Yansong Zhu, Quyen Tran, Yiran Wang, Ramsey D Badawi, Simon R Cherry, Jinyi Qi, Shiva Abbaszadeh, Guobao Wang
UNLABELLED: Dynamic PET allows quantification of physiological parameters through tracer kinetic modeling. For dynamic imaging of brain or head and neck cancer on conventional PET scanners with a short axial field of view (FOV), the image-derived input function (ID-IF) from intracranial blood vessels such as the carotid artery (CA) suffers from severe partial volume effects. Alternatively, optimization-derived input function (OD-IF) by the simultaneous estimation (SIME) method does not rely on an ID-IF but derives the input function directly from the data...
April 19, 2024: NeuroImage
Sijin Li, Xueying Cao, Yiwei Li, Yuyao Tang, Si Cheng, Dandan Zhang
Social pain, a multifaceted emotional response triggered by interpersonal rejection or criticism, profoundly impacts mental well-being and social interactions. While prior research has implicated the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) in mitigating social pain, the precise neural mechanisms and downstream effects on subsequent social attitudes remain elusive. This study employed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) integrated with fMRI recordings during a social pain task to elucidate these aspects...
April 18, 2024: NeuroImage
Adam W L Xia, Minxia Jin, Penny P I Qin, Rebecca L D Kan, Bella B B Zhang, Cristian G Giron, Tim T Z Lin, Ami S M Li, Georg S Kranz
This systematic review investigated how prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) immediately influences neuronal excitability based on oxygenation changes measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). A thorough understanding of TMS-induced excitability changes may enable clinicians to proactively adjust TMS parameters and optimize treatment plans. Five databases were searched for human studies evaluating brain excitability using concurrent TMS/fMRI or TMS/fNIRS...
April 16, 2024: NeuroImage
Zening Fu, Ishaan Batta, Lei Wu, Anees Abrol, Oktay Agcaoglu, Mustafa S Salman, Yuhui Du, Armin Iraji, Sarah Shultz, Jing Sui, Vince D Calhoun
A primary challenge to the data-driven analysis is the balance between poor generalizability of population-based research and characterizing more subject-, study- and population-specific variability. We previously introduced a fully automated spatially constrained independent component analysis (ICA) framework called NeuroMark and its functional MRI (fMRI) template. NeuroMark has been successfully applied in numerous studies, identifying brain markers reproducible across datasets and disorders. The first NeuroMark template was constructed based on young adult cohorts...
April 16, 2024: NeuroImage
Jinhan Park, Rachel L M Ho, Wei-En Wang, Vinh Q Nguyen, Stephen A Coombes
With increasing age, peak alpha frequency (PAF) is slowed, and alpha power is reduced during resting-states with eyes closed. These age-related changes are evident across the whole scalp but remained unclear at the source level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age impacts the power and frequency of the dominant alpha rhythm equally across source generators or whether the impact of age varies across sources. A total of 28 young adults and 26 elderly adults were recruited. High-density EEG was recorded for 10 mins with eyes closed...
April 16, 2024: NeuroImage
Matteo Martini, Natalia Arias
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies often aim to measure changes in the brain's hemodynamic response in relation to a specific intervention. We recently showed how a fNIRS device could induce photobiomodulatory effects on cognition by using its near-infrared (NIR) light. However, so far, fNIRS research has overlooked the stimulatory potential intrinsic to this technique. The work by Kuwamizu et al. (2023) on pupil dynamics during exercise is no exception. Here, we suggest a fix to their experimental design, which could be taken into account in other fNIRS studies, to guarantee an adequate level of control for possible unconsidered photobiomodulatory effects...
April 15, 2024: NeuroImage
Rene Weber, Frederic R Hopp, Allison Eden, Jacob T Fisher, Hye-Eun Lee
Punishment of moral norm violators is instrumental for human cooperation. Yet, social and affective neuroscience research has primarily focused on second- and third-party norm enforcement, neglecting the neural architecture underlying observed (vicarious) punishment of moral wrongdoers. We used naturalistic television drama as a sampling space for observing outcomes of morally-relevant behaviors to assess how individuals cognitively process dynamically evolving moral actions and their consequences. Drawing on Affective Disposition Theory, we derived hypotheses linking character morality with viewers' neural processing of characters' rewards and punishments...
April 15, 2024: NeuroImage
Andreu Arinyo-I-Prats, Víctor J López-Madrona, Milan Paluš
Applications of causal techniques to neural time series have increased extensively over last decades, including a wide and diverse family of methods focusing on electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Besides connectivity inferred in defined frequency bands, there is a growing interest in the analysis of cross-frequency interactions, in particular phase and amplitude coupling and directionality. Some studies show contradicting results of coupling directionality from high frequency to low frequency signal components, in spite of generally considered modulation of a high-frequency amplitude by a low-frequency phase...
April 15, 2024: NeuroImage
Zhiyong Xiao, Yuhong Zhang, Zhaohong Deng, Fei Liu
The morphological analysis and volume measurement of the hippocampus are crucial to the study of many brain diseases. Therefore, an accurate hippocampal segmentation method is beneficial for the development of clinical research in brain diseases. U-Net and its variants have become prevalent in hippocampus segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) due to their effectiveness, and the architecture based on Transformer has also received some attention. However, some existing methods focus too much on the shape and volume of the hippocampus rather than its spatial information, and the extracted information is independent of each other, ignoring the correlation between local and global features...
April 14, 2024: NeuroImage
Yiqi Chen, Hao He, Yiyang Ding, Wuhai Tao, Qing Guan, Frank Krueger
Trust propensity (TP) relies more on social than economic rationality to transform the perceived probability of betrayal into positive reciprocity expectations in older adults with normal cognition. While deficits in social rationality have been observed in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), there is limited research on TP and its associated resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) mechanisms in this population. To measure TP and related psychological functions (affect, motivation, executive cognition, and social cognition), MCI (n=42) and normal healthy control (NHC, n=115) groups completed a one-shot trust game and additional assessments of related psychological functions...
April 12, 2024: NeuroImage
Ishani Hari, Oluwatobi F Adeyemi, Penny Gowland, Richard Bowtell, Olivier Mougin, Patrick Vesey, Jagrit Shah, Elizabeta B Mukaetova-Ladinska, Akram A Hosseini
INTRODUCTION: In Alzheimer's disease (AD), early diagnosis facilitates treatment options and leads to beneficial outcomes for patients, their carers and the healthcare system. The neuropsychological battery of the Uniform Data Set (UDSNB3.0) assesses cognition in ageing and dementia, by measuring scores across different cognitive domains such as attention, memory, processing speed, executive function and language. However, its neuroanatomical correlates have not been investigated using 7 Tesla MRI (7T MRI)...
April 11, 2024: NeuroImage
Haixu Ma, Zhuoyu Shi, Minjeong Kim, Bin Liu, Patrick J Smith, Yufeng Liu, Guorong Wu
Current diagnostic systems for Alzheimer's disease (AD) rely upon clinical signs and symptoms, despite the fact that the multiplicity of clinical symptoms renders various neuropsychological assessments inadequate to reflect the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Since putative neuroimaging biomarkers play a crucial role in understanding the etiology of AD, we sought to stratify the diverse relationships between AD biomarkers and cognitive decline in the aging population and uncover risk factors contributing to the diversities in AD...
April 11, 2024: NeuroImage
Shirui Cheng, Fang Zeng, Jun Zhou, Xiaohui Dong, Weihua Yang, Tao Yin, Kama Huang, Fanrong Liang, Zhengjie Li
This study aimed to investigate altered static and dynamic functional network connectivity (FNC) and its correlation with clinical symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). One hundred and fifty-nine patients with KOA and 73 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and clinical evaluations. Group independent component analysis (GICA) was applied, and seven resting-state networks were identified. Patients with KOA had decreased static FNC within the default mode network (DM), visual network (VS), and cerebellar network (CB) and increased static FNC between the subcortical network (SC) and VS (p < 0...
April 10, 2024: NeuroImage
Haley R Pulliam, Seth D Springer, Danielle L Rice, Grace C Ende, Hallie J Johnson, Madelyn P Willett, Tony W Wilson, Brittany K Taylor
Radon is a naturally occurring gas that contributes significantly to radiation in the environment and is the second leading cause of lung cancer globally. Previous studies have shown that other environmental toxins have deleterious effects on brain development, though radon has not been studied as thoroughly in this context. This study examined the impact of home radon exposure on the neural oscillatory activity serving attention reorientation in youths. Fifty-six participants (ages 6-14 years) completed a classic Posner cuing task during magnetoencephalography (MEG), and home radon levels were measured for each participant...
April 9, 2024: NeuroImage
Liangsuo Ma, Sarah E Braun, Joel L Steinberg, James M Bjork, Caitlin E Martin, Larry D Keen, F Gerard Moeller
Despite its widespread use, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has been criticized for low test-retest reliability. To improve reliability, researchers have recommended using extended scanning durations, increased sample size, and advanced brain connectivity techniques. However, longer scanning runs and larger sample sizes may come with practical challenges and burdens, especially in rare populations. Here we tested if an advanced brain connectivity technique, dynamic causal modeling (DCM), can improve reliability of fMRI effective connectivity (EC) metrics to acceptable levels without extremely long run durations or extremely large samples...
April 9, 2024: NeuroImage
Alan J Finkelstein, Congyu Liao, Xiaozhi Cao, Merry Mani, Giovanni Schifitto, Jianhui Zhong
PURPOSE: Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) is a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method used to quantify perfusion properties of tissue non-invasively without contrast. However, clinical applications are limited by unreliable parameter estimates, particularly for the perfusion fraction (f) and pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*). This study aims to develop a high-fidelity reconstruction for reliable estimation of IVIM parameters. The proposed method is versatile and amenable to various acquisition schemes and fitting methods...
April 7, 2024: NeuroImage
Tommaso Ciceri, Luca Casartelli, Florian Montano, Stefania Conte, Letizia Squarcina, Alessandra Bertoldo, Nivedita Agarwal, Paolo Brambilla, Denis Peruzzo
Fetal brain development is a complex process involving different stages of growth and organization which are crucial for the development of brain circuits and neural connections. Fetal atlases and labeled datasets are promising tools to investigate prenatal brain development. They support the identification of atypical brain patterns, providing insights into potential early signs of clinical conditions. In a nutshell, prenatal brain imaging and post-processing via modern tools are a cutting-edge field that will significantly contribute to the advancement of our understanding of fetal development...
April 6, 2024: NeuroImage
Angelika Wolman, Yasir Çatal, Philipp Klar, Jason Steffener, Georg Northoff
Working memory (WM) describes the dynamic process of maintenance and manipulation of information over a certain time delay. Neuronally, WM recruits a distributed network of cortical regions like the visual and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as well as the subcortical hippocampus. How the input dynamics and subsequent neural dynamics impact WM remains unclear though. To answer this question, we combined the analysis of behavioral WM capacity with measuring neural dynamics through task-related power spectrum changes, e...
April 3, 2024: NeuroImage
Natasha Y S Kawata, Shota Nishitani, Akiko Yao, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Yoshifumi Mizuno, Sakae Mizushima, Kai Makita, Shoko Hamamura, Daisuke N Saito, Hidehiko Okazawa, Takashi X Fujisawa, Akemi Tomoda
Child maltreatment can adversely affect brain development, leading to vulnerabilities in brain structure and function and various psychiatric disorders. Among the various types of child maltreatment, neglect has the highest incidence rate (76.0%); however, data on its sole adverse influence on the brain remain limited. This case-control brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study identified the changes in gray matter structure and function that distinguish neglected children with no other type of maltreatment (Neglect group, n = 23) from typically developing children (TD group, n = 140), and investigated the association between these structural and functional differences and specific psychosocial phenotypes observed in neglected children...
April 2, 2024: NeuroImage
Kaizhong Zheng, Shujian Yu, Liangjun Chen, Lujuan Dang, Badong Chen
Converging evidence increasingly suggests that psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are not unitary diseases, but rather heterogeneous syndromes that involve diverse, co-occurring symptoms and divergent responses to treatment. This clinical heterogeneity has hindered the progress of precision diagnosis and treatment effectiveness in psychiatric disorders. In this study, we propose BPI-GNN, a new interpretable graph neural network (GNN) framework for analyzing functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI), by leveraging the famed prototype learning...
April 1, 2024: NeuroImage
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