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Platelets | Page 2

Lamya Garabet, Waleed Ghanima, Anbjørg Rangberg, Raul Teruel-Montoya, Constantino Martinez, Maria Luisa Lozano, Camilla F Nystrand, James B Bussel, Per Morten Sandset, Christine M Jonassen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression. Dysregulated expression of several miRNAs has been found in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) suggesting that miRNAs are likely involved in the pathogenesis of ITP. We aimed to explore the differential expression of miRNAs in patients with ITP before and after starting treatment with thrombopoietin-receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) to clarify their roles in the pathophysiology of ITP, and as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers of this disorder...
March 18, 2019: Platelets
Xue Chen
Platelets play important roles in blood clotting, hemostasis and wound repair, while more and more research show that platelets also have significant contributions in the process of inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease. Platelet microparticles, which are membrane vesicles shed by activated platelets, are reported to amplify inflammation in Rheumatoid arthritis. Here we show that either platelet-specific deletion of Rac1 (Rac1-/- ) or Rac1-specific inhibitor NSC23766 dramatically inhibit platelet-derived microparticles formation...
March 17, 2019: Platelets
Verónica Palma-Barqueros, Juan Ruiz-Pividal, Natalia Bohdan, Vicente Vicente, José Bastida Bermejo, María Lozano, José Rivera
This manuscript reviews pathogenic variants in RASGRP2, which are the cause of a relatively new autosomal recessive and nonsyndromic inherited platelet function disorder, referred to as platelet-type bleeding disorder-18 (BDPLT18)(OMIM:615888). To date, 18 unrelated BDPLT18 pedigrees have been reported, harboring 19 different homozygous or compound heterozygous RASGRP2 variants. Patients with this disease present with lifelong moderate to severe bleeding, with epistaxis as the most common and relevant bleeding symptom...
March 8, 2019: Platelets
Marie-Blanche Onselaer, Magdolna Nagy, Chiara Pallini, Jeremy A Pike, Gina Perrella, Lourdes Garcia Quintanilla, Johannes A Eble, Natalie S Poulter, Johan W M Heemskerk, Steve P Watson
Losartan and honokiol are small molecules which have been described to inhibit aggregation of platelets by collagen. Losartan has been proposed to block clustering of GPVI but not to affect binding of collagen. Honokiol has been reported to bind directly to GPVI but only at a concentration that is three orders of magnitude higher than that needed for inhibition of aggregation. The mechanism of action of both inhibitors is so far unclear. In the present study, we confirm the inhibitory effects of both agents on platelet aggregation by collagen and show that both also block the aggregation induced by the activation of CLEC-2 or the low affinity immune receptor FcγRIIa at similar concentrations...
March 8, 2019: Platelets
Timea Szanto, Vuokko Nummi, Annukka Jouppila, Herm Jan M Brinkman, Riitta Lassila
In type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD3), the most severe form with absent von Willebrand factor (VWF), the bleeding phenotype is variable. Platelet contribution to the hemostatic defect in VWD3 calls upon further studies. We investigated the contribution of platelets to in vitro thrombin generation (TG) and platelet procoagulant activity in VWD3. TG was assessed by calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) in platelet-poor (PPP) and -rich plasma (PRP) from 9 patients before and in 6 patients also 30 min after receiving their regular VWF therapy...
March 5, 2019: Platelets
Marco Ranucci, Umberto Di Dedda, Ekaterina Baryshnikova
In thromboelastometry (ROTEMTM ) the difference in amplitude between the EXTEM and the FIBTEM is considered an index of platelet contribution to clot strength (PCSamp ). The difference in elasticity (PCSel ) is rarely used. We investigated the ability of PCSamp and PCSel in reflecting platelet count and function in 103 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, simultaneously measuring ROTEM and platelet function tests (multiple electrode aggregometry ADPtest and TRAPtest, MultiplateTM ). PCSamp and PCSel were tested for association with platelet count and function...
March 4, 2019: Platelets
Joyce Tumaini Massaro, Yanhui Chen, Zhongling Ke
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder presenting with low platelet count <100 × 109 /L. The condition affects both adults and children. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) are second-line of therapy that includes Romiplostim and Eltrombopag, which stimulate the production of normally functioning platelets. Although the biological effect of these drugs is well established, there has not been a meta-analysis in children. To estimate the efficacy and safety of Romiplostim and Eltrombopag, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in children with chronic ITP...
February 27, 2019: Platelets
Ming Wu, Ying-Yi Luan, Jun-Fu Lu, Haoli Li, Hai-Chao Zhan, Yan-Hong Chen, Fan Zhang, Yu-Yu Tian, Zi-Long Yang, Yong-Ming Yao, Yong-Wen Feng
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nadir platelet count and acute kidney injury (AKI) or 28-day all-cause mortality induced by hemorrhagic shock (HS), and to determine the cutoff value of nadir platelet count in HS clinical practice. This retrospective study included hospitalized patients enrolled in a tertiary-care teaching hospital from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. Clinical data from HS admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were evaluated. Nadir platelet count was defined as the lowest values in the first 48 h...
February 27, 2019: Platelets
Anh T P Ngo, Jawaad Sheriff, Anne D Rocheleau, Matthew Bucher, Kendra R Jones, Anna-Liisa I Sepp, Lisa E Malone, Amanda Zigomalas, Alina Maloyan, Wadie F Bahou, Danny Bluestein, Owen J T McCarty, Kristina M Haley
Despite the transient hyporeactivity of neonatal platelets, full-term neonates do not display a bleeding tendency, suggesting potential compensatory mechanisms which allow for balanced and efficient neonatal hemostasis. This study aimed to utilize small-volume, whole blood platelet functional assays to assess the neonatal platelet response downstream of the hemostatic platelet agonists thrombin and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Thrombin activates platelets via the protease-activated receptors (PARs) 1 and 4, whereas ADP signals via the receptors P2Y1 and P2Y12 as a positive feedback mediator of platelet activation...
February 27, 2019: Platelets
Kanupriya Mathur, Nargiza Kurbanova, Rehan Qayyum
Platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is a novel marker of inflammation that has gained popularity, especially in prognostication of cardiac diseases and malignant conditions. Several studies have examined the relationship between PLR and disease-specific mortality but none has examined this relationship with all-cause mortality in general population. Therefore, we examined the relationship between PLR and all-cause mortality using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from the year 1999 to 2010...
February 13, 2019: Platelets
Leendert Porcelijn, Elly Huiskes, Laura Onderwater-Van Den Hoogen, Claudia C Folman, Jaap Jan Zwaginga, Masja De Haas
Plasma thrombopoietin (Tpo) levels distinguish thrombocytopenia resulting from increased platelet destruction or decreased platelet production. We investigated whether measuring plasma Tpo levels in thrombocytopenic newborns is of diagnostic value to establish the underlying mechanism of thrombocytopenia. Tpo levels were measured with in-house developed ELISA in samples referred to our center because of thrombocytopenia noticed in the first 10 days of life. Clinical data were collected. Plasma Tpo levels <128 AU/ml were found in the majority (92%) of 121 newborns with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (n = 104) and thrombocytopenia due to bacterial infections (n = 7); increased plasma Tpo levels (≥128 AU/ml) were found in thrombocytopenic newborns with severe asphyxia (n = 24)...
February 13, 2019: Platelets
Saleh Rachidi, Maneet Kaur, Tim Lautenschlaeger, Zihai Li
Cancer is a chronic inflammatory state which is often associated with increased platelet counts. Cancer cells induce thrombopoiesis and activate platelets, which in turn facilitate cancer invasion and metastasis. In this study, we investigate the correlation between platelet counts with each of stage and overall survival in melanoma. This is a retrospective cohort study of 642 melanoma patients diagnosed or treated at a tertiary medical center between 2000 and 2016. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, stage, and treatment modality...
February 13, 2019: Platelets
William A E Parker, Rachel C Orme, Jessica Hanson, Hannah M Stokes, Claire M Bridge, Patricia A Shaw, Wael Sumaya, Kirstie Thorneycroft, Giovanna Petrucci, Benedetta Porro, Heather M Judge, Ramzi A Ajjan, Bianca Rocca, Robert F Storey
Higher aspirin doses may be inferior in ticagrelor-treated acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and reducing bleeding risk whilst maintaining antithrombotic benefits could improve outcomes. We characterized the pharmacodynamics of a novel dual-antiplatelet-therapy regimen consisting of very-low-dose twice-daily (BD) aspirin with standard-dose ticagrelor. A total of 20 ticagrelor-treated ACS patients entered a randomized crossover to take aspirin 20 mg BD (12-hourly) during one 14-day period and 75 mg once-daily (OD) in the other...
February 13, 2019: Platelets
Chen Guo, Min Li, Yong-Hui Lv, Ming-Bo Zhang, Zhi-Lu Wang
Switching from a potent P2Y12 blocker to clopidogrel is not uncommon for antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of this de-escalation strategy. Medical literature databases were searched for analysis comparing continued potent antiplatelet therapy and switching to clopidogrel with no language restrictions from inception to 07/May/2018. The primary endpoints of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and major bleeding together with additional efficacy outcomes were assessed by random-effects and fixed-effects meta-analysis...
February 13, 2019: Platelets
Zhiyan Liu, Qian Xiang, Guangyan Mu, Qiufen Xie, Shuang Zhou, Zining Wang, Shuqing Chen, Kun Hu, Yanjun Gong, Jie Jiang, Yimin Cui
Cigarette smoking is an important cardiovascular risk factor, causing morbidity and mortality. There are many original studies on the impact of smoking, but its influence on platelet ADP-P2Y12 receptor inhibitors lack consistency. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of already existing data/studies to further explore this issue. PubMed, Web of science, EMBASE, Clinical Trials, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to March 2018. Studies investigating the residual platelet reactivity categorized by smoking status and patients treated with platelet ADP-P2Y12 receptor inhibitors qualified the inclusion criteria...
February 11, 2019: Platelets
Liang Wang, Lei Xu, Hongyuan Hao, A J Gerard Jansen, Guoqiang Liu, Honglei Li, Xinguang Liu, Yajing Zhao, Jun Peng, Ming Hou
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease with a mild to severe risk of bleeding complications. First line treatment includes corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, or other. In this large cohort study, first-line strategies for treatment-naive adult primary ITP was studied in a real-world setting. Records from all adult ITP patients who received first-line treatment between January 2010 and December 2017 at Qilu Hospital were reviewed retrospectively (n = 699). During the study period, 271 patients were treated with high-dose dexamethasone (HDD) and 289 patients were treated with conventional prednisone (alone or in combination with other drugs)...
February 11, 2019: Platelets
Saleh Rachidi, Hong Li, Kristin Wallace, Zihai Li, Charles Balch, Tim Lautenschlaeger
Platelets play roles in malignancy, wound healing, and immunity. Nevertheless, their significance in postoperative outcomes is not established. This is a retrospective cohort study of 100,795 patients undergoing cancer surgery in 2010 and 2014 in >500 hospitals. Patients were stratified into five groups based on preoperative platelet counts. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the risk of 30-day mortality, morbidities, readmission, and prolonged hospitalization using the mid-normal group as a reference...
February 11, 2019: Platelets
Chunxiang Shang, Tana Wuren, Qing Ga, Zhenzhong Bai, Li Guo, Alicia S Eustes, Kyra N McComas, Matthew T Rondina, Rili Ge
Exposure to hypoxia, through ascension to high altitudes (HAs), air travel, or human disease, is associated with an increased incidence of thrombosis in some settings. Mechanisms underpinning this increased thrombosis risk remain incompletely understood, and the effects of more sustained hypoxia on the human platelet molecular signature and associated functional responses have never been examined. We examined the effects of prolonged (≥2 months continuously) hypobaric hypoxia on platelets isolated from subjects residing at HA (3,700 meters) and, for comparison, matched subjects residing under normoxia conditions at sea level (50 meters)...
February 5, 2019: Platelets
Nikola Ivetic, Donald M Arnold, James W Smith, Angela Huynh, John G Kelton, Ishac Nazy
Diagnosing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) requires functional assays measuring platelet activation as they are highly specific and sensitive. A useful functional test for diagnosing HIT is the serotonin release assay (SRA), but this assay is technically demanding and requires a radioactive marker. We describe an alternate functional HIT assay, the platelet viability assay (PVA), that overcomes the need for a radioactive marker by using a viability dye endpoint to measure platelet activation. We compared the performance characteristics of the PVA to the SRA...
January 29, 2019: Platelets
Fang-Fang Liu, Tong-Tao Tu, Hong-Feng Zhang, Fan Hu, Liang Huang, Lin-Feng Deng, Mao Guo, Qing Wei, Ke Li
Platelets play important roles in vascular health. Activation of platelet may contribute to coagulation and inflammation. Evidence suggests circulating platelets are chronically activated in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients with steady state and further activated in vaso-occlusive crisis. However, the molecular basis of sickle platelet dysfunction remains obscure. Here, we used weighted gene coexpression network analysis combined with differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis to further investigate this basis...
January 20, 2019: Platelets
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