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Carina Jakobsen, Julie Brogaard Larsen, Jens Fuglsang, Anne-Mette Hvas
Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy-related complication. Platelets are potentially important in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, and platelet function analyses may prove as sensitive preeclampsia biomarkers. This study aimed to systematically review and summarise the literature on platelet function markers in preeclampsia. This systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA and registered in PROSPERO. Relevant studies were identified through PubMed and Embase on 15/08/17. As platelet function markers platelet activation, platelet aggregation and platelet adhesion markers were included...
April 14, 2019: Platelets
Anton Fedorov, Kirill Kondratov, Vasilii Kishenko, Vladimir Mikhailovskii, Igor Kudryavtsev, Margarita Belyakova, Sergey Sidorkevich, Tatyana Vavilova, Anna Kostareva, Olga Sirotkina, Alexey Golovkin
Platelet concentrates are used in clinic for therapy and prophylaxis of conditions associated with platelet deficiency or malfunction. The characteristics of platelet concentrates gradually change during pretransfusion storage, affecting their clinical effectiveness and the risk of adverse transfusion reactions. The presence of platelet-derived membrane vesicles is an important characteristic of platelet concentrates. Due to their functionality, changes in the number and molecular compositions of platelet-derived vesicles have major effects on the clinical properties of platelet preparations...
April 12, 2019: Platelets
Dylan Perry-Nguyen, Richard G Jung, Alisha Labinaz, Anne-Claire Duchez, Omar Dewidar, Trevor Simard, Denuja Karunakaran, Kamran Majeed, Kiran Sarathy, Ruonan Li, F Daniel Ramirez, Pietro Di Santo, Rebecca Rochman, Derek So, Nicolas Foin, Benjamin Hibbert
Stent thrombosis remains an infrequent but significant complication following percutaneous coronary intervention. Preclinical models to rapidly screen and validate therapeutic compounds for efficacy are lacking. Herein, we describe a reproducible, high throughput and cost-effective method to evaluate candidate therapeutics and devices for either treatment or propensity to develop stent thrombosis in an in vitro bench-top model. Increasing degree of stent malapposition (0.00 mm, 0.10 mm, 0.25 mm and 0.50 mm) was associated with increasing thrombosis and luminal area occlusion (4...
April 11, 2019: Platelets
Peter H Nissen, Mette Tiedemann Skipper, Anne-Mette Hvas
Point of care testing of residual effect of antiplatelet therapy in trauma patients or during major surgery may result in improved clinical management of significant bleeding. We included 121 healthy individuals (57 females and 64 males, aged 22-65 years) in order to establish reference intervals for platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADPTEM, 10 µM), arachidonic acid (ARATEM, 0.42 mM) and thrombin activating peptide (TRAPTEM, 36 µM) employing the ROTEM platelet module. Further, the impact of citrate (3...
April 1, 2019: Platelets
Jean-François Kaux, Vincent Libertiaux, Laura Dupont, Alain Colige, Vincent Denoël, Christelle Lecut, Alexandre Hego, Maxime Gustin, Luc Duwez, Cécile Oury, André Gothot, Laura Greimers, Pierre Drion
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is increasingly used in the treatment of musculoskeletal diseases. Its preservation by freezing it for the realization of multiple injections in clinical use has never been discussed. Calcaneal tendons of rats were surgically sectioned. Platelet concentration of the PRP was 2.5 x 106 /µl with autologous plasma of rats. Frozen-thawed PRP was prepared by performing two cycles of freezing and thawing on PRP aliquots. Both platelet preparations were injected in the lesion. Biomechanical and histological evaluations were carried out after 7, 20 or 40 days post surgery...
March 27, 2019: Platelets
Justyna Rosinska, Joanna Maciejewska, Robert Narożny, Krystyna Osztynowicz, Beata Raczak, Sławomir Michalak, Cezary Watała, Wojciech Kozubski, Maria Łukasik
Platelet-derived microvesicles (pMVs) are released from platelets in physiological and pathological conditions and exhibit a wide range of prothrombotic, antithrombotic, proatherogenic, and pro-inflammatory properties. Antiplatelet agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), are widely used for the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases, but their impact on pMV release remains poorly understood and contradictory mainly because of discrepancies in the methodology and lack of well-standardized MV assessment protocols...
March 21, 2019: Platelets
Federico Lussana, Eti Alessandra Femia, Mariateresa Pugliano, Gianmarco Podda, Cristina Razzari, Norma Maugeri, Anna Lecchi, Sabrina Caberlon, Giancarla Gerli, Marco Cattaneo
BACKGROUND: Studies of platelet aggregation (PA) in essential thrombocythemia (ET) reported contrasting results, likely due to differences in analytical conditions. OBJECTIVE: We investigated platelet aggregation using different techniques and analytical conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PA was studied by light-transmission aggregometry (LTA) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and impedance aggregometry in PRP and whole blood (WB). ADP, collagen, thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP-14) and adrenaline were used as agonists...
March 20, 2019: Platelets
Lamya Garabet, Waleed Ghanima, Anbjørg Rangberg, Raul Teruel-Montoya, Constantino Martinez, Maria Luisa Lozano, Camilla F Nystrand, James B Bussel, Per Morten Sandset, Christine M Jonassen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression. Dysregulated expression of several miRNAs has been found in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) suggesting that miRNAs are likely involved in the pathogenesis of ITP. We aimed to explore the differential expression of miRNAs in patients with ITP before and after starting treatment with thrombopoietin-receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) to clarify their roles in the pathophysiology of ITP, and as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers of this disorder...
March 18, 2019: Platelets
Xue Chen
Platelets play important roles in blood clotting, hemostasis and wound repair, while more and more research show that platelets also have significant contributions in the process of inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease. Platelet microparticles, which are membrane vesicles shed by activated platelets, are reported to amplify inflammation in Rheumatoid arthritis. Here we show that either platelet-specific deletion of Rac1 (Rac1-/- ) or Rac1-specific inhibitor NSC23766 dramatically inhibit platelet-derived microparticles formation...
March 17, 2019: Platelets
Verónica Palma-Barqueros, Juan Ruiz-Pividal, Natalia Bohdan, Vicente Vicente, José Bastida Bermejo, María Lozano, José Rivera
This manuscript reviews pathogenic variants in RASGRP2, which are the cause of a relatively new autosomal recessive and nonsyndromic inherited platelet function disorder, referred to as platelet-type bleeding disorder-18 (BDPLT18)(OMIM:615888). To date, 18 unrelated BDPLT18 pedigrees have been reported, harboring 19 different homozygous or compound heterozygous RASGRP2 variants. Patients with this disease present with lifelong moderate to severe bleeding, with epistaxis as the most common and relevant bleeding symptom...
March 8, 2019: Platelets
Marie-Blanche Onselaer, Magdolna Nagy, Chiara Pallini, Jeremy A Pike, Gina Perrella, Lourdes Garcia Quintanilla, Johannes A Eble, Natalie S Poulter, Johan W M Heemskerk, Steve P Watson
Losartan and honokiol are small molecules which have been described to inhibit aggregation of platelets by collagen. Losartan has been proposed to block clustering of GPVI but not to affect binding of collagen. Honokiol has been reported to bind directly to GPVI but only at a concentration that is three orders of magnitude higher than that needed for inhibition of aggregation. The mechanism of action of both inhibitors is so far unclear. In the present study, we confirm the inhibitory effects of both agents on platelet aggregation by collagen and show that both also block the aggregation induced by the activation of CLEC-2 or the low affinity immune receptor FcγRIIa at similar concentrations...
March 8, 2019: Platelets
Timea Szanto, Vuokko Nummi, Annukka Jouppila, Herm Jan M Brinkman, Riitta Lassila
In type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD3), the most severe form with absent von Willebrand factor (VWF), the bleeding phenotype is variable. Platelet contribution to the hemostatic defect in VWD3 calls upon further studies. We investigated the contribution of platelets to in vitro thrombin generation (TG) and platelet procoagulant activity in VWD3. TG was assessed by calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) in platelet-poor (PPP) and -rich plasma (PRP) from 9 patients before and in 6 patients also 30 min after receiving their regular VWF therapy...
March 5, 2019: Platelets
Marco Ranucci, Umberto di Dedda, Ekaterina Baryshnikova
In thromboelastometry (ROTEMTM ) the difference in amplitude between the EXTEM and the FIBTEM is considered an index of platelet contribution to clot strength (PCSamp ). The difference in elasticity (PCSel ) is rarely used. We investigated the ability of PCSamp and PCSel in reflecting platelet count and function in 103 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, simultaneously measuring ROTEM and platelet function tests (multiple electrode aggregometry ADPtest and TRAPtest, MultiplateTM ). PCSamp and PCSel were tested for association with platelet count and function...
March 4, 2019: Platelets
Joyce Tumaini Massaro, Yanhui Chen, Zhongling Ke
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder presenting with low platelet count <100 × 109 /L. The condition affects both adults and children. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) are second-line of therapy that includes Romiplostim and Eltrombopag, which stimulate the production of normally functioning platelets. Although the biological effect of these drugs is well established, there has not been a meta-analysis in children. To estimate the efficacy and safety of Romiplostim and Eltrombopag, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in children with chronic ITP...
February 27, 2019: Platelets
Ming Wu, Ying-Yi Luan, Jun-Fu Lu, Haoli Li, Hai-Chao Zhan, Yan-Hong Chen, Fan Zhang, Yu-Yu Tian, Zi-Long Yang, Yong-Ming Yao, Yong-Wen Feng
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nadir platelet count and acute kidney injury (AKI) or 28-day all-cause mortality induced by hemorrhagic shock (HS), and to determine the cutoff value of nadir platelet count in HS clinical practice. This retrospective study included hospitalized patients enrolled in a tertiary-care teaching hospital from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. Clinical data from HS admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were evaluated. Nadir platelet count was defined as the lowest values in the first 48 h...
February 27, 2019: Platelets
Anh T P Ngo, Jawaad Sheriff, Anne D Rocheleau, Matthew Bucher, Kendra R Jones, Anna-Liisa I Sepp, Lisa E Malone, Amanda Zigomalas, Alina Maloyan, Wadie F Bahou, Danny Bluestein, Owen J T McCarty, Kristina M Haley
Despite the transient hyporeactivity of neonatal platelets, full-term neonates do not display a bleeding tendency, suggesting potential compensatory mechanisms which allow for balanced and efficient neonatal hemostasis. This study aimed to utilize small-volume, whole blood platelet functional assays to assess the neonatal platelet response downstream of the hemostatic platelet agonists thrombin and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Thrombin activates platelets via the protease-activated receptors (PARs) 1 and 4, whereas ADP signals via the receptors P2Y1 and P2Y12 as a positive feedback mediator of platelet activation...
February 27, 2019: Platelets
Kanupriya Mathur, Nargiza Kurbanova, Rehan Qayyum
Platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is a novel marker of inflammation that has gained popularity, especially in prognostication of cardiac diseases and malignant conditions. Several studies have examined the relationship between PLR and disease-specific mortality but none has examined this relationship with all-cause mortality in general population. Therefore, we examined the relationship between PLR and all-cause mortality using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from the year 1999 to 2010...
February 13, 2019: Platelets
Leendert Porcelijn, Elly Huiskes, Laura Onderwater-Van Den Hoogen, Claudia C Folman, Jaap Jan Zwaginga, Masja De Haas
Plasma thrombopoietin (Tpo) levels distinguish thrombocytopenia resulting from increased platelet destruction or decreased platelet production. We investigated whether measuring plasma Tpo levels in thrombocytopenic newborns is of diagnostic value to establish the underlying mechanism of thrombocytopenia. Tpo levels were measured with in-house developed ELISA in samples referred to our center because of thrombocytopenia noticed in the first 10 days of life. Clinical data were collected. Plasma Tpo levels <128 AU/ml were found in the majority (92%) of 121 newborns with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (n = 104) and thrombocytopenia due to bacterial infections (n = 7); increased plasma Tpo levels (≥128 AU/ml) were found in thrombocytopenic newborns with severe asphyxia (n = 24)...
February 13, 2019: Platelets
Saleh Rachidi, Maneet Kaur, Tim Lautenschlaeger, Zihai Li
Cancer is a chronic inflammatory state which is often associated with increased platelet counts. Cancer cells induce thrombopoiesis and activate platelets, which in turn facilitate cancer invasion and metastasis. In this study, we investigate the correlation between platelet counts with each of stage and overall survival in melanoma. This is a retrospective cohort study of 642 melanoma patients diagnosed or treated at a tertiary medical center between 2000 and 2016. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, stage, and treatment modality...
February 13, 2019: Platelets
William A E Parker, Rachel C Orme, Jessica Hanson, Hannah M Stokes, Claire M Bridge, Patricia A Shaw, Wael Sumaya, Kirstie Thorneycroft, Giovanna Petrucci, Benedetta Porro, Heather M Judge, Ramzi A Ajjan, Bianca Rocca, Robert F Storey
Higher aspirin doses may be inferior in ticagrelor-treated acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and reducing bleeding risk whilst maintaining antithrombotic benefits could improve outcomes. We characterized the pharmacodynamics of a novel dual-antiplatelet-therapy regimen consisting of very-low-dose twice-daily (BD) aspirin with standard-dose ticagrelor. A total of 20 ticagrelor-treated ACS patients entered a randomized crossover to take aspirin 20 mg BD (12-hourly) during one 14-day period and 75 mg once-daily (OD) in the other...
February 13, 2019: Platelets
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