Herbert J Greenwald, Amy Berger, Ronan L H Wilson, Daniel J Greenwald, Eileen Lannon, Phyllis Johnson-Smith, Brandon G Bergman, Timothy E Wilens
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While inpatient withdrawal management/acute stabilization can improve outcomes for individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD), patients often leave treatment early due to mood, tension, and cravings associated with opioid withdrawal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a novel virtual reality (VR) based intervention; 3D Therapy Thrive (3DTT). METHODS: Subjects with OUD (N = 32) were recruited from a community acute stabilization program and received up to two sessions of 3DTT...
March 2, 2024: American Journal on Addictions
Melissa D Blank, Nicholas A Turiano, Bethany C Bray, Andrea R Milstred, Margaret Childers, Geri Dino, Katelyn F Romm
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study examined young adults' tobacco use transitions based on their past 30-day use states, and identified factors associated with their transitions. METHODS: Participants (N = 12377) were young adults aged 18-29 years at Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study. Self-reported tobacco use states were categorized by the number of past-month use days (0, 1-4, 5-8, 9-12, 13-30 days) for cigarettes, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], traditional cigars, filtered cigars, cigarillos, smokeless tobacco (SLT), and hookah...
February 25, 2024: American Journal on Addictions
Sarah J Chavez, Mark B Reed, Laramie R Smith, Maria L Zúñiga, Eileen V Pitpitan, Ryan S Trim, Harsimran S Baweja
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hispanic young adults in the United States have consistently high rates of risky drinking, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), depression, and anxiety. There is a positive association between ACEs and alcohol use among Hispanic populations; it is unknown if mental health symptomatology mediates this relationship. The purpose of this study was to test whether depression and anxiety mediated the relationship between ACEs and risky drinking among Hispanic young adults who engage in risky drinking...
February 14, 2024: American Journal on Addictions
Mohamed Arafa, Dalia Ahmed Enaba, Heba Baz, Maged A Gomaa, Sara Abdelnaser Ragab, Mennat-Allah Tarek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Addiction is a chronic disorder that comes with emotional and financial burdens. Several neurobiological factors were correlated to opiate-use disorder which is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF has been found to be involved in long-term potentiation of synaptic strength, a mechanism that is thought to motivate both natural adaption mechanisms as well as the development of addictive behavior. In this study, we aimed to address the relation between BDNF serum level and heroin craving and the effect of duration of abstinence on them...
February 13, 2024: American Journal on Addictions
Amber N Edinoff, David B Hathaway, David Martinez Garza, Jordan H Rosen, Joji Suzuki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The decision to initiate pharmacotherapy for alcohol withdrawal is typically based on examining self-reported use of alcohol and symptoms of withdrawal. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a biomarker that could aim in clinical decision-making in withdrawal management. METHODS: This report describes three cases highlighting the potential clinical utility of PEth in caring for individuals at risk for alcohol withdrawal. RESULTS: Two of the cases received phenobarbital when their PEth showed that the risk of withdrawal was low and one case where PEth could have shown this was needed...
February 6, 2024: American Journal on Addictions
Hsien-Jane Chiu, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hung-Yu Wang, Han-Yun Chang, Chun-Hsien Kuo, Yu-Ru Sue, Shu-Hsuan Wu, Shih-Yi Tung, Chiao-Yu Lee, Pin-Yang Yeh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Probability discounting (PD), which refers to the process of adjusting the value of future probabilities when making decisions, is a method of measuring impulsive decision-making; however, the relationship between PD and nicotine remains unclear. The current study aimed at investigating the significance of PD in individuals who smoke. METHODS: According to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we searched the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases for articles comparing individuals who smoke and their tobacco-naïve controls using PD task as outcome measure from inception to May 2023...
January 30, 2024: American Journal on Addictions
Muhammet Celik, Danielle Cosentino, Brian Fuehrlein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Suicide and opioid use disorder (OUD) frequently co-occur, and veterans are at a high risk for both conditions. This study aims to determine the characteristics of a cohort of veterans with co-occurring OUD and suicide attempts. METHOD: Three hundred fifty-three (n = 353) veterans registered at a VA medical center with OUD and at least one suicide attempt between January 2010 and December 2021 were analyzed. RESULTS: 9...
January 25, 2024: American Journal on Addictions
Nicholas L Bormann, Tyler S Oesterle, Stephan Arndt, Victor M Karpyak, Paul E Croarkin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have evidence for their potential in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD). Medication for addiction treatment (MAT) is underutilized and not always effective. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and case studies that evaluated the effectiveness of TMS or tDCS used concurrently with MAT in SUD treatment. METHODS: A systematic review of published literature following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted on 6/1/2023 by a medical librarian...
January 25, 2024: American Journal on Addictions
Alexander Hubbell, Ese Aghenta, Cresta Jones, Sheila Specker
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relative safety and efficacy of monthly extended-release buprenorphine (XR-BUP) has not been fully evaluated in pregnant persons. METHODS: Case report of two pregnant individuals receiving XR-BUP while pregnant. RESULTS: Both patients had positive experiences and healthy infants. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Sparse data regarding the use of XR-BUP in pregnant patients limits shared decision-making...
January 24, 2024: American Journal on Addictions
Orrin D Ware, Monique T Cano, M Dalal Safa, Noe Garza, Suky Martinez, Ihsan Salloum
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spanish is the second most spoken language in the United States. Not all substance use disorder (SUD) treatment facilities provide treatment in Spanish. This study examined factors associated with SUD treatment facilities having counselors that provide treatment in Spanish. METHODS: State-level estimates of Spanish-speaking individuals were derived from the American Community Survey 2019. SUD treatment facility characteristics were captured from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services 2020...
January 24, 2024: American Journal on Addictions
Eric Guillem, Franck J Baylé
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Between 1990 and the mid-2010s, France registered a sharp rise in the spread and consumption of cannabis. At the same time, there has been an increase in the concentration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol contained in cannabis. The aims of our study are to measure addictive and psychiatric comorbidities in cannabis users in France, and to compare characteristics between women and men. METHODS: Three hundred and forty-two heavy cannabis users seen in a cannabis clinic between 2004 and 2014 were assessed during a 2-h clinical interview (DSM-IV, MINI)...
December 13, 2023: American Journal on Addictions
Yifrah Kaminer, Rebecca Burke, Simon Zhornitsky, James Gill, Kristyn Zajac, Victor Hesselbrock
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Increasing rates of fatal drug overdose (FDO) among youth since 2016 have been driven by fentanyl and polysubstance use. Suicide by youth also increased steadily since 2007. The manner of FDO may be accidental (i.e., unintentional) or suicidal (i.e., intentional). This report examines the rate of youth intentional and unintentional FDO as well as specific drug toxicology in Connecticut, between the years 2019 and 2021, compared to a 2016-2018 report. METHODS: We reviewed N = 286 consecutive FDO files of youth, <26 years of age dated for 2019-2021 from the Connecticut Medical Examiner's office...
December 10, 2023: American Journal on Addictions
Jingjing Qian, Asmita P Khatiwada, Xiangzhong Xue
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In April 2021, the Department of Health and Human Services released new federal practice guidelines and allowed physicians who wish to treat ≤30 patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) to forego the X-waiver training requirement. METHODS: This observational study compared annual number, dose, and spending of buprenorphine OUD treatments dispensed in the Medicaid population in 2021 versus 2020 using the CMS State Drug Utilization Data (n = 50 states plus D...
December 9, 2023: American Journal on Addictions
Michael Rogan, Julio C Nunes, Catherine Z Xie, Mehmet Sofuoglu, Brian Pittman, Joao P De Aquino
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childhood trauma (CT) increases addiction vulnerability. We examined CT's impact on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) effects. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigating the effects of oral THC (10, 20 mg) among 25 persons receiving methadone for opioid use disorder (OUD). RESULTS: Greater CT was associated with lower aversive effects from higher THC doses (20 mg) (p = ...
December 7, 2023: American Journal on Addictions
Lisa Young, Aaron I Esagoff, Anne Reisch, Charles B Bernick, Matthew E Peters, Bharat R Narapareddy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Impulsiveness is linked to cocaine history (CH) in the general population and greater fight exposure in professional fighters. Among fighters, no previous studies have quantified CH or investigated its relationship with impulsiveness. METHODS: Adjusted multivariable regressions were utilized to examine the relationship between CH and impulsiveness in 335 fighters from the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study. RESULTS: Twenty percent of fighters reported CH...
January 2024: American Journal on Addictions
John J Mariani, Robert L Dobbins, Amy Heath, Frank Gray, Howard Hassman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Synthetic opioids, including fentanyl and fentanyl analogs, account for over 70,000 annual overdose deaths in the United States, but there is limited information examining methods of induction and maintenance outcomes for buprenorphine treatment of patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) using these opioids. METHODS: A secondary analysis of results grouped by fentanyl use status was completed for an open-label study with rapid induction of extended-release buprenorphine in the inpatient research unit...
November 8, 2023: American Journal on Addictions
Amy L Stamates, Christina T Schulz, Jodi S Charvis, Sarah J Ehlke, Michelle L Kelley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to the acquired preparedness model, personality traits, such as impulsivity, may influence the learning process, contributing to heightened expectations surrounding risky behaviors (i.e., alcohol use, sexual risk-taking). As bisexual women demonstrate heightened risk for hazardous alcohol- and sex-related behaviors, the present study examined a sequential pathway, whereby the relation between impulsivity and sexual risk-taking is mediated through sex-related alcohol expectancies and alcohol use...
November 4, 2023: American Journal on Addictions
R Kathryn McHugh, Francesca M Korte, Juliette A Bichon, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The gender gap in prevalence of substance-use disorders has narrowed. However, gender differences in stimulant misuse have not been well-characterized in recent years. The aim of this study was to quantify gender differences in past-year stimulant misuse and stimulant-use disorder, separated by stimulant type (cocaine/crack, prescription stimulants, and methamphetamine). In an exploratory aim, we investigated whether gender differences were moderated by age or sexual orientation...
November 4, 2023: American Journal on Addictions
Madelyn Orndorff, Gayle M Shipp, Jean M Kerver, Steven J Ondersma, Omayma Alshaarawy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of cocaine use has increased in the United States, with an estimated 5.5 million people have used it at least once in 2019. We report trends in cocaine use for reproductive age females who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, 2005-2019). METHODS: Interviewers for NSDUH recruited and assessed a representative sample of the US noninstitutionalized population. The prevalence of cocaine use was estimated annually for females (15-44 years; n = 295,751)...
November 4, 2023: American Journal on Addictions
Meiheng He, Lili Wang, Dong Zhu, Ding Xu, Xiangru Zhu, Suyong Yang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although both drugs and negative emotions can trigger drug craving or relapse in individuals with methamphetamine-use disorder (MUD), it remains unclear whether individuals with MUD have attentional biases toward both drug and negative emotional cues and whether this bias involves attention orientation or difficulty in attention disengagement. This study aimed to measure different components of attentional bias toward drug-related and negative emotional cues in individuals with MUD...
November 4, 2023: American Journal on Addictions
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