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Amanda C Marshall, Antje Gentsch, Anna-Lucia Blum, Christina Bröring, Simone Schütz-Bosbach
Interoceptive signalling has been shown to contribute to action regulation and action experience. Here, we assess whether motor behaviour can be influenced by anticipated homeostatic feeling states induced through different predictable contexts. Participants performed a reward incentive paradigm in which accurate responses increased (gain) or avoided the depletion (averted loss) of a credit score. Across two types of blocks, we varied the predictability of the outcome state. In predictable blocks, a cue signalled a gain, loss or control trial (motor response did not affect the credit score)...
February 16, 2019: NeuroImage
Matthias Walter, Lorenz Leitner, Lars Michels, Martina D Liechti, Patrick Freund, Thomas M Kessler, Spyros Kollias, Ulrich Mehnert
Previous functional neuroimaging studies provided evidence for a specific supraspinal network involved in lower urinary tract (LUT) control. However, data on the reliability of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during LUT task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) across separate measurements are lacking. Proof of the latter is crucial to evaluate whether fMRI can be used to assess supraspinal responses to LUT treatments. Therefore, we prospectively assessed task-specific supraspinal responses from 20 healthy participants undergoing two fMRI measurements (test-retest) within 5-8 weeks...
February 15, 2019: NeuroImage
Francesco Marini, Katherine A Breeding, Jacqueline C Snow
Ultimately, we aim to generalize and translate scientific knowledge to the real world, yet current understanding of human visual perception is based predominantly on studies of two-dimensional (2-D) images. Recent cognitive-behavioral evidence shows that real objects are processed differently to images, although the neural processes that underlie these differences are unknown. Because real objects (unlike images) afford actions, they may trigger stronger or more prolonged activation in neural populations for visuo-motor action planning...
February 15, 2019: NeuroImage
Yasuki Noguchi, Yi Xia, Ryusuke Kakigi
Neural oscillatory signals has been associated with many high-level functions (e.g. attention and working memory), because they reflect correlated behaviors of neural population that would facilitate the information transfer in the brain. On the other hand, a decreased power of oscillation (event-related desynchronization, ERD) has been associated with an irregular state in which many neurons behave in an uncorrelated manner. In contrast to this view, here we show that the human ERD is linked to the increased regularity of oscillatory signals...
February 14, 2019: NeuroImage
Keith Smith, Mark E Bastin, Simon R Cox, Maria C Valdés Hernández, Stewart Wiseman, Javier Escudero, Catherine Sudlow
The structural network of the human brain has a rich topology which many have sought to characterise using standard network science measures and concepts. However, this characterisation remains incomplete and the non-obvious features of this topology have largely confounded attempts towards comprehensive constructive modelling. This calls for new perspectives. Hierarchical complexity is an emerging paradigm of complex network topology based on the observation that complex systems are composed of hierarchies within which the roles of hierarchically equivalent nodes display highly variable connectivity patterns...
February 14, 2019: NeuroImage
Gilbert Hangel, Saurabh Jain, Elisabeth Springer, Eva Hečková, Bernhard Strasser, Michal Považan, Stephan Gruber, Georg Widhalm, Barbara Kiesel, Julia Furtner, Matthias Preusser, Thomas Roetzer, Siegfried Trattnig, Diana M Sima, Dirk Smeets, Wolfgang Bogner
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the feasibility of 7 T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), combined with patch-based super-resolution (PBSR) reconstruction, for high-resolution multi-metabolite mapping of gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with WHO grade II, III and IV gliomas (6/4, male/female; 45 ± 9 years old) were prospectively measured between 2014 and 2018 on a 7 T whole-body MR imager after routine 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)...
February 14, 2019: NeuroImage
Chayenne Van Meel, Annelies Baeck, Céline R Gillebert, Johan Wagemans, Hans P Op de Beeck
Several computational models explain how symmetry might be detected and represented in the human brain. However, while there is an abundance of psychophysical studies on symmetry detection and several neural studies showing where and when symmetry is detected in the brain, important questions remain about how this detection happens and how symmetric patterns are represented. We studied the representation of (vertical) symmetry in regions of the ventral visual stream, using multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA) and functional connectivity analyses...
February 13, 2019: NeuroImage
Caterina Magri, Sara Fabbri, Alfonso Caramazza, Angelika Lingnau
A network of frontal and parietal regions is known to be recruited during the planning and execution of arm and eye movements. While movements of the two effectors are typically coupled with each other, it remains unresolved how information is shared between them. Here we aimed to identify regions containing neuronal populations that show directional tuning for both arm and eye movements. In two separate fMRI experiments, the same participants were scanned while performing a center-out arm or eye movement task...
February 12, 2019: NeuroImage
Tobias W Meissner, Marisa Nordt, Sarah Weigelt
Successful navigation of our surroundings is of high environmental relevance and involves processing of the visual scenery. Scene-processing undergoes a major behavioral improvement during childhood. However, possible neural changes that underlie this cognitive development in scene perception are understudied in comparison to other stimulus categories. We used a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scene localizer and behavioral recognition and memory tasks in 7-8-year-olds, 11-12-year-olds, and adults to test whether scene-selective areas-the parahippocampal place area (PPA), the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and the occipital place area (OPA)-show a change in volume and selectivity with age, and whether this change is correlated with behavioral perception and memory performance...
February 11, 2019: NeuroImage
Anzar Abbas, Michaël Belloy, Amrit Kashyap, Jacob Billings, Maysam Nezafati, Eric Schumacher, Shella Keilholz
Functional connectivity is widely used to study the coordination of activity between brain regions over time. Functional connectivity in the default mode and task positive networks is particularly important for normal brain function. However, the processes that give rise to functional connectivity in the brain are not fully understood. It has been postulated that low-frequency neural activity plays a key role in establishing the functional architecture of the brain. Quasi-periodic patterns (QPPs) are a reliably observable form of low-frequency neural activity that involve the default mode and task positive networks...
February 9, 2019: NeuroImage
Heather Shappell, Brian S Caffo, James J Pekar, Martin A Lindquist
The study of functional brain networks has grown rapidly over the past decade. While most functional connectivity (FC) analyses estimate one static network structure for the entire length of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series, recently there has been increased interest in studying time-varying changes in FC. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have proven to be a useful modeling approach for discovering repeating graphs of interacting brain regions (brain states). However, a limitation lies in HMMs assuming that the sojourn time, the number of consecutive time points in a state, is geometrically distributed...
February 9, 2019: NeuroImage
Enfeng Wang, Yin Wu, Jerry S Cheung, Takahiro Igarashi, Limin Wu, Xiaoan Zhang, Phillip Zhe Sun
pH-weighted amide proton transfer (APT) MRI is sensitive to tissue pH change during acute ischemia, complementing conventional perfusion and diffusion stroke imaging. However, the currently used pH-weighted magnetization transfer (MT) ratio asymmetry (MTRasym ) analysis is of limited pH specificity. To overcome this, MT and relaxation normalized APT (MRAPT) analysis has been developed that to homogenizes the background signal, thus providing highly pH conspicuous measurement. Our study aimed to calibrate MRAPT MRI toward absolute tissue pH mapping and determine regional pH changes during acute stroke...
February 9, 2019: NeuroImage
Antonietta Gabriella Liuzzi, Patrick Dupont, Ronald Peeters, Rose Bruffaerts, Simon De Deyne, Gert Storms, Rik Vandenberghe
Knowledge of visual and nonvisual attributes of concrete entities is distributed over neocortical uni- and polymodal association cortex. Here we investigated the role of left perirhinal cortex in explicit knowledge retrieval from written words. We examined whether it extended across visual and nonvisual properties, animate and inanimate entities, how this differed from picture input and how specific it was for perirhinal cortex compared to surrounding structures. The semantic similarity between stimuli was determined on the basis of a word association-based model...
February 9, 2019: NeuroImage
Fabio Ferrarelli, Rachel Kaskie, Srinivas Laxminarayan, Sridhar Ramakrishnan, Jaques Reifman, Anne Germain
Sleep is imperative for brain health and well-being, and restorative sleep is associated with better cognitive functioning. Increasing evidence indicates that electrophysiological measures of sleep, especially slow wave activity (SWA), regulate the consolidation of motor and perceptual procedural memory. In contrast, the role of sleep EEG and SWA in modulating executive functions, including working memory (WM), has been far less characterized. Here, we investigated across-night changes in sleep EEG that may ameliorate WM performance...
February 9, 2019: NeuroImage
Stanislau Hrybouski, Melanie MacGillivray, Yushan Huang, Christopher R Madan, Rawle Carter, Peter Seres, Nikolai V Malykhin
The functional role of the hippocampal formation in episodic memory has been studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for many years. The hippocampus can be segmented into three major anteroposterior sections, called head, body and tail, and into the Cornu Ammonis (CA), dentate gyrus (DG), and subiculum (Sub) subfields based on its transverse axis. However, the exact role of these subregions and subfields in memory processes is less understood. In the present study we combined ultra-high resolution structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 4...
February 8, 2019: NeuroImage
João Jorge, Charlotte Bouloc, Lucie Bréchet, Christoph M Michel, Rolf Gruetter
Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings performed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are affected by complex artifacts caused by heart function, often termed pulse artifacts (PAs). PAs can strongly compromise EEG data quality, and remain an open problem for EEG-fMRI. This study investigated the properties and mechanisms of PA variability across heartbeats, which has remained largely unaddressed to date, and evaluated its impact on PA correction approaches. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI was performed at 7T on healthy participants at rest or under visual stimulation, with concurrent recordings of breathing and cardiac activity...
February 8, 2019: NeuroImage
Moriah E Thomason, Jasmine L Hect, Virginia A Rauh, Christopher Trentacosta, Muriah D Wheelock, Adam T Eggebrecht, Claudia Espinoza-Heredia, S Alexandra Burt
Lead represents a highly prevalent metal toxicant with potential to alter human biology in lasting ways. A population segment that is particularly vulnerable to the negative consequences of lead exposure is the human fetus, as exposure events occurring before birth are linked to varied and long-ranging negative health and behavioral outcomes. An area that has yet to be addressed is the potential that lead exposure during pregnancy alters brain development even before an individual is born. Here, we combine prenatal lead exposure information extracted from newborn bloodspots with the human fetal brain functional MRI data to assess whether neural network connectivity differs between lead-exposed and lead-naïve fetuses...
February 7, 2019: NeuroImage
Masaki O Abe, Takahiko Koike, Shuntaro Okazaki, Sho K Sugawara, Kohske Takahashi, Katsumi Watanabe, Norihiro Sadato
During joint action, two or more persons depend on each other to accomplish a goal. This mutual recursion, or circular dependency, is one of the characteristics of cooperation. To evaluate the neural substrates of cooperation, we conducted a hyperscanning functional MRI study in which 19 dyads performed a joint force-production task. The goal of the task was to match their average grip forces to the target value (20% of their maximum grip forces) through visual feedback over a 30-s period; the task required taking into account other-produced force to regulate the self-generated one in real time, which represented cooperation...
February 7, 2019: NeuroImage
Nan-Jie Gong, Russell Dibb, Marjolein Bulk, Louise van der Weerd, Chunlei Liu
Beta amyloid is a protein fragment snipped from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Aggregation of these peptides into amyloid plaques is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. MR imaging of beta amyloid plaques has been attempted using various techniques, notably with T2* contrast. The non-invasive detectability of beta amyloid plaques in MR images has so far been largely attributed to focal iron deposition accompanying the plaques. It is believed that the T2* shortening effects of paramagnetic iron are the primary source of contrast between plaques and surrounding tissue...
February 7, 2019: NeuroImage
Kelly Shen, Alexandros Goulas, David S Grayson, John Eusebio, Joseph S Gati, Ravi S Menon, Anthony R McIntosh, Stefan Everling
Reconstructing the anatomical pathways of the brain to study the human connectome has become an important endeavour for understanding brain function and dynamics. Reconstruction of the cortico-cortical connectivity matrix in vivo often relies on noninvasive diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) techniques but the extent to which they can accurately represent the topological characteristics of structural connectomes remains unknown. We addressed this question by constructing connectomes using DWI data collected from macaque monkeys in vivo and with data from published invasive tracer studies...
February 7, 2019: NeuroImage
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