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Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Yu Rong, Takeshi Fujii, Hideshi Naka, Masanobu Yamamoto, Yukio Ishikawa
Epoxidation of alkenes derived from essential fatty acids is a key step in the biosynthesis of sex pheromones in moth species that utilize alkenyl sex pheromones. The position of the epoxy ring in the pheromone molecule differs depending on the species, thereby conferring diversities on sex pheromones. To date, only one pheromone gland (PG)-specific epoxidase, Hc_epo1 (CYP341B14), has been reported. Hc_epo1, which was identified from an arctiid moth Hyphantria cunea, catalyzes the epoxidation of a double bond at position 9 of the triene, Z3,Z6,Z9-21:H...
February 8, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zhaojiang Guo, Dan Sun, Shi Kang, Junlei Zhou, Lijun Gong, Jianying Qin, Le Guo, Liuhong Zhu, Yang Bai, Liang Luo, Youjun Zhang
Rapid evolution of resistance by insect pests severely jeopardizes the sustainable utilization of biopesticides and transgenic crops that produce insecticidal crystal proteins derived from the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Recently, high levels of resistance to Bt Cry1 toxins have been reported to be genetically linked to the mutation or down-regulation of ABC transporter subfamily C genes ABCC2 and ABCC3 in seven lepidopteran insects, including Plutella xylostella (L.). To further determine the causal relationship between alterations in the PxABCC2 and PxABCC3 genes and Cry1Ac resistance in P...
January 30, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Freja Scheys, Kristof De Schutter, Ying Shen, Na Yu, Nicolas Smargiasso, Edwin De Pauw, Els J M Van Damme, Guy Smagghe
The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a model species for hemimetabolous development and the most important pest insect in rice, which is the major staple crop for about half of the world population. Despite its importance, little is known of the N-glycosylation process in this insect. Here we report on the N-glycome for the post-embryonic stages of N. lugens, revealing unique features that are different from the holometabolous insect models, as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum...
January 28, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yan Yan, Julián F Hillyer
The mosquito immune and circulatory systems are functionally integrated. During an infection, hemocytes aggregate around the ostia (valves) of the dorsal vessel - areas of the heart called the periostial regions - where they phagocytose live and melanized pathogens. Although periostial hemocyte aggregation is an immune response that occurs following infection with bacteria and malaria parasites, the molecular basis of this process remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the thioester-containing proteins, TEP1, TEP3 and TEP4 are positive regulators of periostial hemocyte aggregation in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae...
January 25, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tomáš Štětina, Rodolphe Poupardin, Martin Moos, Petr Šimek, Petr Šmilauer, Vladimír Koštál
The biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying insect cold acclimation prior to cold stress are relatively well explored, but the mechanisms linked to recovery and repair after cold stress have received much less attention. Here we focus on recovery from cold stress in the larvae of the vinegar fly (Drosophila melanogaster) that were exposed to two physiologically distinct cold stress situations: supercooling (S, survival > 95%) and freezing (F, survival < 10%), both at -5 °C. We analysed the metabolic and transcriptomic responses to cold stress via GC-MS/LC-MS and whole-genome microarrays, respectively...
January 17, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Hugh M Robertson, Erica C N Robertson, Kimberly K O Walden, Laramy S Enders, Nicholas J Miller
We examined the genome of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, and an updated genome assembly of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, for members of the three major families of chemoreceptors, the Odorant Receptors (ORs), Gustatory Receptors (GRs) and Ionotropic Receptors (IRs), as well as the Odorant Binding Proteins (OBPs). The soybean aphid has 47 ORs, 61 GRs, 19 IRs, and 10 OBPs, compared with 87 ORs, 78 Grs, 19 IRs, and 18 OBPs in the pea aphid, with variable numbers of pseudogenes in the OR and GR families...
January 14, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Pengchao Guo, Zhan Wang, Qian Wang, Huawei Liu, Yunshi Zhang, Haiyang Xu, Ping Zhao
Fibroinase, a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease, was previously identified in the silk gland of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. It shows high degradation activity during the pre-pupa period, when the silk gland undergoes apoptosis and remodeling. Here, we recombinantly expressed pro-fibroinase and activated it in vitro. Fibroinase showed optimal hydrolytic activity at pH 4.0 and its optimum temperature was about 42 °C. One physiological inhibitor, B. mori cysteine protease inhibitor (BCPI) was found, which showed strong inhibitory activity against fibroinase...
January 10, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Hongling Liu, Ying Lin, Guanwang Shen, Jianjian Gu, Yang Ruan, Jinxin Wu, Yujing Zhang, Kairong Li, Wei Long, Linbang Jia, Qingyou Xia
GATA transcription factors (GATAs) are widely expressed among various organisms and belong to the zinc finger protein family. GATA transcription factors play important roles in the proliferation, differentiation, and development of eukaryotes. Previous studies have shown that GATA participates in oogenesis by selective splicing in silkworms. In this study, we investigated the function of GATAs during vitellogenesis using female silkworms (Bombyx mori). Six types of GATA transcription factors were successfully cloned in the fat body of silkworms during the wandering stage and only BmGATAβ4 induced the activity of the Bombyx mori vitellogenin (BmVg) promoter...
January 10, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Heba Abdelgaffar, Eric D Tague, Hector F Castro Gonzalez, Shawn R Campagna, Juan L Jurat-Fuentes
Populations of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) have developed resistance to transgenic corn producing the Cry1F insecticidal protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Resistance in S. frugiperda from Puerto Rico is genetically linked to a mutation in an ATP Binding Cassette subfamily C2 gene (SfABCC2) that results in a truncated, non-functional Cry1F toxin receptor protein. Since ABCC2 proteins are involved in active export of xenobiotics and other metabolites from the cell, we hypothesized that Cry1F-resistant fall armyworm with a non-functional SfABCC2 protein would display altered gut metabolome composition when compared to susceptible insects...
January 7, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Davis H Hopkins, Rahul V Rane, Faisal Younus, Chris W Coppin, Gunjan Pandey, Colin J Jackson, John G Oakeshott
The Drosophila melanogaster enzymes juvenile hormone esterase (DmJHE) and its duplicate, DmJHEdup, present ideal examples for studying the structural changes involved in the neofunctionalization of enzyme duplicates. DmJHE is a hormone esterase with precise regulation and highly specific activity for its substrate, juvenile hormone. DmJHEdup is an odorant degrading esterase (ODE) responsible for processing various kairomones in antennae. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that the JHE lineage predates the hemi/holometabolan split and that several duplications of JHEs have been templates for the evolution of secreted β-esterases such as ODEs through the course of insect evolution...
January 3, 2019: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Agoston Jerga, Artem G Evdokimov, Farhad Moshiri, Jeff Haas, Mao Chen, William Clinton, Xiaoran Fu, Coralie Halls, Nuria Jimenez, Crystal Kretzler, Tim Panosian, Michael Pleau, James Roberts, Timothy Rydel, Sara Salvador, Reuben Sequera, Yanfei Wang, Meiying Zheng, James A Baum
The development of insect resistance to pesticides via natural selection is an acknowledged agricultural issue. Likewise, resistance development in target insect populations is a significant challenge to the durability of crop traits conferring insect protection and has driven the need for novel insecticidal proteins (IPs) with alternative mechanism of action (MOA) mediated by different insect receptors. The combination or "stacking" of transgenes encoding different insecticidal proteins in a single crop plant can greatly delay the development of insect resistance, but requires sufficient knowledge of MOA to identify proteins with different receptor preferences...
December 31, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zhe Lin, Rui-Juan Wang, Yang Cheng, Jie Du, Olga Volovych, Li-Bin Han, Jian-Cheng Li, Yang Hu, Zi-Yun Lu, Zhiqiang Lu, Zhen Zou
Endoparasitoid wasps deliver a variety of maternal factors, such as venom proteins, viruses, and virus-like particles, from their venom and calyx fluid into hosts and thereby regulate the hosts' immune response, metabolism and development. The endoparasitoid, Microplitis mediator, is used as an important biological agent for controlling the devastating pest Helicoverpa armigera. In this study, using an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis approach, we identified 75 putative venom proteins in M. mediator...
December 30, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Qingmei Quan, Xiao Hu, Bohu Pan, Baosheng Zeng, Ningning Wu, Gangqi Fang, Yanghui Cao, Xiaoya Chen, Xuan Li, Yongping Huang, Shuai Zhan
The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is a worldwide agricultural pest that feeds on cotton, melon, and other landscape plants, causing a high level of economic loss. In addition to the common characteristics shared with other aphids, Ap. gossypii has evolved multiple biotypes that present substantial differences in host adaption. These intriguing biological features are of interest from both a fundamental and applied perspective. However, the molecular studies of Ap. gossypii have been restrained by the lack of a reference genome...
December 24, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Cristina M Crava, Fabiana Sassù, Gabriella Tait, Paul G Becher, Gianfranco Anfora
Insect olfaction modulates basal behaviors and it is often influenced by the physiological condition of each individual such as the reproductive state. Olfactory plasticity can be achieved by modifications at both peripheral and central nervous system levels. Here we performed a genome-wide analysis of the main olfactory organ, the antenna, to investigate how gene expression varies with female mating status in Drosophila suzukii, a destructive and invasive soft fruit pest. We observed a wide mating-induced up-regulation of chemosensory-related genes in females, especially olfactory receptor (Or) genes...
December 24, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Amilcar Perez-Riverol, Alexis Musacchio Lasa, José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Mario Sergio Palma
Insect venom phospholipases have been identified in nearly all clinically relevant social Hymenoptera, including bees, wasps and ants. Among other biological roles, during the envenoming process these enzymes cause the disruption of cellular membranes and induce hypersensitive reactions, including life threatening anaphylaxis. While phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a predominant component of bee venoms, phospholipase A1 (PLA1) is highly abundant in wasps and ants. The pronounced prevalence of IgE-mediated reactivity to these allergens in sensitized patients emphasizes their important role as major elicitors of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA)...
December 21, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Natthida Petchampai, Claribel Murillo-Solano, Jun Isoe, Juan C Pizarro, Patricia Y Scaraffia
Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that cause diseases of public health significance. The discovery of new metabolic targets is crucial for improving mosquito control strategies. We recently demonstrated that glucose oxidation supports ammonia detoxification in Aedes aegypti. Pyruvate kinase (PK, EC catalyzes the last step of the glycolytic pathway. In most organisms, one or more allosteric effectors control PK activity. However, the kinetic properties and structure of PK in mosquitoes have not been previously reported...
December 19, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Xin Wang, Yi Li, Qingsong Liu, Xiaoyin Tan, Xiaoqian Xie, Qingyou Xia, Ping Zhao
The Filippi's gland, also called the Lyonet's gland, is in truth a pair of tiny glands that are unique to lepidopteran insects. Although the ultrastructure of the Filippi's gland has been well-understood, the specific biological function of this gland in silk spinning is still unclear. Previous studies proposed a hypothesis that this gland might synthesize and secrete some substances into the anterior silk gland (ASG) to help silk spinning. In order to identify these metabolites, a GC/MS-based metabolomics technique was introduced...
December 18, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
George-Rafael Samantsidis, Andrias O O'Reilly, Vassilis Douris, John Vontas
Sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs) like indoxacarb and metaflumizone offer an alternative insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategy against several pests that are resistant to other compounds. However, resistance to SCBIs has been reported in several pests, in most cases implicating metabolic resistance mechanisms, although in certain indoxacarb resistant populations of Plutella xylostella and Tuta absoluta, two mutations in the domain IV S6 segment of the voltage-gated sodium channel, F1845Y and V1848I have been identified, and have been postulated through in vitro electrophysiological studies to contribute to target-site resistance...
December 17, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Xingliang Wang, Andrias O O Reilly, Martin S Williamson, Alin M Puinean, Yihua Yang, Shuwen Wu, Yidong Wu
Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) are found only in invertebrates and mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The structural and functional diversity of GluCls are produced through assembly of multiple subunits and via posttranscriptional alternations. Alternative splicing is the most common way to achieve this in insect GluCls and splicing occurs primarily at exons 3 and 9. As expression pattern and pharmacological properties of exon 9 alternative splices in invertebrate GluCls remain poorly understood, the cDNAs encoding three alternative splice variants (9a, 9b and 9c) of the PxGluCl gene from the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella were constructed and their pharmacological characterizations were examined using electrophysiological studies...
December 11, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Lina Liu, Yejing Wang, Yu Li, Pengchao Guo, Chun Liu, Zhiqing Li, Feng Wang, Ping Zhao, Qingyou Xia, Huawei He
Fibroin modulator binding protein-1 (FMBP-1) is a novel DNA-binding protein containing a conserved score and three amino acid peptide repeat (STPR) domain. The roles of factors containing STPR domain are less known. Although multiple transcription factors are involved in the transcriptional regulation of silk protein genes during the development of silkworm, the mechanism of transcriptional repression of silk protein genes during molting remains unclear. Here, we found that FMBP-1 expression was contrary to that of fibroin heavy chain (fib-H) during the fourth molting period of Bombyx mori...
December 10, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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