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Journal of AOAC International

Charles Metcalfe
Background: Aloe vera polysaccharides are considered to be the primary active components that provide numerous anecdotal health benefits. Objective : Several analytical methods are currently being used to quantitate the acemannan content of aloe vera processed raw materials. Some involve the use of very expensive and intricate equipment that is not normally found in production facilities. This document describes a single-laboratory validation for a very simple and inexpensive method that will be supported by a future multi-laboratory validation determination...
February 14, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Xiangwei Du, Dwayne E Schrunk, Paula M Imerman, Lori Smith, Kyle Francis, John Tahara, Andriy Tkachenko, Renate Reimschuessel, Wilson K Rumbeiha
Background : Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites of fungi and are one of the causes of toxin-related pet food recalls. An intralaboratory method was previously developed to quantify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) in animal liver by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Objective : The aim of this study was to extensively evaluate the method performance with a single-laboratory blinded method test (BMT-S) and a multilaboratory blinded method test (BMT-M). Methods : Blinded tissue samples were prepared by a third-party laboratory and sent out to participating laboratories for both BMT-S and BMT-M...
February 8, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Jenny Nelson, Lawrence Pacquette, Shuofei Dong, Michiko Yamanaka
Background: A fast and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of iodine and bromine species in infant formula was developed using HPLC-inductively coupled plasma-MS (HPLC-ICP-MS). Method: To determine the four halogen species [iodide (I- ), iodate <inline-formula><mml:math display="inline"><mml:mrow><mml:mo>(</mml:mo><mml:mrow><mml:msubsup><mml:mrow><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">IO</mml:mi></mml:mrow><mml:mn>3</mml:mn><mml:mo>-</mml:mo></mml:msubsup></mml:mrow><mml:mo>)</mml:mo></mml:mrow></mml:math></inline-formula>, bromide (Br- ), and bromate <inline-formula><mml:math display="inline"><mml:mrow><mml:mo>(</mml:mo><mml:mrow><mml:msubsup><mml:mrow><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">BrO</mml:mi></mml:mrow><mml:mn>3</mml:mn><mml:mo>-</mml:mo></mml:msubsup></mml:mrow><mml:mo>)</mml:mo></mml:mrow></mml:math></inline-formula>] in a milk-based Standard Reference Material and four commercially available infant formula products...
February 8, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Irshad M Sulaiman, Emily Jacobs, Steven B Simpson
Background: A multistate fungal meningitis outbreak began in September 2012 that affected 751 individuals who received contaminated spinal injections across 20 states in the United States, which led to 64 deaths. In our previous study, we examined 26 environmental swab samples collected from various locations of the manufacturing premises of the compounding company to determine the possible cause of this outbreak and identified 14 novel species of fungi. Objective: In this follow-up study, a total of 198 environmental surveillance samples were collected and analyzed to detect pathogenic fungal species from other compounding company premises located in three regions of the United States...
February 6, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
David Higgins, Holly Urquhart, Siobhan Kelly, Simon Illingworth, Nevin Perera, Benjamin Bastin, Patrick Bird, M James Agin, David Goins
Background: Solus One Salmonella is designed to accurately detect Salmonella species ( Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, salamae, arizonae, diarizonae, houtenae, indica, and Salmonella bongori ) from select food matrixes and stainless-steel and plastic environmental surfaces. Solus One Salmonella uses an antibody-based technology test system that is paired with media and our proprietary media supplement, the Solus One Salmonella supplement combined with a manual or automated sample preparation method...
February 6, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Zhengfei Lu, Christopher M Thompson, Tiffany Chua, Silva Babajanian, Yanjun Zhang, Quanyin Gao, Peter Chang, Gary Swanson
Background : The applications of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding methods have been extended from authenticating taxonomic provenance of animal products to identifying botanicals used as herbal medicine and in botanical dietary supplements. DNA barcoding methods for botanical identification must be adequately validated to meet regulatory compliance. Objective : The goal of this study is to provide a validation protocol for a two-tiered DNA barcoding method that aims to identify raw botanicals. Methods : A barcode database was computationally validated to define the barcode combinations that can unambiguously identify botanicals in the database...
February 4, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Stephanie Kobany, Dana Schmieg, David W Plank, Lisa A Povolny, Marilyn Shepard, May Lam, Noe Galvan, Dana Brown
Background: Recent development of LC methods for the determination of total folates (vitamin B9) in complex matrixes have been hindered by vitamer interconversion and yield variability. The official microbiological method (AOAC Official Methods of Analysis 944.12 and 960.46) uses an end point turbidity reading to determine folate concentration. However, when measuring complex matrixes, shifts are observed in the growth curves of the microorganism and inaccuracies are introduced to this quantification method...
February 4, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Todor I Todorov, Yunseol Kim, Jennifer Fong Sam, Erica Mote, Cynthia C Smith, Mary C Carson
Background : The performance of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Elemental Analysis Manual (EAM) 4.13 method (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Iodine in Food Using Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide Extraction) was tested in an interlaboratory study. Objective : The aim of the study is to demonstrate that the FDA EAM method 4.13 is applicable for the analysis of food and multivitamins. Methods : Six collaborators participated in the study using four different models of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry instruments...
February 1, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Isabelle Barrette
Background : Legionnaires' disease is a potentially lethal pneumonia contracted through inhalation of aerosolized water contaminated with Legionella bacteria. Detection and control of L. pneumophila , the primary species responsible for the disease, is critical to public health. In Québec, cooling towers and evaporative condensers are required to follow a maintenance and testing program to ensure L. pneumophila concentrations remain at acceptable levels. Objective: This study compared a new culture method based on the most probable number approach, Legiolert® , with the formal culture method used at EnvironeX for regulatory compliance testing to quantify L...
February 1, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Şule Dinç-Zor, Bürge Aşçi, Özlem Aksu Dönmez, Özge Hacimustafa
Background : Preservatives and colorants in pharmaceutical products may be highly toxic, especially for sensitive individuals, when they are used in excessive amounts. In this context, sensitive and non-labor-intensive analytical methods with short analysis time for simultaneous quantification of these additive substances in drugs can meet all requirements in quality control laboratories. Objective : The aim of the study was to develop a simultaneous HPLC method for the analysis of pseudoephedrine HCl and guaifenesin, along with preservatives, methyl paraben and propyl paraben, and colorants, ponceau 4R and sunset yellow, in a syrup sample...
February 1, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
F Buiarelli, F Bernardini, G Simonetti, P Di Filippo, D Pomata, C Riccardi, R Risoluti
Background : Caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine are methylxanthines commonly found in coffee, tea, cola, and cocoa. Other sources may be soft drinks or energy drinks. All of them are stimulants of the nervous system and can be used for the treatment of some diseases. The three xanthines produce addiction with typical abstinence symptoms. Among young people, the consumption of energy beverages is increasing, and the growing market causes concern about the caffeine intake. To evaluate intake of methylxanthines, their accurate determination can be helpful...
January 31, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Elba Veronica Arias-Rios, Kristina Tenney, Tam Mai, Sam Anderson, Ruth Marie Cantera, Jasmine M Pando, Brandon Selover, Lourdes M Nadala, Seana K Davidson, Mansour Samadpour
Background: Dairy products are common sources of Listeria outbreaks, and early detection of the pathogen is critical to prevent outbreaks of illnesses and financial losses for dairy producers. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate Sample6 Detect HT/L for effective detection of Listeria monocytogenes and L. innocua in ice cream. Methods: Performance of the Sample6 DETECT HT/L was compared with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 10 method for detection of Listeria spp...
January 28, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Yurong Yu, Shan Zhao, Ya Yang, Ya Chen, Daimei Qiu, Xingyue Ran, Ping Lu, Deyu Hu
Background : Tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L .), is an important economic crop. In China, the use of rimsulfuron and haloxyfop-P-methyl herbicides for weed management during the planting period is necessary to improve the production of tobacco. Objective : To establish and validate a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe LC-MS/MS method to determine rimsulfuron, haloxyfop-P-methyl, and haloxyfop in tobacco leaf samples. Methods : We optimized MS/MS conditions and chromatographic conditions for optimal detection conditions...
January 23, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Sonia T Hassib, Elham A Taha, Ehab F Elkady, Ghada H Barakat
Background: Quantitative multicomponent analysis is considered an analytical goal to save time and cost in analysis. Objective: This work aimed to provide sensitive and selective [successive ratio subtraction coupled with constant multiplication (SRS-CM) and chemometric] methods for the determination of coformulated antidiabetic drugs, namely canagliflozine and metformin or gliclazide and metformin in presence of metformin degradation product, 1-cyanoguanidine. Methods : SRS-CM method was developed for the determination of canagliflozin and metformin at 292 and 237 nm, respectively, using 14 μg/mL canagliflozin as a divisor in the first step to cancel the spectrum of canagliflozin...
January 18, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Patrick Bird, Benjamin Bastin, Dane Brooks, Erin Crowley, James Agin, David Goins, Charlotte Lindhardt, Renaud Chollet
Background: The MC-Media Pad™ Yeast and Mold (YM) is a ready-to use culture device that combines a test pad coated with medium and water-absorption polymers that is designed for the rapid quantification of yeast and mold in food products. Objective: The MC-Media Pad YM was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) for the enumeration of yeast and mold in frozen orange juice concentrate. Methods: The candidate method was evaluated using a paired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study following the current AOAC Validation Guidelines...
January 16, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Xinnan Li, Yifu Guan
Background : The fraudulent substitution of cheap and low-quality meat for expensive and good-quality meats to gain profit is a common practice in industries worldwide. Adulteration of fox, raccoon, or mink in commercial beef and mutton meat in the supermarket has become a serious problem. Objective : To ensure the meat quality and safety, we have developed a multiplex PCR method to identify the fox, mink, and raccoon components adulterated in beef or mutton with very low detection limits. Methods : PCR primers were designed and tested by examining the size of PCR product, the nuclease digestion products, and DNA sequencing...
January 16, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
T Alan Jiang
Spices and herbs have been in use for centuries both for culinary and medicinal purposes. Spices not only enhance the flavor, aroma, and color of food and beverages, but they can also protect from acute and chronic diseases. More Americans are considering the use of spices and herbs for medicinal and therapeutic/remedy use, especially for various chronic conditions. There is now ample evidence that spices and herbs possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumorigenic, anticarcinogenic, and glucose- and cholesterol-lowering activities as well as properties that affect cognition and mood...
January 16, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Nancy Thiex, Mark Carlson, Robert Kieffer, Amy Kieffer, David Eisenberg, Nikolay Barashkov, Charles Ramsey
Background : An effective proficiency testing program must utilize accurate splitting procedures to ensure that customers receive equivalent (by some measure) test items. When test items are not equivalent, it becomes impossible to separate variation among laboratories from variation among test items, and the program cannot achieve its objectives. Therefore, there is a critical need to validate the splitting process used to manufacture test items. Objective : The incorporation of MicrotracersTM was investigated for validating the splitting process used in the Association of American Feed Control Officials Proficiency Testing Program and as a potential quality control event for a production run...
January 16, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Raid Al Akeel, Helal F Hetta, Sahira Nsayef Muslim, Israa M S Al-Kadmy, Sarah Naji Aziz
Background: The genus Bacillus has species with strains that produce Chitosan N-acetylglucosaminohydrolase (NAGH), a hydrolytic enzyme. Objective: A novel bacterium, Bacillus ligniniphilus , was characterized as producing Chitosan NAGH. This study further examine its antibiofilm properties and its possible uses against biofilm-producing bacteria. Methods: Various sea soil samples were evaluated for the presence of Chitosan NAGH. The chosen isolate, Bacillus ligniniphilus 61, was then used to extract and purify Chitosan NAGH using precipitation in ammonium sulfate followed by polyethylene glycol-treated dialysis and gel-permeation chromatography...
January 16, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Maha Nasr, Mona Hamdy Abdel Rahman
Background : Curcumin and resveratrol are naturally occurring polyphenols that are highly effective in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. A robust reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of these two natural drugs. Objective : The method was adapted to analyze both drugs in pure forms, in lipidic nanoemulsion formulation as well as in rat plasma. The method was applied to real samples after intravenous (IV) injection of rats. Method : Analysis utilized C18 column using acetonitrile (ACN)-water (pH adjusted to 4...
January 16, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
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