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Current Topics in Membranes

Patrick Belvitch, Steven Dudek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Natascha G Alves, Zeinab Y Motawe, Sarah Y Yuan, Jerome W Breslin
Endothelial cells of the microcirculation form a semi-permeable diffusion barrier between the blood and tissues. This permeability of the endothelium, particularly in the capillaries and postcapillary venules, is a normal physiological function needed for blood-tissue exchange in the microcirculation. During inflammation, microvascular permeability increases dramatically and can lead to tissue edema, which in turn can lead to dysfunction of tissues and organs. The molecular mechanisms that control the barrier function of endothelial cells have been under investigation for several decades and remain an important topic due to the potential for discovery of novel therapeutic strategies to reduce edema...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Bojun Zhang, Michael L Paffett, Jay S Naik, Nikki L Jernigan, Benjimen R Walker, Thomas C Resta
Cholesterol is a key structural component and regulator of lipid raft signaling platforms critical for cell function. Such regulation may involve changes in the biophysical properties of lipid microdomains or direct protein-sterol interactions that alter the function of ion channels, receptors, enzymes, and membrane structural proteins. Recent studies have implicated abnormal membrane cholesterol levels in mediating endothelial dysfunction that is characteristic of pulmonary hypertensive disorders, including that resulting from long-term exposure to hypoxia...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Wells B LaRivière, Eric P Schmidt
The endothelial glycocalyx is a glycosaminoglycan-enriched endovascular layer that, with the development of novel fixation and in vivo microscopy techniques, has been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to vascular homeostasis. Sepsis-associated degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx mediates the onset of the alveolar microvascular dysfunction characteristic of sepsis-induced lung injury (such as the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, ARDS). Emerging evidence indicates that processes of glycocalyx reconstitution are necessary for endothelial repair and, as such, are promising therapeutic targets to accelerate lung injury recovery...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Suellen D S Oliveira, Richard D Minshall
Pulmonary vascular diseases are associated with several factors including infection, cigarette smoking, abuse of dietary suppressants and drugs, prolonged exposure to high altitude, and other causes which in part induce significant oxidative stress resulting in endothelial cell injury, apoptosis, hyperproliferation, and vaso-occlusive disease. Maintenance of normal endothelial cell function is a critical role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and physiologic nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the vascular wall...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Eleftheria Letsiou, Natalie Bauer
The pulmonary vascular endothelium is involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic lung diseases. Endothelial cell (EC)-derived products such as extracellular vesicles (EVs) serve as EC messengers that mediate inflammatory as well as cytoprotective effects. EC-EVs are a broad term, which encompasses exosomes and microvesicles of endothelial origin. EVs are comprised of lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins that reflect not only the cellular origin but also the stimulus that triggered their biogenesis and secretion...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Patrick Belvitch, Yu Maw Htwe, Mary E Brown, Steven Dudek
The pulmonary endothelial cell forms a critical semi-permeable barrier between the vascular and interstitial space. As part of the blood-gas barrier in the lung, the endothelium plays a key role in normal physiologic function and pathologic disease. Changes in endothelial cell shape, defined by its plasma membrane, determine barrier integrity. A number of key cytoskeletal regulatory and effector proteins including non-muscle myosin light chain kinase, cortactin, and Arp 2/3 mediate actin rearrangements to form cortical and membrane associated structures in response to barrier enhancing stimuli...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Panfeng Fu, Mark Shaaya, Anantha Harijith, Jeffrey R Jacobson, Andrei Karginov, Viswanathan Natarajan
Sphingolipids, first described in the brain in 1884, are important structural components of biological membranes of all eukaryotic cells. In recent years, several lines of evidence support the critical role of sphingolipids such as sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and ceramide as anti- or pro-inflammatory bioactive lipid mediators in a variety of human pathologies including pulmonary and vascular disorders. Among the sphingolipids, S1P is a naturally occurring agonist that exhibits potent barrier enhancing property in the endothelium by signaling via G protein-coupled S1P1 receptor...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Irena Levitan, Eric Delpire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Manuela A A Ayee, Irena Levitan
The effects of osmotic swelling on key cellular biomechanical properties are explored in this chapter. We present the governing equations and theoretical backgrounds of the models employed to estimate cell membrane tension and elastic moduli from experimental methods, and provide a summary of the prevailing experimental approaches used to obtain these biomechanical parameters. A detailed analysis of the current evidence of the effects of osmotic swelling on membrane tension and elastic moduli is provided. Briefly, due to the buffering effect of unfolding membrane reservoirs, mild hypotonic swelling does not change membrane tension or the adhesion of the membrane to the underlying cytoskeleton...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Pei-Chuan Chao, Mettupalayam Sivaselvan, Frederick Sachs
Cell volume regulation is commonly analyzed with a model of a closed semipermeable membrane filled with impermeant mobile solutes and the Donnan Equilibrium is used to predict the hydrostatic pressure. This traditional model ignores the fact that most cells are filled with a crosslinked cytoskeleton that is elastic and can be stretched or compressed like a sponge with no obvious need to move mobile solutes. However, calculations show that under osmotic stress, the elastic energy of the cytoskeleton is far greater than the elastic energy of the membrane...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Sergei N Orlov, Aleksandra Shiyan, Francis Boudreault, Olga Ponomarchuk, Ryszard Grygorczyk
The plasma membrane plays a prominent role in the regulation of cell volume by mediating selective transport of extra- and intracellular osmolytes. Recent studies show that upstream sensors of cell volume changes are mainly located within the cytoplasm that displays properties of a hydrogel and not in the plasma membrane. Cell volume changes occurring in anisosmotic medium as well as in isosmotic environment affect properties of cytoplasmic hydrogel that, in turn, trigger rapid regulatory volume increase and decrease (RVI and RVD)...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Catherine E Morris
When they become simultaneously leaky to both Na+ and Cl- , excitable cells are vulnerable to potentially lethal cytotoxic swelling. Swelling ensues in spite of an isosmotic milieu because the entering ions add osmolytes to the cytoplasm's high concentration of impermeant anionic osmolytes. An influx of osmotically-obliged water is unavoidable. A cell that cannot stanch at least one the leaks will succumb to death by Donnan effect. "Sick excitable cells" are those injured through ischemia, trauma, inflammation, hyperactivity, genetically-impaired membrane skeletons and other insults, all of which foster bleb-damage to regions of the plasma membrane...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Corinne S Wilson, Alexander A Mongin
Regulation of cellular volume is a critical homeostatic process that is intimately linked to ionic and osmotic balance in the brain tissue. Because the brain is encased in the rigid skull and has a very complex cellular architecture, even minute changes in the volume of extracellular and intracellular compartments have a very strong impact on tissue excitability and function. The failure of cell volume control is a major feature of several neuropathologies, such as hyponatremia, stroke, epilepsy, hyperammonemia, and others...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Isha Dey, Neil A Bradbury
Once thought to be exclusively an absorptive tissue, the intestine is now recognized as an important secretory tissue, playing a key role in body ion and fluid homeostasis. Given the intestine's role in fluid homeostasis, it is not surprising that important clinical pathologies arise from imbalances in fluid absorption and secretion. Perhaps the most important examples of this can be seen in enterotoxigenic secretory diarrheas with extreme fluid secretion, and Cystic Fibrosis with little or no fluid secretion...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Eric Delpire, Kenneth B Gagnon
From early unicellular organisms that formed in salty water environments to complex organisms that live on land away from water, cells have had to protect a homeostatic internal environment favorable to the biochemical reactions necessary for life. In this chapter, we will outline what steps were necessary to conserve the water within our cells and how mechanisms have evolved to maintain and regulate our cellular and organismal volume. We will first examine whole body water homeostasis and the relationship between kidney function, regulation of blood pressure, and blood filtration in the process of producing urine...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Megan J Webster, Robert Tarran
The ability to regulate cell volume is crucial for normal physiology; equally the regulation of extracellular fluid homeostasis is of great importance. Alteration of normal extracellular fluid homeostasis contributes to the development of several diseases including cystic fibrosis. With regard to the airway surface liquid (ASL), which lies apically on top of airway epithelia, ion content, pH, mucin and protein abundance must be tightly regulated. Furthermore, airway epithelia must be able to switch from an absorptive to a secretory state as required...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Michael A Model, Jonathan C Petruccelli
The traditional theories of cell volume regulation focus on monovalent ions and small organic osmolytes. The main subject of this review is macromolecular content of the cell and its role in cell volume. We start by reviewing general information about cellular macromolecules and present some quantitative relationships. Next, we review a wide range of methods for measuring intracellular macromolecular concentration and related parameters; in particular, a large section is devoted to the so-called quantitative phase imaging methods based on transmission light microscopy...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
Paola de Los Heros, Diana Pacheco-Alvarez, Gerardo Gamba
Ion Transport across the cell membrane is required to maintain cell volume homeostasis. In response to changes in extracellular osmolarity, most cells activate specific metabolic or membrane-transport pathways to respond to cell swelling or shrinkage and return their volume to its normal resting state. This process involves the rapid adjustment of the activities of channels and transporters that mediate flux of K+ , Na+ , Cl- , and small organic osmolytes. Cation chloride cotransporters (CCCs) NKCCs and KCCs are a family of membrane proteins modulated by changes in cell volume and/or in the intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl- ]i )...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
James Osei-Owusu, Junhua Yang, Maria Del Carmen Vitery, Zhaozhu Qiu
The Volume-Regulated Anion Channel (VRAC) is activated by cell swelling and plays a key role in cell volume regulation. VRAC is ubiquitously expressed in vertebrate cells and also implicated in many other physiological and cellular processes including fluid secretion, glutamate release, membrane potential regulation, cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Although its biophysical properties have been well characterized, the molecular identity of VRAC remained a mystery for almost three decades. The field was transformed by recent discoveries showing that the leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 8A (LRRC8A, also named SWELL1) and its four other homologs form heteromeric VRAC channels...
2018: Current Topics in Membranes
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