari, Xiaoyan Sun, Sakir Humayun Gultekin, Helen M Bramlett, W Dalton Dietrich, Robert W Keane
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that destroys memory and cognitive function. Inflammasome activation has been suggested to play a critical role in the neuroinflammatory response in AD progression, but the cell-type expression of inflammasome proteins in the brain has not been fully characterized. In this study, we used samples from the hippocampus formation, the subiculum, and the entorhinal cortex brain from 17 donors with low-level AD pathology and 17 intermediate AD donors to assess the expression of inflammasome proteins...
December 29, 2022: Brain Pathology
Ying Chen, Yan Dong, Zai-Li Zhang, Jie Han, Feng-Shou Chen, Xiang-Yi Tong, Hong Ma
Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury (SCII) is a severe complication driven by apoptosis and neuroinflammation. An increase in the expression of c-Fos, a member of the AP-1 family, is known as a neuronal activation marker in SCII. The AP-1 family is composed of Jun, Fos, and is associated with the regulation of cytokines expression and apoptosis. Fra-1 is a member of the Fos family, however, the contribution of Fra-1 to SCII is still unclear. In our study, Fra-1 was highly upregulated especially in neurons and microglia and promoted apoptosis by changing the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 after SCII...
January 2023: Brain Pathology
Olga V Bocharova, Aidan Fisher, Narayan P Pandit, Kara Molesworth, Olga Mychko, Alison J Scott, Natallia Makarava, Rodney Ritzel, Ilia V Baskakov
The possibility that the etiology of late onset Alzheimer's disease is linked to viral infections of the CNS has been actively debated in recent years. According to the antiviral protection hypothesis, viral pathogens trigger aggregation of Aβ peptides that are produced as a defense mechanism in response to infection to entrap and neutralize pathogens. To test the causative relationship between viral infection and Aβ aggregation, the current study examined whether Aβ plaques protect the mouse brain against Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) infection introduced via a physiological route and whether HSV-1 infection triggers formation of Aβ plaques in a mouse model of late-onset AD that does not develop Aβ pathology spontaneously...
January 2023: Brain Pathology
Laura Rossini, Dalia De Santis, Erica Cecchini, Cinzia Cagnoli, Emanuela Maderna, Daniele Cartelli, Bryan Paul Morgan, Megan Torvell, Roberto Spreafico, Roberta di Giacomo, Laura Tassi, Marco de Curtis, Rita Garbelli
Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic sites for most excitatory glutamatergic synapses. We previously demonstrated a severe spine loss and synaptic reorganization in human neocortices presenting Type II focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), a developmental malformation and frequent cause of drug-resistant focal epilepsy. We extend the findings, investigating the potential role of complement components C1q and C3 in synaptic pruning imbalance. Data from Type II FCD were compared with those obtained in focal epilepsies with different etiologies...
December 23, 2022: Brain Pathology
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